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Radio Frequency Engineering Lecture #1 Passives - Extra Stepan Lucyszyn ステファン・ルシズィン インペリアル・カレッジ・ロンドン准教授 Lecture #1 Passives – Extra.

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Presentation on theme: "Radio Frequency Engineering Lecture #1 Passives - Extra Stepan Lucyszyn ステファン・ルシズィン インペリアル・カレッジ・ロンドン准教授 Lecture #1 Passives – Extra."— Presentation transcript:

1 Radio Frequency Engineering Lecture #1 Passives - Extra Stepan Lucyszyn ステファン・ルシズィン インペリアル・カレッジ・ロンドン准教授 Lecture #1 Passives – Extra

2 Radio Frequency Engineering Lecture #1 Passives - Extra Stepan Lucyszyn ステファン・ルシズィン インペリアル・カレッジ・ロンドン准教授 RF Inductors Printed Spiral Inductor Straight narrow wire or PCB track Coil on former with slug tuner Coil

3 Radio Frequency Engineering Lecture #1 Passives - Extra Stepan Lucyszyn ステファン・ルシズィン インペリアル・カレッジ・ロンドン准教授 10 MHz – 40 GHz conical inductor, ~ 2.2 mm long Full of EM absorber VERY LOSSY!!

4 Radio Frequency Engineering Lecture #1 Passives - Extra Stepan Lucyszyn ステファン・ルシズィン インペリアル・カレッジ・ロンドン准教授 RF Capacitors 4p7 Ceramic Polystyrene Polyester Trimmer Surface mount Single layer chip

5 Radio Frequency Engineering Lecture #1 Passives - Extra Stepan Lucyszyn ステファン・ルシズィン インペリアル・カレッジ・ロンドン准教授 “Opti-Cap TM Broadband SMD Capacitor DC to Light” Dielectric Laboratories Inc. Ultra-Broadband DC Blocking Capacitors Small capacitor in parallel with large capacitor, Plus resistive damping of resonances

6 Radio Frequency Engineering Lecture #1 Passives - Extra Stepan Lucyszyn ステファン・ルシズィン インペリアル・カレッジ・ロンドン准教授 RF Resistors

7 Radio Frequency Engineering Lecture #1 Passives - Extra Stepan Lucyszyn ステファン・ルシズィン インペリアル・カレッジ・ロンドン准教授 Grounding methods: (a) through-substrate via-holes, (b) wrap-around grounding and (c) bond-wires MIM capacitor Metalised lower ground plane GaAs substrate Via hole Metalised lower ground plane GaAs substrate MIM capacitor Gold-plated chip carrier GaAs substrate (a)(b) (c)

8 Radio Frequency Engineering Lecture #1 Passives - Extra Stepan Lucyszyn ステファン・ルシズィン インペリアル・カレッジ・ロンドン准教授 Through-substrate vias are difficult to realise with brittle substrates (e.g. silicon, GaAs, alumina, etc.) and have reliability implications. Up to ~20 GHz, they can be modelled with a simple series R-L circuit. Wrap-around grounds have reduced inductance. However, they require an edge metalisation process and they still impose severe restrictions on the topology of the circuit. Bond wires have relatively high inductance (e.g. ~1 nH/mm with 25  m diameter wires). Therefore, multiple wires are needed, which must be kept as short as possible. Moreover, they impose severe restrictions on the topology of the circuit, since they have to be located near the edge of the MIC. This type of grounding can be modelled with a fringe capacitance in parallel with the inductor.

9 Radio Frequency Engineering Lecture #1 Passives - Extra Stepan Lucyszyn ステファン・ルシズィン インペリアル・カレッジ・ロンドン准教授 Simplified Bond Wire Modelling Given a gold bond wire, having a bulk DC resistivity of n .m and 25  m diameter, calculate the skin depth, the internal HF inductance per millimetre and HF resistance per millimetre at 3.6 GHz. Ignoring a factor that accounts for the shape (length over diameter) of the wire! a factor of ~ 40 too low about right

10 Radio Frequency Engineering Lecture #1 Passives - Extra Stepan Lucyszyn ステファン・ルシズィン インペリアル・カレッジ・ロンドン准教授

11 Radio Frequency Engineering Lecture #1 Passives - Extra Stepan Lucyszyn ステファン・ルシズィン インペリアル・カレッジ・ロンドン准教授

12 Radio Frequency Engineering Lecture #1 Passives - Extra Stepan Lucyszyn ステファン・ルシズィン インペリアル・カレッジ・ロンドン准教授 © 2001 Amkor Technology, Inc.

13 Radio Frequency Engineering Lecture #1 Passives - Extra Stepan Lucyszyn ステファン・ルシズィン インペリアル・カレッジ・ロンドン准教授 Bare-chip device and typical parasitics Microstrip Hole through to ground, with gold plated chip carrier insert g d s

14 Radio Frequency Engineering Lecture #1 Passives - Extra Stepan Lucyszyn ステファン・ルシズィン インペリアル・カレッジ・ロンドン准教授 Interconnect stack in the Intel 130nm P860 technology

15 Radio Frequency Engineering Lecture #1 Passives - Extra Stepan Lucyszyn ステファン・ルシズィン インペリアル・カレッジ・ロンドン准教授  There are three quite distinct circuit design techniques, the choice of which largely depends on the operating frequency of the circuit  There is inevitably some overlap of each approach's useful frequency range of application, and the techniques may often be blended together in the same design  “all-transistor” techniques  lumped-element techniques  distributed-element techniques Circuit Design Techniques

16 Radio Frequency Engineering Lecture #1 Passives - Extra Stepan Lucyszyn ステファン・ルシズィン インペリアル・カレッジ・ロンドン准教授 All-transistor Techniques  circuits tend to use small device peripheries so that the resulting small input and output capacitances do not unduly affect performance (e.g. operational amplifiers)  usable up to at least 5 GHz, and such high frequency of operation is achieved largely because of the low capacitance, rather than the use of microwave design techniques  the design of these circuits at GHz frequencies requires tremendous design skill and experience. This is available in the silicon industry, but generally not in GaAs industry  the major advantage of active techniques is their high packing density, leading to competitively priced products, but at the expense of increased DC power consumption

17 Radio Frequency Engineering Lecture #1 Passives - Extra Stepan Lucyszyn ステファン・ルシズィン インペリアル・カレッジ・ロンドン准教授 'all-transistor' circuit: 2 GHz MMIC band-pass filter (employing 3 active inductors)

18 Radio Frequency Engineering Lecture #1 Passives - Extra Stepan Lucyszyn ステファン・ルシズィン インペリアル・カレッジ・ロンドン准教授 'all-transistor' active inductors (equivalent Q-factor of 15,000)

19 Radio Frequency Engineering Lecture #1 Passives - Extra Stepan Lucyszyn ステファン・ルシズィン インペリアル・カレッジ・ロンドン准教授 2 GHz MMIC active band-pass filter frequency performance

20 Radio Frequency Engineering Lecture #1 Passives - Extra Stepan Lucyszyn ステファン・ルシズィン インペリアル・カレッジ・ロンドン准教授 The advantages of active filters are: 1.small size and mass 2.low cost in mass production 3.high selectivity 4.easy integration with amplifiers, mixers, oscillators 5.potential for electronic tuning. Drawbacks associated with active techniques: 1.poor noise figure 2.non-linearity 3.danger of oscillation 4.complex bias circuitry and significant DC power 5.sensitivity to fabrication tolerances 6.environmental sensitivity

21 Radio Frequency Engineering Lecture #1 Passives - Extra Stepan Lucyszyn ステファン・ルシズィン インペリアル・カレッジ・ロンドン准教授 Pre-driver and Receiver Applications

22 Radio Frequency Engineering Lecture #1 Passives - Extra Stepan Lucyszyn ステファン・ルシズィン インペリアル・カレッジ・ロンドン准教授 SiGe HBT 80 Gb/s Distributed Amplifier, chip size = 1.3 x 1.7 mm 2 O. Wohlgemuth et al. (Lucent), EuMC 2003

23 Radio Frequency Engineering Lecture #1 Passives - Extra Stepan Lucyszyn ステファン・ルシズィン インペリアル・カレッジ・ロンドン准教授 Lumped-element Techniques  for higher operating frequencies, the transistor’s input and output capacitances must be accounted for  lumped-element matching networks (using spiral inductors and overlay capacitors) provide the best solution at frequencies below 20 GHz. Lumped-element circuit: 1 to 2 GHz MMIC feedback amplifier (employing L-C components)

24 Radio Frequency Engineering Lecture #1 Passives - Extra Stepan Lucyszyn ステファン・ルシズィン インペリアル・カレッジ・ロンドン准教授 A spiral transformer Marchand balun (0.7 x 1.5 mm 2 ) Port 2 Port 1 Port 3

25 Radio Frequency Engineering Lecture #1 Passives - Extra Stepan Lucyszyn ステファン・ルシズィン インペリアル・カレッジ・ロンドン准教授 Lumped-distributed equivalent of a quarter-wave transmission line CC Z 0, l

26 Radio Frequency Engineering Lecture #1 Passives - Extra Stepan Lucyszyn ステファン・ルシズィン インペリアル・カレッジ・ロンドン准教授 Lumped-distributed branch-line coupler CC CC Input Direct CoupledIsolated

27 Radio Frequency Engineering Lecture #1 Passives - Extra Stepan Lucyszyn ステファン・ルシズィン インペリアル・カレッジ・ロンドン准教授 The lumped element equivalent of a quarter-wave transmission line L  Z o  CC  Z o  1

28 Radio Frequency Engineering Lecture #1 Passives - Extra Stepan Lucyszyn ステファン・ルシズィン インペリアル・カレッジ・ロンドン准教授 Lumped-element Wilkinson power divider C C 2C L L 2Z o IN OUT

29 Radio Frequency Engineering Lecture #1 Passives - Extra Stepan Lucyszyn ステファン・ルシズィン インペリアル・カレッジ・ロンドン准教授 Lumped-element branch-line coupler L  C C L  L  C C L  Input Direct CoupledIsolated


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