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Adventures in Knowledge Transfer Intellectual Property Office Event : The innovation ecosystem – Intellectual Property in university-business collaborations”

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Presentation on theme: "Adventures in Knowledge Transfer Intellectual Property Office Event : The innovation ecosystem – Intellectual Property in university-business collaborations”"— Presentation transcript:

1 Adventures in Knowledge Transfer Intellectual Property Office Event : The innovation ecosystem – Intellectual Property in university-business collaborations” 12 March 2014 Dr Richard Jennings, Deputy Director Cambridge Enterprise Limited, University of Cambridge

2 Where Do We Come From? What Are We? Where Are We Going?

3 Where do we come from? 1941 – Land lease deal with the USA, UK inter alia agreed not to patent its background IP in penicillin, radar (cavity magnetron), jet engines 1948 – To promote technology transfer from the public (primarily Defence Research establishments) to the private sector, National Research Development Corporation set up - supported work on hovercraft, semiconductors and carbon fibre - patents on interferon (NIMR,50s), cephalosporin (Oxford, 60s), pyrethrins (Rothamsted, 60s and 70s), magnetic resonance imaging (Nottingham, 70s) 1963 – “The Britain that is going to be forged in the white heat of this (scientific) revolution will be no place for restrictive practices or for outdated methods on either side of industry.” PM’s ( Wilson) speech, Labour Party Conference, October 1, 1963. 1970 - Cambridge Science Park, Wolfson Cambridge Industrial Unit 1975 – To promote state ownership of industry, National Enterprise Board established by Labour 1979 – To promote private enterprise, decision reversed by Conservatives

4 Where do we come from? 1980 – To incentivise individuals and decentralise IP commercialisation, Bayh- Dole Act passed in the US ( Pre-B/D 28,000 patents filed, 5% licensed) 1981 – NEB + NRDC = British Technology Group 1985 – To allow universities to own and exploit IP, BTG’s right of first refusal removed in response to missed opportunities such as monoclonal antibodies. “in recognition that creating incentives for knowledge transfer is beneficial both for the advancement of science and the economy” 1987 - Cambridge publishes its first IP policy “ In the current financial climate it is increasingly important that no source of income for the University should be neglected.” 1992 - BTG privatised, then floated as BTG plc in 1995 1994 – UDIL + AILO = AURIL

5 Where do we come from? 1993 - OST’s White Paper “Realising our Potential: A Strategy for Science, Engineering and Technology”. First for 20 years, emphasis on foresight, and “wealth creation and quality of life” 1994 – UNICO (UNIversity COmpanies) 1999 – Third stream – hefce using funds from DfES and DTI to support HEIs to respond to needs of business and community to create wealth – Higher Education Reach Out to Business and the Community, University Challenge and Science Enterprise Challenge – combined as HEIF in 2002 2001 – HEBCI Annual Survey of university-industry links taken over by hefce 2002 – PRAXIS spun out from Cambridge/MIT, joined with UNICO, 2009 2008 – RAE with metrics following previous research selectivity exercises 2014 – REF with “Impact “ as a significant metric (20% Qr)

6 Innovation and the University’s mission The mission of the University of Cambridge is to contribute to society through the pursuit of education, learning, and research at the highest international levels of excellence

7 University of Cambridge Spun off from Oxford in 1209 A complex organisation – traditional but ever- changing 31 Colleges (provide board, lodging, personal tuition) Over 150 departments, faculties and institutes Students: 12,000 undergraduates, 6,900 postgraduates (Jan 2013) 20% from overseas from over 100 countries World class ranking (position is metric dependent) QS (2), THES (7), Shanghai Jiao (5), Guardian (1) (113)

8 University research funding 2011/12

9 The Cambridge model Recruit the best academics in the world Give them the freedom to do what they choose. Subject to sponsorship, IP is registered initially by the University unless requested by the academics: Students own their IP

10 Disposition of IPRs he Academics UniversitySponsors Consultancy Research Grants and Contracts “The IP Policy”

11 University revenue sharing from licensing technology Net Income (opt in)Inventor(s)Department(s)University First £100,00090%5% Next £100,00060%20% Above £200,00034%33% Net Income (opt out) Inventor(s)Department(s)University First £50,000100%0% Above £50,00085%7.5%

12 What are we? Cambridge Enterprise Limited “Cambridge Enterprise exists to help University of Cambridge inventors, innovators and entrepreneurs make their ideas and concepts more commercially successful for the benefit of society, the UK economy, the inventors and the University”

13 Goals for take the most promising ideas forward through IPR licensing, new venture creation and consultancy by: building strong relationships with University academics to encourage disclosure and cooperative management of the most promising innovations making significant, measurable progress toward financial sustainability to generate long term benefits for academics, departments and University being an attractive partner for industry and investors to take University ideas forward through commercial channels

14 Cambridge Enterprise Group

15 Group performance 2011/12

16 Based in Europe’s most successful technology cluster 1,500 cluster companies 53,000 employees ? WhittleTuringDarwin RutherfordBabbageSanger…… Watson & Crick 89 Nobel Prize Winners 1 x $20bn & 1 x $10bn company 10 x $1bn companies a vibrant Cambridge Cluster Economy world leading underpinning science

17 Cambridge & innovation in numbers 1,500 57,000 £13+

18 Cambridge & innovation in numbers 200 + £250+

19 Cambridge innovation in numbers

20 Cambridge & innovation in numbers


22 Where are we going? © Jeffrey Beall

23 So many stakeholders, initiatives, reports and acronyms …

24 … such as : 2003 – Lambert Review of Business-University Collaboration 2008 – Wellings Report on IP and Research Benefits 2011 – IPO – Intellectual Asset Management for Universities 2012 – Wilson Review of Business-University Collaboration 2013 - Bridging the valley of death: improving the commercialisation of research. House of Commons, Select Committee on Science and Technology 2013 – IPO - Collaborative Research between Business and Universities: The Lambert Toolkit 8 Years On 2013 – Witty Report on relationships between universities and their local economy 2014 -- Insights from international benchmarking of the UK science and innovation system

25 Where are we going after 30+ years of KT support A (UK) PARADOX ? Tax payer supports UK academic research - in (relatively) good shape although utilitarian aspect being emphasised (Candles or gas mantles vs OLEDS and GaN?) Supply side in good shape – theory and practice well developed thanks to e.g. HEIF, AUTM, AURIL, PRAXIS-UNICO, ASTP/PROTON, LES,… WHILE UK demand side continues to be weak (cf. Lambert 2003) – HEBCI figures show a continual increase in outputs in real terms over 10 years. Manufacturing has declined Private research spend has declined Industrial diversity has greatly declined - M and As Banking and its bonus culture survives BUT interest and investment in KT is now global – a bright but challenging future

26 Where are we going? Primary university outputs are smart people and knowledge as a result of teaching and research - hard to quantify economic benefits and impact – long timescales, non-linear, two way Is industry homogenous? Clearly not despite constant generalisation Are all universities the same? Top down metrics suggest that’s the intention but in practice? IP is some mix of know-how, registrable and unregistrable rights Interactions between the sectors are very diverse in practice despite yearning for a one size fits all approach Effective IP management and management of expectations are vital – high quality “boundary spanners “ are essential

27 IP – still crazy after all these years … Patents - barriers or entry tickets to collaboration? Best in research intensive universities? Hubs and spokes – who wants to be either? Sectors differ – biomedical vs. physical vs. ICT Background vs foreground Freedom to operate vs ownership How do we make IP more easily accessible? Universities are charities and have to use or dispose of their assets (including IP) appropriately Universities can expect companies to exercise due diligence

28 Important patent developments EU Patent Harmonisation Horizon 20/20 – €80 billion from 2014 to 2020 America Invents Chinese mass filings (US) Trolls – litigation burden Defensive counter measures Corporate purchases of IP mountains Google-Motorola Patent suits – Apple vs Samsung

29 Other IP Patents and spin outs high profile but how well is other IP managed in universities ? Designs Trade marks Tangible research outputs Know-how Copyright – open source, open access Software – copyright or patents?

30 Consultancy and Open Innovation Consultancy - knowledge transfer in real time? First step on the KT ladder Un-hypothecated income Contributes to Impact and Qr Frequently leads to further interactions IP more easily managed in general Open Innovation – risk and rewards sharing - old wine in new bottles? Universities – major sources of diversity, knowledge, and extensive experience of complex IP management Great opportunities for the sector

31 Some final thoughts : Spending reviews and austerity mean KT is no longer optional and is a survival skill but: Will HEIF continue? Will KT remain as an add-on service or become a normal academic duty? What will be the long term Impact of the REF? Are initiatives like Open Innovation and Catapults fundamentally conservative and risk feeding existing cash cows? Major innovation comes from basic research and KT is essential Collaboration is more important than ever

32 Knowledge transfer can be risky …

33 Thank you Cambridge Enterprise Limited University of Cambridge Hauser Forum 3 Charles Babbage Road Cambridge CB3 0GT UK Tel: +44 (0)1223 760339 Fax: +44 (0)1223 763753 Email:

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