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UK R&D Infrastructures and Accelerator Programmes Jim Clarke STFC Daresbury Laboratory TIARA-PP Final Meeting Daresbury Laboratory 25 th November 2013.

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Presentation on theme: "UK R&D Infrastructures and Accelerator Programmes Jim Clarke STFC Daresbury Laboratory TIARA-PP Final Meeting Daresbury Laboratory 25 th November 2013."— Presentation transcript:

1 UK R&D Infrastructures and Accelerator Programmes Jim Clarke STFC Daresbury Laboratory TIARA-PP Final Meeting Daresbury Laboratory 25 th November 2013

2 Outline National Accelerator Facilities –Diamond Light Source –ISIS Neutron Source Test Accelerators –FETS –MICE –ALICE –EMMA –VELA –CLARA –ALPHA-X Summary 2

3 3 GeV electron storage ring generating bright, stable, light enabling high quality research across a broad research base: –Chemistry –Cultural Heritage –Earth Science –Engineering –Environmental Science –Life Sciences –Physics and Material Science Diamond Light Source Diamond Light Source at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory 3

4 Richard P. Walker Normal beam modeLow-emittance beam mode Compound Refractive Lenses CRLS – 18 lenses Photon Energy ~15 keV Source demagnification: 3.7m / 44m (~1/12) Knife edge scans using 200 µm Au wire CRL 44m 3.7m DCM B16-BM µ-focus E=15 keV Low-coupling mode: Micro-focusing Vertical coupling reduced from 1% to 0.3% during operations Low coupling  smaller source  smaller focused beam  Focused beam size at sample reduced by 35%

5 Richard P. Walker Low-coupling mode: Nano-focusing Low coupling  smaller source  smaller focused beam  Nano-focused beam (v) also reduced (from 144 nm to 124 nm) Fresnel Zone Plate – Z150/75/1W5 (150 µm diameter, 75 nm outer zone width) Source demagnification: 73 mm / 47m (~1/644) Knife edge scans using 200 µm Au wire FZP 47m 73mm DCM B16-BM n-focus E=8 keV Normal beam modeLow-emittance beam mode

6 Brilliance improvement for Diamond reduced coupling 1%  0.3% 300 mA  500 mA reducing diamond emittance with present hardware 2.7 nm  2.1 nm lattice test – ongoing: issues with SCWs Initial studies for an ultra low emittance lattice for Diamond-II 5BA 7BA, and modified 4BA Thanks to T. Pulampong, R. Walker, J. Kay and N. Hammond Brilliance upgrade at Diamond Riccardo Bartolini

7 upgrade with Diamond-II (200pm): 300mA and 1%K Brilliance plot using U27 – 72 periods 2 m long with Kmax = 2.02 10 mm gap Tuning curves computed with Spectra 8.0 Assuming the operation with a 200pm lattice Riccardo Bartolini

8 doubling the number of beamlines while still pushing the emittance down Modified 4BA - 320 pm 4BA with an additional short straight section between the dipole pairs emittance not pushed as for a pure 4BA but can double the number of straight sections Length of additional straight sections forced to be at least 3 m while keeping the remaining 6.7 m and 9 m straight sections Riccardo Bartolini

9 Modified 4BA cell Broken the 4 BA cell to leave 3 m space 12 quads per cell 10 Sextupoles per cell Straight section length slightly reduced 11 m  9.7 m 8.3 m  6.7 m Riccardo Bartolini

10 Modfied 4BA – one superperiod Ring circumference shrinks from 561.6 to 561.0 -> loss 1 harmonic of RF Parameters Total length Natural emittance Natural chromaticity : hor./ver. Straight length : long/short/middle 561.0 m 314.7pm-rad -146.7/-85.6 9.7/6.7/3 Gradient in bend < 15 T/m Quads gradient < 70 T/m Riccardo Bartolini

11 ISIS ISIS at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory 11 Spallation neutron source based upon an 800 MeV proton synchrotron, enabling high quality science: –Physics –Chemistry –Materials Science –Earth Science –Engineering –Biology John Thomason

12 ISIS Injection Upgrade A New 180 MeV Injector Update old linac Increase beam power ~0.5 MW Advantages Reduces Space Charge (factor 2.6) Chopped, Optimised Injection & Trapping Challenges Injection straight Activation (180 MeV) Space charge, beam stability,.... New 180 MeV Linac 70 MeV Linac 800 MeV Synchrotron TS1 TS2 MICE John Thomason

13 Snapshots of the work: challenges of getting 0.5 MW in the ISIS Ring Longitudinal Dynamics Transverse & Full Cycle 3D Dynamics Injection Other Essentials: Activation, Diagnostics Analytical WorkSimulation Results Test Distribution RF BucketVariation of key parameters Evolution of bunch Accelerated distributions in (x,x’),(y,y’),( ,dE) Predicted Space Charge Limit Coherent Tune Shift and Resonance Single particle tune shift distributions at 0.5 MW Injected distributions in (x,x’),(y,y’),( ,dE) Foil temperatures Injection Straight Injection Straight Modelling Activation vs EnergyActivation Measurements Electron Cloud MonitorStrip-line Monitor/Kicker ISIS Injection Upgrade Ring Physics Study John Thomason

14 Head-tail instability Key for high intensity proton rings New simulation code: Set 3Di Model losses, benchmark on ISIS Ring High Intensity Beam Studies on ISIS Half-integer intensity limit in proton rings Using the ISIS ring to study halo formation (Y,Y) Higher order loss effects and images Investigating complex loss mechanisms Image driven resonance Loss vs Q measurement Vertical dipole motion along bunch on successive turns Simulation Measurement Y profile Some of our R&D Studies Y profile Turn  Samples along bunch  Vertical difference signal (along bunch, many turns) John Thomason

15 Front End Test Stand (FETS) FETS at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory aims to demonstrate key technologies for the front end of the next generation of high power pulsed proton accelerators. 15 John Thomason

16 High brightness H – ion source 4 kW peak-power arc discharge 60 mA, 0.25 π mm mrad beam 2 ms, 50 Hz pulsed operation Low Energy Beam Transport Three-solenoid configuration Space-charge neutralisation 5600 litre/s total pumping speed Radio Frequency Quadrupole Four-vane, 324 MHz, 3 MeV 4 metre bolted construction High power efficiency Medium Energy Beam Transport Re-buncher cavities and EM quads Novel ‘fast-slow’ perfect chopping Low emittance growth Diagnostics Non-interceptive Well distributed Laser-based Front End Test Stand (FETS) John Thomason

17 FETS Ion Source R&D FETS applications include: ISIS upgrades Future Spallation Neutron Sources Neutrino Factory Waste Transmutation ADSR FETS uses the ISIS Penning type ion source and is already delivering world class performance. The FETS specification is for a 60 mA beam in 2 ms pulses at 50 Hz. ε H = 0.38 πmm.mrad (norm rms) ε V = 0.37 πmm.mrad (norm rms) 17 John Thomason

18 FETS Low Energy Beam Transport FETS uses a 3 solenoid magnetic LEBT to match the beam from the ion source into the RFQ. Vertical emittance 0.3 πmm.mRad rms norm Horizontal emittance 0.4 πmm.mRad rms norm 18 John Thomason

19 Ion Source, LEBT and RFQ New high power, high duty factor ion source extraction power supply Low energy beam transport section alignment improved Beam centred, symmetric in phase space and matched into RFQ First metre section of Radio Frequency Quadrupole is at RAL Remaining three metres in final machining stage Cavity, vacuum and RF testing from Winter 2013 to Summer 2014 First RFQ beam anticipated late 2014 John Thomason

20 Slow down muons in a light absorber, then re- accelerate in beam direction using RF cavities. All of which are immersed in a magnetic channel to confine the muon beam. MICE on ISIS will commission and operate a realistic section of cooling channel. Measure its performance in a variety of modes of operation and beam conditions. Results will allow future Neutrino Factory complex to be optimised. Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment (MICE) 20 John Thomason

21 MICE Hardware Development TrackerFocus CoilAbsorberCavity Module 200 MHz Cavity RF Be WindowCoupling Coil 21 John Thomason

22 RF power specification achieved at Daresbury Andrew Moss Forward power into load Amplifier system has been dismantled from Daresbury and is currently being installed in the MICE hall

23 Andrew Moss Coax distribution system delivered to RAL Oct 13

24 ALICE at Daresbury Laboratory operates using the Energy Recovery principle. Used as an R&D test facility for next generation electron beam technology development. Booster Compressor IR-FEL Photoinjector Laser 8 MeV 35 MeV 8 MeV Accelerators and Lasers In Combined Experiments (ALICE) 24 Peter McIntosh

25 International collaboration initiated in early 2006: –ASTeC (STFC) –Cornell University –DESY –FZD-Rossendorf –LBNL –Stanford University –TRIUMF Fabricate optimised ERL cryomodule and validate with beam. Dimensioned to fit on ALICE: –Same CM footprint –Same cryo/RF interconnects –‘Plug Compatible’ New ALICE Cryomodule 25 Peter McIntosh

26 Cryomodule Evolution Cavity Tuner Absorber Integration 26 Peter McIntosh

27 Cryomodule Reality Cavity Tuner Absorber Integration 27 Peter McIntosh

28 Cryomodule Status Installed into ALICE in early 2013 RF & beam commissioning delayed by cryoplant problems – unrelated to cryomodule! RF Conditioning started 14 th Nov Both cavities have exceeded 10 MV/m, no surprises so far, field emission low So far, so good 28

29 ALICE THz Exploitation 29 IR/THz from ALICE Tissue Culture Facility CSR generated in THz Region as bunch length ~1 ps. Output enhanced by many orders of magnitude. Dedicated tissue culture laboratory. Effect of THz on living cells being studied. Source has very high peak intensities but very low average power: –no thermal effects! Peter McIntosh/Peter Weightman

30 Oesophageal cancer is the fastest rising cancer in the western world. Surgery is the only curative treatment but survival rates are poor because of late diagnosis. Challenge is to identify patients with oesophageal cancer much earlier. Detection Signature: Cancer cells surrounded by stroma made up of various (non-cancer) cell types and ExtraCellular Matrix (ECM) proteins. Increase in number and change of morphology and architecture, relates to the function of the cancerous DNA molecules. FEL Exploitation 30 Cancerous Tissue Non-Cancerous Tissue Scanning Near Field Optical Microscope (SNOM) is ideal probe Resolution: –Synchrotron (diffraction limited) 3 μm –ALICE Free Electron Laser (FEL)0.1 μm Key is intensity and stability of the IR source. ALICE will now be dedicated to cancer studies for 4 months per year Peter McIntosh/Peter Weightman

31 Uses ALICE as its injector World’s first and only Non- Scaling FFAG accelerator. EMMA is an electron beam demonstrator: –Verification of NS-FFAG beam dynamics. First acceleration demonstrated in 2011 Possible applications: –Muon beam acceleration –High intensity proton source for ADSR energy production –Flexible source for proton and carbon therapy Electron Model for Many Applications (EMMA) 31 Peter McIntosh

32 VELA (Versatile Electron Linear Accelerator) High brightness RF Photoinjector at Daresbury Essential technology for advanced electron facilities Light sources Colliders First RF Photoinjector in the UK New tool for industry to develop new accelerator-based technologies Healthcare Security scanners Water treatment …. Two independent beam areas available Funded August 2011 First Beam April 2013 Gun cavity and klystron provided by Strathclyde University/ALPHA-X


34 VELA Exploitation 34 First Industrial Users on VELA (Sep 2013): Rapiscan Systems (UK) and UCL spent 2 weeks exploiting VELA’s ultra-short pulse properties to demonstrate a new time-of-flight imaging technique. This 3-year collaborative programme with STFC will potentially enable the next generation of cargo screening equipment. Academic Users are also encouraged: JAI will test new cavity BPMs in 2014 York/Swansea/UCL will carry out first electron diffraction commissioning in 2014 CI/Strathclyde proposing plasma acceleration experiments (new laser room with existing TW laser should be available Feb 2014) Test of DLS 1 kHz RF photoinjector in 2014 New flexible end station for rapid turnaround of experiments being designed now (enabling tests of dielectric structures, manipulation of phase space by THz, photonic structures, …)

35 CLARA (Compact Linear Accelerator for Research and Applications) 35 Free Electron Lasers –Ultra high peak intensity –Very short pulses of light –Tuneable –Basic FEL unstable in intensity and wavelength –Immature as a technology, plenty of scope for improvement –Fortunately lots of ideas exist for improving FEL stability (wavelength and intensity) and to make even shorter pulses of light but very few have been tested

36 The CLARA Concept There are many ways FELs can be improved, but limited scope with existing facilities UK Scientists need FELs and we want to develop next generation FEL technology towards a possible UK facility CLARA C ompact L inear A ccelerator for R esearch and A pplications An upgrade of the existing VELA Photoinjector Facility at Daresbury Laboratory to a Free-Electron Laser Test Facility Proof-of-principle demonstrations of novel FEL concepts Emphasis is ULTRA-SHORT PULSE GENERATION Neil Thompson


38 Example Schemes Here are two recent novel ideas, proposed by ASTeC and Strathclyde, which could be demonstrated in proof-of-principle experiments on CLARA Mode-Locked Afterburner A compact extension to an existing free-electron laser, which in the X-ray would produce Gigawatt pulses of only 700 zeptosecond duration, leapfrogging current demonstrated techniques by orders of magnitude High-Brightness SASE A way of ‘slowing down’ the electron bunch in the free- electron laser to generate single wavelength X-ray pulses, without the need for a laser seed or any optics Neil Thompson

39 Other Goals and Benefits of CLARA The development of advanced technologies: –New photoinjector technologies –Novel undulators (short period, cryogenic, superconducting….) –New accelerating structures –Single bunch diagnostics. The enhancement of VELA beam power and repetition rate, enabling additional industrial applications. The possibility to use the electron beam for other scientific research applications: PLASMA ACCELERATOR RESEARCH ULTRAFAST ELECTRON DIFFRACTION COMPTON SCATTERING FOR GAMMA BEAMS DIELECTRIC WAKEFIELD ACCELERATION NONEQUILIBRIUM STORAGE RINGS Neil Thompson

40 ALPHA-X 40 Mark Wiggins

41 41 Mark Wiggins

42 42 Mark Wiggins

43 43 Mark Wiggins

44 44 Mark Wiggins

45 Summary The UK operates two national accelerator facilities, Diamond and ISIS –Both have excellent performance and a vibrant user base –Both have major upgrade plans under development The UK has a number of test accelerators covering a broad remit –High power proton applications –Muon cooling demonstration –Light source/FEL motivated (based upon energy recovery, NC Linac, & LPWA) –Industrial applications 45

46 Thanks to everyone who provided material for this talk! 46

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