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ECommerce in Adaptive Hypermedia and Social Networks Dana Al Qudah Dr. Alexandra Cristea

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1 eCommerce in Adaptive Hypermedia and Social Networks Dana Al Qudah Dr. Alexandra Cristea

2 What is eCommerce or eBusiness E-business is defined by Chaffy (2009) as all the electronically arbitrated information substitutes within the institutions and with external stakeholders sustaining the range of business processes. Chaffy (2009) explains that e-businesses companies’ definition is: companies that use information and communication technologies (ICTs) in their day to day operations and this distinguish these organizations from others.

3 Why use eBusiness? Holden et al (2009) justify the reasons for using e-business that there is a power of selling on the internet and it can be one of the best moneymaking opportunities for the twenty first century entrepreneurs because of the following: Low startup cost. Steady stream of new customers. Diverse products. Diverse sellers.

4 What are the types of eBusiness? Holden et al (2009) explain state three most popular e- business models; these models cover the different interfaces of e-business organizations on the web. These models are: The online storefront which is defined by Holden et al (2009) as “a web site designed to display and provide information about products or services, and then accept orders from customers for those products or services”. Popular Example: Amazon

5 What are the types of eBusiness? Online Auctions which is also defined by Holden et al (2009) “a web site that allows users to buy or sell items, usually through a bidding process, and pay a small fee to the site operator, who does not handle the product, but simply facilities the transaction”. Popular Example – eBay

6 What are the types of eBusiness? Advertising – Based E-businesses which contains several popular models for ad-focused sites such as portals, search engines, classifieds and information exchange. Popular Example: Google

7 What is SNS? Boyed and Ellison (2008) define social networks sites or (SNSs) are web – based services that indulge people to build a shared or semi-shared profiles within a bonded system, users are given several privileges such as inviting and sharing with other people whom they may have any common interest or relation a connection within this environment. The designation title, operations and specialty may vary from one site to another.

8 Adaptive Hypermedia Adaptive hypermedia is an alternative to the traditional ``one-size-fits-all'‘ approach in the development of hypermedia systems. Adaptive hypermedia systems build a model of the goals, preferences and knowledge of each individual user, and use this model throughout the interaction with the user, in order to adapt to the needs of that user. BRUSILOVSKY (2001)

9 Difference between adapted and adaptive systems distinction between adaptable systems and adaptive ones –In adaptable systems the adaptation is decided by the user, who explicitly customizes the system to receive a personalized service. –In adaptive systems, the adaptation is autonomously performed by the system, with- out direct user intervention. Opperman (2001)

10 Personalization Techniques The most known personalized recommendation known techniques are the 1.The content based filtering – recommends products similar to the ones the user has selected in the past. 2.The collaborative filtering – social recommendation technique. The customers are put on this cluster, where items are being recommended not only by the products he has selected in the past but also based on the group of customer who have the same interest in such products. 80% of Internet users in 2005 were interested in receiving personalized content on sites they visited

11 eCommerce Application in Adaptive Hypermedia - AdSense A commercial online advertising system, AdSense, is provided by Google Inc. [19]. It delivers a targeted advertisement to the web site of a publisher and consists of two options: ‘‘AdSense for content’’ and ‘‘AdSense for search’’. The former delivers text or image advertisements based on the content of a publisher’s site. Adver- tisements appropriate to the analyzed content of the site are displayed for the user in the ‘‘Ads by Google’’ page frame built into the publisher’s site. The publisher’s site content is periodically analyzed by Google’s search engine to update the assignment of appropriate advertisements to the publisher. The latter encourages publishers to add the Google search box to their pages. Each time a user makes use of this box and searches the publisher’s site or the web, some targeted text- based advertisements are attached to the search result pages in the form of ‘‘sponsored links’’. Google pays the publisher for each click on an advertisement delivered by AdSense.

12 AdSense The complementary Google program, AdWords, is targeted to advertisers, who define and deliver to Google keywords associated with their advertisement. This helps Google match the available advertisements with all activities in which given keywords occur, which is accomplished by Google monitoring the use of the search engine and the navigation of publishers’ sites involved in AdSense. Similarly, Rusmevichientong and Williamson studied algorithms for the selection of profitable search keywords that are especially useful for fixed advertising budgets [51]. Since the AdSense system can access only data available for the Google search engine and the content of web sites, it is able to provide only ‘‘ephemeral personalization’’ of advertising. The ephemeral approach can deliver a different item on every page of a web site but be the same for all users. The much more adaptive method—‘‘persistent personalization’’— uses the history of a user’s behavior and generates a different item for each user in each context. Source:Google Advertising Programs, P. Rusmevichientong, D.P. Williamson, An adaptive algorithm for selecting profitable keywords for search-based advertising services, in: ACM Conference on Electronic Commerce, 2006, ACM, pp. 260–269. J.B. Schafer, J.A. Konstan, J. Riedl, E-commerce recommendation applications, Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery 5 (1/2) (2001) 115– 153.

13 What’s Next? Why not try to build your own eCommerce platform that satisfies your personal needs?

14 What to do? Fill the surveys. Divide your self in groups. Think about different applications. General ideas – BrainStorming. Apply the Six Hats Thinking Technique. Present your work

15 What is Brainstorming? Define and agree the objective. Brainstorm ideas and suggestions having agreed a time limit. Categories/condense/combine/refine. Assess/analyse effects or results. Priorities options/rank list as appropriate. Agree action and timescale. Control and monitor follow-up. Create the spider diagram Source: tm

16 Spider Diagram

17 What is the six hat thinking technique De Bono identifies six distinct modes in which the brain can be "sensitised". In each of these modes the brain will identify and bring into conscious thought certain aspects of issues being considered (e.g. gut instinct, pessimistic judgment, neutral facts). A compelling example presented is sensitivity to "mismatch" stimuli. This is presented as a valuable survival instinct, because, in the natural world: the thing that is out of the ordinary may well be dangerous. This mode is identified as the root of negative judgment and critical thinking.

18 Continued Six distinct modes are identified and assigned a color. The sixth meta mode (Blue) is discussed in the next section). The other 5 modes are: Information: (White) - considering purely what information is available, what are the facts? Emotions (Red) - intuitive or instinctive gut reactions or statements of emotional feeling (but not any justification) Bad points judgment (Black) - logic applied to identifying flaws or barriers, seeking mismatch Good points judgment (Yellow) - logic applied to identifying benefits, seeking harmony Creativity (Green) - statements of provocation and investigation, seeing where a thought goes Source:de Bono, Edward (1985). Six Thinking Hats: An Essential Approach to Business Management. Little, Brown, & Company. ISBN 0316177911 (hardback) and 0316178314 (paperback).ISBN 0316177911

19 Presentation time! Let’s see how creative you are! Thank you for your time

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