Presentation on theme: "Is Electronic Monitoring More Effective than Community Service? Results of a Randomized Trial Gwladys Gilliéron Izumi Kissling Martin Killias University."— Presentation transcript:
Is Electronic Monitoring More Effective than Community Service? Results of a Randomized Trial Gwladys Gilliéron Izumi Kissling Martin Killias University of Zurich
Methodology Randomised controlled trial comparing electronic monitoring (EM) with community service (CS) Random assignation of 240 subjects between June 2000 and December 2002 to CS (120) or EM (120)
Sample TotalEMCS Original sample240120 Double count110 Randomised subjects239119120 Drop outs, thereof18126 Excluded before execution752 Excluded during execution743 dead431 Subtotal 1221107114 Missing date specification66 Subtotal 2215107108 Unidentifiable in the criminal records (birthday unknown or uncertain) 981 Final (valid) sample20699107
Collected data Re-offending: Criminal records Social integration: data from the Internal Revenue Service
Procedure Different reference dates: Day of random assignment to EM or CS Beginning of execution End of execution Period of observation: 3 resp. 4 years before and after reference date p-value of.10 as threshold for significance
Prevalence of pre- and post- assignment criminal records Subjects with at least one criminal conviction recorded in the two randomised groups, during : 4 years preceding and following random assignment (t-0) 3 years preceding and following random assignment (t-0) 4 years before t-0 3 years before t-0 4 years after t-0 3 years after t-0 Improvement (= (t-4) – (t+4)) (= (t-3) – (t+3)) EM N=84/ 99 95% (80) 92% (91) 29% (24) 20% (20) 67% (56) 72% (71) CS N=87/ 106 92% (80) 93% (98) 38% (33) 31% (33) 54% (47) 61% (65) χ2 = 0.766 df= 1 NS χ2 = 0.020 df= 1 NS χ2= 1.685 df= 1 NS χ2= 3.190 df= 1 P< 0.1 χ2 = 2.852 df= 1 p< 0.1 χ2 = 2.478 df= 1 NS
Incidence of pre- and post- assignment criminal records Average of commited offences recorded in the two randomised groups, during : 4 years preceding and following random assignment (t-0) 3 years preceding and following random assignment (t-0) 4 years before t-0 3 years before t-0 4 years after t-0 3 years after t-0 Improvement EM N=84/ 99 1.641.490.390.251.25° (76%)°° 1.24° (83%)°° CS N=87/ 106 1.691.550.550.421.14° (67%)°° 1.12° (73%)°° P *NS.054NS * Mann-Whitney Test ° = (t-4)-(t+4) ° = (t-3)- (t+3) °°= ((t-4)-(t+4))/(t-4)°°= ((t-3)-(t+3))/(t-3)
Results: Criminal records Choice of reference date has little influence on results Period of observation (3 vs. 4 years) has little impact on results, but more significant results after 3 years (more subjects) Re-offending decreases in both groups Less re-offending after EM (overall, 5 comparisons out of 12 are significant at p<.10))
Social integration Procedure Files of the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) of the Canton of Vaud Records include data on income, faculty/debts, welfare benefits and other financial information, on social background (marriage, separation, divorce, number of children)
Tax payers ‘ record Subjects from the two groups located in the IRS of the Canton Vaud (N=183) (year searched: 2004) Tax declaration 2004: EM: 80% (N=64) CS: 73.3% (N=66)
Marriage status among EM and CS subjects in 2004 (N=130, one person without indication) CategoriesEMCSTotal Single/ widowed 30%42%36% Married45%26%35% Divorced/ separated 25%32%29% Total100% (64) 100% (65) 100% (129) p=0.075
Financial status of subjects according to IRS data CategoriesEMCSpN Faculty > debts45%38%NS130 Receiving payments for being out of work 11%18%NS130 Household income < 4000 CHF* 38%65%0.0846 * Married subjects with partner’s income >1000 CHF
Summary Differences between EM and CS on reconvictions favour consistently EM Overall, 5 comparisons on re-offending out of 12 are significant (p<.10) Few significant differences between EM and CS on social integration More subjects got married after EM Financial status is better after EM No differences regarding employment history Undetermined: is EM more effective, or is there a placebo effect at work?
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