Presentation on theme: "Lecture 9: Verbal reports/qualitative data analysis Aims & Objectives To examine a variety of qualitative techniques such interviews, protocols, and other."— Presentation transcript:
Lecture 9: Verbal reports/qualitative data analysis Aims & Objectives To examine a variety of qualitative techniques such interviews, protocols, and other field based techniques such as diaries etc To look at ways of analysing such data
Verbal reports Behaviourism saw the down fall of introspection However, much of what psychology is interested in, is not directly observable Resurgence of an interest in language
Protocols HIP model Used in-situ to provide concurrent recall Declarative knowledge
Retrospective recall Recall of past events (stress, coping, memories etc) Mood congruency effect Reconstructive memories/effort after meaning Memorable things are better remembered
Diaries Allow direct in-situ observations –End of each day (cf. retrospective) –Signal contingent –Event contingent –Interval contingent Analysis is via hierarchical linear modelling
Interviews Open ended Semi-structured Structured Face to face –Social desirability Telephone –High turn aroundTele owner (mobiles) –Sampling easyNo visual aids –Follow up easyFewer questions –Low refusal (foot in the doors)Limited channel
Observations The effect of the observer –Alter the behaviour –Infer rather than record Validity –Teacher strikes pupil (no inference) –Teacher is aggressive (inference) Reliability –High category number = high reliability/low validity –Low category number = low reliability/high validity
Case studies Generate new and novel hypotheses Fine grained analysis Freud, Ebbinghaus Popular in medicine Clinical vs statistical significance Extensive vs intensive Rise of Fischarian statistics
Content analysis Units of analysis Reliability –Accuracy reliability Validity –External referents Coding –Manifest –Latent Quantification –Dummy codes
Discourse analysis Function Variation Construction
Examples from DA Three part lists –I came, I saw, I conquered –Maggie, Maggie, Maggie, Out, Out, Out –Education, education and education –The father, the son and the Holy ghost –I am he, as you are he, as you are me Contrasts and 3 part list –This is not the end. It is not even the beginning of the end. It is perhaps the end of the beginning.
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