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Safe Loading of Vehicle and the Use of Securing Devices.

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1 Safe Loading of Vehicle and the Use of Securing Devices

2 Course Objectives:- On completion of training, students will have an understanding of their legal obligations on the safe loading of vehicle

3 While you are here Safety Running Times Refreshments Facilities Phones

4 Introduction From 10th September 2009, as well as a driving licence, most lorry drivers who drive professionally will have to hold a Certificate of Professional Competence (CPC), which is renewable every 5 years. The Driver CPC has been introduced to improve the knowledge and skills of lorry drivers. The Drivers CPC requirement does not apply to drivers of:- Vehicles with a maximum authorised speed not exceeding 45 kph. Vehicles undergoing road tests for technical development, repair or maintenance purposes, nor to….

5 Exemptions Vehicles undergoing road tests for technical purposes. Vehicles used in states of emergency or rescue missions. Vehicles used by, or under control of the armed forces, civil defence and the fire service. Vehicles with a maximum authorised speed not exceeding 45 kph. Vehicles used for non-commercial carriage of passengers or goods. Vehicles used exclusively for driver training. Vehicles carrying material or equipment to be used by the driver in the course of his or her work.

6 Introduction Periodic Training:- 35 hours of periodic training must take place in 5-yearly cycles consistent with the CPC renewal. New Drivers:- Must have undertaken periodic training within 5 years of obtaining their initial CPC. Existing Drivers:- Must have undertaken periodic training by 10th September 2014.

7 The Driver Qualification Card

8 Overloaded Vehicles for 2008/9

9 Overloaded Vehicles Fines Road Traffic Act 1988 Requires vehicle users to ensure that the vehicle is not overloaded Both the driver and operator are liable A fine of up to £5,000 per offence If dangerously overload the driver may be charges with Dangerous Driving, a maximum penalty of two years in prison If someone is killed, driver and operator may face jail for Manslaughter or Death by Dangerous Driving Loss of LGV entitlement No job

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11 HSE Guidance on Safe Loading and Unloading Loading and unloading areas should be: Clear of other traffic, pedestrians and people not involved Clear of overhead electric cables Level, to maintain stability, trailers parked on firm level ground Loads should be spread as evenly as possible Loads should be secured Safety equipment should be considered Ensure the vehicle and trailer have their brakes applied Harness system supplied if working at heights A safe place for the driver to wait if not involved in the loading Keep away people who are not involved

12 HSE Guidance on Safe Loading and Unloading Vehicles must not be overloaded Check the deck area before loading to make sure its safe and free from debris Loading should allow for safe unloading Loads must be suitably packaged Tailgates and sideboards must be closed when possible If more than one company is involved, they should agree procedures in advance

13 Safe Loading Do check the weight of the load to be carried Do make sure that the vehicle is capable of carrying the size and type of load Do remember that the size, type and weight of the load will affect the handling of the vehicle Do check the load before moving off and whenever items are added or removed Do remember that loads can settle and shift during a journey causing lashings to slacken Do check the load at regular intervals and after heavy braking or sudden change of direction Do make sure safe systems of work are devised and followed when loading and unloading

14 Safe Loading Do Not overload the vehicle or axles Do Not load the vehicle too high Do Not reduce the load on the steering axles by positioning the load too far back Do Not move the vehicle with any part of the load not restrained Do Not climb onto the vehicle or its load unless it’s essential and there is a safe means of access Do Not take any chances, there are better things to do than have an accident

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17 TERMINOLOGY What is? Unladen Weight Kerbside Weight Gross Vehicle Weight Payload

18 TERMINOLOGY Unladen Weight (ULW):- The weight of the vehicle or trailer including fixed bodywork, less the weight of any load, crew, fuel, water, loose tools, equipment & batteries, where they are involved in propelling the vehicle

19 TERMINOLOGY Kerbside Weight ( TARE ):- The unladen weight, plus fuel, water, loose tools & equipment (still excludes weight of load and crew ) The pay load is calculated by subtracting the kerbside weight from the gross vehicle weight The kerbside weight may also be referred to as the TARE weight for examination purposes

20 TERMINOLOGY Gross Vehicle Weight (GVW):- The maximum weight that the vehicle or trailer and its load may legally transfer to the road Various terms mean the same thing, depending which regulations you are reading: gross plated weight gross permitted weight gross permitted mass maximum gross weight maximum authorised mass This information will be found on the Ministry Plate ( VTG 6 ), which is fixed to the vehicle or trailer

21 Manufacturer’s Plate All modern vehicles (and all trailers over 3500 kgs.gvw) will have a Manufacturer’s Plate showing: Gross design train weight Max. design axle weights Gross design weight

22 VTG6 Goods vehicles over 3500 kgs. gvw, trailers over 020 kgs. ulw and either part of any artic. should have a ‘Ministry’ plate known as a VTG 6 showing: Gross vehicle weight Remember – these are the legal limits for UK journeys! Max. permitted axle weights Gross train weight

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24 Calculation of Payload The driver must be able to calculate the maximum load that can be carried on a vehicle at any particular time. This is called the ‘payload’ Calculating the Payload:- Gross vehicle weight minus kerbside weight ( TARE ) equals payload The payload will vary depending on the kerbside weight( TARE ), which may alter depending on the amount of fuel, loose tools and equipment carried

25 Calculation of Payload Calculating payload:- Gross weight 44,000kgs Kerbside weight ( TARE )14,500kgs Payload29,500kgs Gross weight18,000kgs Kerbside weight ( TARE )6,500kgs Payload11,500kgs

26 Load Security

27 Forces Affecting Vehicles in Motion Forces at Work on a Vehicle:- Momentum Gravity Centrifugal Force

28 Forces Affecting Vehicle Motion Momentum :- Is the tendency of the vehicle/load to continue in a straight line. Momentum depends upon the weight and speed of the vehicle. If the vehicle stops the load will continue moving forward. The higher the speed the greater the momentum When accelerating away from a stationary state, the load will want to remain where it is When driving a tanker where there are no baffles fitted, the load may surge forward when braking.

29 Forces Affecting Vehicle Motion Momentum:-.

30 Forces Affecting Vehicle Motion Centrifugal Force:- When the vehicle takes a bend the load will want to keep going in a straight line If a loaded vehicle takes a bend at too high a speed, the centrifugal force acting on it may cause the load to be unstable and fall from the vehicle At low speed this will be overcome by the tyres gripping on the road surface With a live load (liquid) the centrifugal force may be increased by the load surge at corners and roundabouts The centrifugal force may be increased at roundabouts as there may be a pendulum effect on the load

31 Forces Affecting Vehicle Motion Centrifugal Force:-

32 Forces Affecting Vehicle Motion Centre of Gravity:- The vehicle’s centre of gravity is the point through which all its weight acts The centre of gravity should be kept as low as possible, along a line running centrally down the length of the vehicle/load The higher the centre of gravity, the less stable the vehicle and load will be. When loading a vehicle the centre of gravity must be kept as low as possible. The heavy load on the bottom and the lighter load on the top

33 Forces Affecting Vehicle Motion Centre of Gravity:- If carrying heavy engineering plant, the best type of vehicle would be a low loader. Many semi-trailers are fitted with two decks to increase the number of pallets carried. If the lower deck only were unloaded, then the centre of gravity would be higher, affecting the stability of the vehicle The centre of gravity can be a problem for car transport drivers carrying out multi-drops, as the load is removed from the lower deck first The driver may have to re-arrange the load

34 Forces Affecting Vehicle Motion Centre of Gravity:-

35 Forces Affecting Vehicle Motion High winds can cause problems for high-sided vehicles Rain, ice, snow can affect the stopping distance On icy roads the stopping distance can be increased by up to10 times normal stopping distance The correct use of the accelerator and brakes are important to avoid locking the wheels

36 Forces Affecting Vehicle Motion Route Selection:- Drivers of high sided vehicles should avoid viaducts and bridges in high winds The route chosen may depend upon the load being carried With high loads be aware of low bridges and tunnels When carrying dangerous goods there are restrictions on the use of some roads/tunnels When carrying abnormal loads there are restrictions on the use of certain bridges. The operator may have to notify the highways and bridges authorities before movement

37 Forces Affecting Vehicle Motion Liquid Loads With a liquid load, when accelerating, braking or turning there is a problem with the load surging When the driver brakes the load will surge forward When the driver accelerates the load will remain where it is When the driver takes a bend the load will tend to keep going in a straight line This can lead to a rollover situation

38 Forces Affecting Vehicle Motion Liquid Loads Some tankers are fitted with compartments or baffles to prevent the surge of the load Baffles cannot so easily be used in tankers carrying food products, because of problems of contamination and cleaning When driving, avoid sudden braking and entering corners too fast.

39 Forces Affecting Vehicle Motion Roll Over Roll over can occur if a bend is taken too fast, or when leaving a roundabout. This is more likely to happen with a live load (liquid load) As you enter the roundabout the liquid will move in the tank As you leave the roundabout the movement of the load will increase in the opposite direction producing a pendulum effect This can result in a roll over situation.

40 Gear Selection for Load and Road Conditions Gear Selection:- In normal driving, when loaded, drivers should use the lower/lowest gear for moving off. This reduces clutch wear ( no clutch slip ) Loss of traction can result from over-hard acceleration. When driving down hill, a lower gear should be selected to allow the engine to slow the vehicle down. A brake retarder can also be used.

41 Load Distribution When securing a load the driver needs to consider:- The load being carried Suitability of the vehicle Stability of the load Type of restraints to be used Protecting the load from the weather Prevention of theft of the load Ease of delivery of the load

42 Load Distribution Load must not endanger any road user, so the driver must Check that the load is securely stowed Check that operating within the vehicle’s weight limits ( axle, gross and train ) Check that the load is within the size limits of the vehicle Check that ropes/chains/straps are secured Check that sheets are fastened down Check that container locks are secured Check that doors, tailgates are fastened Check that hatches on tankers are closed

43 Load Distribution Code of Practice on Safe Loading of Vehicles Is produced by DfT Gives the best practice for safe loading of goods vehicles Gives the responsibilities of both the operator and driver Remember, there is no defence for an insecure load Both the operator and driver may be prosecuted

44 Load Distribution All loads must be secured on a vehicle The equipment required will depend upon the nature of the load It must be suitable to ensure that the load does not move under normal driving conditions It must protect the load from adverse weather conditions

45 Load Distribution Choice of Vehicle:- The Operator is responsible for providing a suitable vehicle & securing equipment and ensuring driver and loading staff are competent Drivers have a duty to check and ensure that the load is adequately secured at all times, not just at the start of the journey The design and construction of the vehicle should be suitable for the load being carried When selecting the vehicle its wheelbase, body length and overhang should be considered

46 Load Distribution Choice of Vehicle:- Prevent the vehicle from grounding on level crossings, etc (applies to low loaders at level crossings ) Extra requirements for dangerous goods Check the height of bodywork (sides) when carrying small loose items Sheets may be required for tipper vehicles The maximum permitted gross, axle and train weights must not be exceeded Centre of gravity kept as low as possible to achieve maximum stability

47 Load Distribution Arrangement of Loads:- Check that the loading platform, bodywork and anchor points are suitable Positioning the load so that the axle weights will not be exceeded When part of the load is removed it will reduce the gross weight, but the change in weight distribution may cause individual axles to become overloaded (diminishing load effect ) The driver may have to re-distribute the load

48 Load Distribution A vehicle loaded within its gross weight limit can still exceed axle weight limits due to nature and position of the load In the above example, 10 x 2 divided by 5 gives 4 tonnes through the front axle, or 10 x 3 divided by 5 gives 6 tonnes through the rear axle P x C W P=Payload C=Centre of load to axle W=Wheelbase

49 Load Distribution Correct load distribution is vital: it’s easy to overload an axle, even when within the vehicle gross weight. This is particularly important with multi- drop loads – it may be necessary to re-distribute the remaining load 5T If for example 5 tons is placed centrally over the rear axle of this vehicle, then the axle loading is 5 tons

50 Load Distribution 4T 1T then when the load is moved 1 metre further forward, the axle loading becomes if the wheelbase is 5 metres Correct load distribution is vital: it’s easy to overload an axle, even when within the vehicle gross weight. This is particularly important with multi- drop loads – it may be necessary to re-distribute the remaining load

51 Load Distribution Correct load distribution is vital: it’s easy to overload an axle, even when within the vehicle gross weight. This is particularly important with multi- drop loads – it may be necessary to re-distribute the remaining load 2T 3T and when the load is moved 3 metre further forward, the axle loading becomes if the wheelbase is 5 metres

52 Load Distribution The gross weight permitted for a vehicle/ trailer will depend upon several variables:- Number, size and ply rating of tyres Permitted axle weights Number and spacing of axles The general rules are:- The more axles, the greater the GVW, and/or The greater the axle spread, the greater the GVW Axle spread is:- Rigid vehicle - foremost to rearmost axle centres Artic - rearmost axle of the unit to rearmost trailer axle centres

53 Load Distribution Arrangement of Loads:- The load should be spread to give an even weight distribution When a load is stacked the larger and heavier items should be placed at the bottom Heavier items should be placed nearer to the centre line of the vehicle and lighter ones towards the sides When a load is stacked, the lower packages should be strong enough to support the others when braking, cornering and accelerating

54 Load Distribution Arrangement of Loads:- The weight of heavy loads of small dimensions should be distributed across the vehicle platform by use of load spreading devices ( pallets, large wooden boards ) The load should not obstruct driver’s field of vision Obligatory lights, reflectors, rear markers and number plates must not be obscured Wide and long loads may need to be marked

55 Arrangement of Loads:- Check the weight of the load to be carried Make sure the vehicle is capable of carrying the load The size, type and weight of load will effect the handling of the vehicle Check the load before moving off and whenever items are added or removed Loads can settle and shift during the journey causing lashings to slacken Load Distribution

56 Arrangement of Loads:- Check the load at regular intervals and after heavy braking or sudden change of direction Make sure safe procedures are followed when loading and unloading the vehicle

57 Load Distribution How to Avoid Overloading:- The vehicle should be suitable with a reasonable margin on axle weights Driver /loading staff should know the payload gross vehicle weight – kerbside weight (TARE) = payload Correct load distribution, especially when partly off-loaded. The load may need to be redistributed to prevent front axle overloading If in doubt vehicle should go to weighbridge Consider the fitting of ‘on-board’ weighing equipment

58 Load Distribution There is a Code of Practice in use for the check-weighing of vehicles which must be adhered to by the authorities For example, the permitted tolerance (for accuracy of equipment) on dynamic axle weighing machines must allow ± 150 kgs. for each axle of the vehicle/trailer There are two possible defences against an overloading charge, If they can be proved: That the vehicle was proceeding to the nearest weighbridge after loading to check the weight, or returning from a weighbridge to the nearest practical place for the weight to be reduced The vehicle as loaded was within the limits and the weight increased by no more than 5% en route although no extra load was added

59 Consequences of Overloading Know the vehicle’s carrying capacity The vehicle should be taken to a weighbridge carrying no load to find the kerbside weight ( TARE ) Sheets, tools and other equipment that would normally be on the vehicle should be present The vehicle should have a full tank of fuel and ideally the heaviest driver in the firm at the wheel The kerbside ( TARE ) weight is subtracted from the gross vehicle weight to give the payload So, to find the payload:- Subtract the kerbside ( TARE )from the gross vehicle weight. This will tell you how much the vehicle can carry

60 Consequences of Overloading Have the right vehicle for the job. Always try to use a vehicle that has a healthy margin to spare on axle weights in relation to gross weight Loading staff and drivers should be properly instructed about the vehicle’s payload and the goods to be carried Where standard packages of uniform weight are carried frequently, don’t presume that weights never change. Check package weights from time to time

61 Consequences of Overloading If the vehicle/trailer are found to be overloaded on axle, gross or train weights, a TE 160 may be issued under the Goods Vehicles (Authorised Weight) Regs. This prohibits further movement of the vehicle/trailer until excess load is removed/redistributed (The only exception to this rule is dangerous goods loads, which will be escorted to the nearest safe place for off-loading) Both the driver and the operator may be prosecuted Fines of up to £5000 for each offence may be imposed The police may offer the driver the alternative of a fixed penalty ticket, but the operator does not have this option The TE 160 is recorded against the O-licence and will become relevant at the Traffic Commissioner’s five-yearly review

62 Consequences of Overloading Under the Road Traffic Act 1988, it is an offence to use a vehicle/trailer, or cause or permit it to be used, when overloaded Under the Road Traffic Act, it is also an offence to use a vehicle/ trailer when in a dangerous condition, for example through impairment of the brakes or steering through overloading There are over 4000 successful prosecutions per year Max. penalty £5000, 3 penalty points, and even disqualification if the charge is ‘dangerous condition’.

63 Consequences of Overloading An authorised person (VOSA examiner, authorised police constable or trading standards officer) may require a vehicle or trailer to be check-weighed He may instruct the person in charge of the vehicle to proceed to a weighbridge for such purpose (form GV3) A certificate of weight in the prescribed form must be issued The driver should retain his copy on the vehicle and, if within limits, this will exempt him from further check- weighing with the same load on the same journey

64 Consequences of Overloading Where the vehicle is diverted more than five miles (weighing purposes only) and found to be within limits, operators may claim compensation from the highway authority for any loss suffered Remember that a defence against the charge could be that the load became overweight during the journey. Examples:- A load of sand left on a vehicle absorbed moisture from the air overnight making the sand heavier. A load of round timber became heavier due to soaking by rain water

65 Vehicle Stability Headboards and Front Bulkheads:- Must be capable of withstanding the horizontal force equal to the rated payload of the vehicle Must be sufficient to stop forward movement of the load Cargo should be carried separate from the driver (in closed vans a bulkhead should be fitted)

66 Clamping and Securing Techniques Anchor Points:- Anchorage points should be indicated on the vehicle Sufficient load anchorage points should be provided Number of anchorage points actually used will depend on the weight and dimensions of the load being carried

67 Clamping and Securing Techniques Anchor Points:- Rope hooks should not be used to anchor the load Rope hooks are not subject to constructional standards Lashing points should comply with British Standards

68 Clamping and Securing Techniques Load Securing Equipment:- Will depend upon the load being carried All equipment must be regularly inspected for damage and wear (webbing, straps, ropes, chains ) When the weight of the load is too great for ropes or straps, the use of chains with compatible tensioning devices should be used

69 Clamping and Securing Techniques Load Securing Equipment:- Webbing can be used to secure many loads. They are marked with a Rated Assembly Strength (RAS), which should never be exceeded. They can lose their strength (affected by chemicals and when wet) Regular checks must be made on the metal components for corrosion and damage Protect the webbing if load has sharp edges

70 Clamping and Securing Techniques Ropes:- Ropes should be made from polypropylene, polyester, sisal or manila They should be at least three strands and at least 10mm.thick Ends should be spliced or treated to prevent fraying The driver should use a ‘dolly knot’ to secure the load Ropes are not suitable for steel plates etc

71 Clamping and Securing Techniques Securing a Load:- On platform vehicles some form of restraint must be used If possible load against the headboard Check that the lashings ( ropes, webbing, etc. ) are in good condition After sheeting make sure loose rope ends have been tidied up When using nettings the maximum rated loading should never be exceeded Ratchets and chains must be properly tensioned

72 Clamping and Securing Techniques Securing a Load:- Chocks and wedges may be used to prevent individual items from moving Dunnage bags may be used to fill any gaps in the load Remember any restraint system is only as strong as its weakest component Remember to check the devices at regular intervals for the correct tension ( e.g. checking round timber before going onto the public highway after leaving the forest )

73 Clamping and Securing Techniques Loads and Securing Devices:- Containers:- use twist locks Curtainsiders:- use webbing, do not rely on the curtains to secure the load Pallets:- use ropes or webbing ( use sleeves or corner protectors to protect the load, or damage to the webbing ) Loads in a box van:- use bar tensioners

74 Clamping and Securing Techniques Loads and Securing Devices:- Heavy plant:- use chains with shackles and chain tensioner Sheet steel:- use chains with shackles and chain tensioners Bricks:- use netting, with tension devices Bulkers and skip loads:- use netting or sheets

75 Clamping and Securing Techniques Loads and Securing Devices:- Sheeted load:- use tarpaulin, with fly sheet Sawn timber:- use lashings and wherever practicable, place the load against the headboard Round timber:- use uprights, fitted with chains or webbing lashings. Remember to check the tension of the restraining devices before going onto the road

76 PROJECTING LOADS Wide loads on vehicles complying with C & U Regs. Can involve: Side/end projection markers Police notification (2 clear days) Attendant Lighting of projection when travelling at night

77 LATERAL PROJECTION Up to.305m on either side or 2.9m overall width - NO ACTION REQUIRED Over.305m on either side or 2.9m overall width - MARKER BOARDS/NOTICE TO POLICE Over 3.5m overall width - MARKER BOARDS/NOTICE TO POLICE/ATTENDANT DfT approval required for loads over 5m wide Maximum permitted load width - 6.1m

78 FORWARD PROJECTION Up to 2m - NO ACTION REQUIRED Over 2m up to 3.05m - SIDE/END MARKERS/ATTENDANT Over 3.05m - SIDE/END MARKERS/ATTENDANT/POLICE NOTICE

79 Height Restrictions and Markings Height Restrictions If the overall travelling height of the vehicle. load and equipment is more than 3 metres (10ft):- The height of the vehicle must be displayed in the cab of the vehicle in feet and inches or Carry sufficient information about the route (height of bridges and other overhead structures)

80 Height Restrictions and Markings Overhead Clearances Drivers of vehicles exceeding 3 metres (10ft) should take special care when entering depots, docks, freight terminals, service station forecourts and loading bays. or When approaching bridges, overhead cables, overhead pipelines, tunnels and level crossings

81 Height Restrictions and Markings Electric Cables Will normally be clear for a vehicle of 5 metres (16ft 6ins) in height. Power supply cables for railways and tramways will normally allow clearance for a vehicle of 5 metres (16ft 6ins) unless sign indicates otherwise.

82 Height Restrictions and Markings Low Bridges Will normally be clear for a vehicle up to 5 metres (16ft 6ins) in height. When the overhead clearance is arched, the clearance is normally only between the limits marked If a vehicle collides with a bridge it must be reported to the police If a railway bridge is involved it must also be reported to the railway authority

83 Height Restrictions and Markings Reporting Do so immediately to avoid a possible serious accident or loss of life. Information required:- Location Damage Bridge number Must inform the police within 24 hours

84 Height Restrictions and Markings Vehicle Height It’s important to know the height of your vehicle. Do not ignore:- Traffic signs Road markings Audible alarms, warning lights

85 Types of Packaging Pallets Many loads are transported on pallets for ease of loading / unloading. They are normally loaded onto the vehicle by fork lift truck Before loading, make sure the pallets are not damaged Check that the load is secure on the pallet ( may be shrink wrapped ) Do not rely only on curtains to hold the load, it may need internal strapping

86 Types of Packaging Pallets Load so that the axle, gross and train weights are not exceeded Unless constrained by body or sideboards or headboard, additional means of restraint will be required Positioned so that load is balanced across vehicle On open platforms, restraining lashings or webbing nets may be used When part of load is removed make sure the axles are not overloaded The driver may have to redistribute the load to prevent axle overloading

87 Goods Needing Securing Freight Containers Used for a variety of different goods Normally arrive / depart by container ship Drivers should take special care that the freight container does not exceed UK axle, gross and train weights If in doubt take to the nearest weighbridge Do not take the vehicle on the public highway if it exceeds the UK weights Do not rely on consignment note / list for the weight of the load

88 Goods Needing Securing Securing Freight Containers:- Containers should be secured to the vehicle/trailer by twist locks The driver should ensure that the twist locks are locked before commencing the journey Also ensure that the twist locks are released before the container is lifted off the trailer The driver must position the container on the vehicle so that no axle, gross or train weights are exceeded

89 Goods Needing Securing Freight Containers:- Should only be carried on vehicles fitted with twist locks The load should be evenly distributed across floor of container Heavy loads on bottom, light loads on top Make sure the load is secured inside container, if possible Be careful when opening container doors, so that no part of the load falls when opening the doors Make sure door locking mechanisms are in good order

90 Goods Needing Securing Piggy Back Trailers:- Must be secured on the vehicle Must be carried with parking brake on Tension devices to be used in each lashing, to restrain fore and aft movement (set at an angle of at least 60º) The driver must be aware of the height of the vehicle and the raised centre of gravity

91 Goods Needing Securing Curtain-Sided Vehicles:- The driver has to secure load as if carried on an open vehicle (not left free standing) Internal webbing straps should be used Curtains of curtain-sided vehicles MUST NOT be considered as part of the load restraining system Check the load is safe before closing curtains Driver’s responsibility for ensuring that the load remains secure If bulges are evident in the curtains, they should be opened with care

92 Placing and Removal of Tarpaulins Sheeting Is used to protect the load from the weather Is used on tipper lorries to prevent sand etc. from blowing off When used on open vehicles, the sheet must be secured so that it does not flap.

93 Placing and Removal of Tarpaulins Sheeting When more than one sheet is required, the rearmost sheet is positioned first Make sure that overlaps do not face forward allowing wind and rain to get between the sheets Ensure that the load is fully covered Ensure there are no loose flaps or tears in the sheet Secure the sheets with ropes or straps

94 Transport Of Livestock The Welfare of Animals (Transport) (England) Order 2006 No particular requirements for journeys up to 65 km. Authorisation required from DEFRA for journeys over 65 km. Valid for 5 years Over 65 km. and up to 8 hours, operator will have to show appropriate staff, equipment and procedures and, from certificated driver/attendant For journeys of more than 8 hours – Certificate of approval for the vehicle Certified driver/attendant from Contingency planning for emergencies Ability to trace the vehicle & be in touch with the driver All new vehicles to have sat.nav. system Transport Of Livestock The Welfare of Animals (Transport) (England) Order 2006 No particular requirements for journeys up to 65 km. Authorisation required from DEFRA for journeys over 65 km. Valid for 5 years Over 65 km. and up to 8 hours, operator will have to show appropriate staff, equipment and procedures and, from certificated driver/attendant For journeys of more than 8 hours – Certificate of approval for the vehicle Certified driver/attendant from Contingency planning for emergencies Ability to trace the vehicle & be in touch with the driver All new vehicles to have sat.nav. system

95 Transport Of Livestock FEEDING, WATERING & REST PERIODS:- Cattle, sheep & goats can be transported for a maximum of 14 hours, followed by at least 1 hours rest, with water Horses can be transported for a maximum of 24 hours, with food & water every 8 hour. Pigs can be transported for a maximum of 24 hours, with constant access to water The time period begins when the animals are loaded onto the vehicle Transport Of Livestock FEEDING, WATERING & REST PERIODS:- Cattle, sheep & goats can be transported for a maximum of 14 hours, followed by at least 1 hours rest, with water Horses can be transported for a maximum of 24 hours, with food & water every 8 hour. Pigs can be transported for a maximum of 24 hours, with constant access to water The time period begins when the animals are loaded onto the vehicle


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