Presentation on theme: " starter activity What do this newspaper front pages reveal about the attitudes of some British people towards Europe? Why do the British feel this way?"— Presentation transcript:
1 starter activityWhat do this newspaper front pages reveal about the attitudes of some British people towards Europe? Why do the British feel this way?
2 Problems with Europe Media hostility – esp. Murdoch press Fear of higher taxes & fiscal controlsEuroscepticismFear of losing British traditions, e.g. ‘Save the pound!’Growth of a democratic deficitFear of federal EuropeDo you think the British press has gone too far in its attitude to Europe?
3 What were the origins of the EU? AimsTo chart the development of the EUTo understand the causes of Euroscepticism
4 Foundation of EUNeed for economic & political stability in post-war Europe1952 European Coal & Steel Community (6 countries; Fr., Germ., It. …)1957, Treaty of Rome (Germany, France et al, but not UK) set up EEC (European Economic CommunityBritain fostered ‘special relationship’ with US and Commonwealth countries
5 Britain tries to join1961, British govt. realised economic potential of EEC & applies to join1963 & 1967, French President Charles de Gaulle vetoed Britain’s application to join1973, Heath signed Tr. of Accession1975, referendum on continuing membership (67% voted to remain)Ted Heath, former Tory leader. How has Conservative opinion changed over Europe?
6 European relations under Thatcher 1986, Single European Act created single European market & ‘four freedoms’ – goods, trade, services & capitalThatcher wanted free trade, but rejected ‘harmonisation’ of economic & social policies (e.g. social chapter & minimum wage)Tensions with Jacques Delors, President of EU Commission1991, European issues led to downfall of Thatcher“We haven’t worked all these years to free Britain from the paralysis of socialism only to see it creep through the back door of central control and bureaucracy in Brussels” (1988)
7 The Major eraMajor more conciliatory, reduced majority, hardcore of Eurosceptics1991, Maastricht Treaty, reformed institutions of European govt., extended QMV, European Central Bank, economic & monetary union (Euro), 3 pillarsBritish fears of federalism & loss of sovereignty - opt out clause from social chapter & single currencyWhy was John Major more conciliatory with his backbenchers over the issue of Europe?
8 Recent developments1997, Amsterdam Treaty & 2000, Treaty of Nice secured agreement on EU enlargement (currently 27), extension of QMV on Council of Ministers, supranational procedures for security & justice2002 launch of Euro (not UK, Denmark & Sweden)2008 Treaty of Lisbon (alternative to European constitution) signed
9 Europe & New Labour Blair’s govt. more pro-Europe Gordon Brown insists on UK meeting 5 economic tests before entryReferendum on European constitution promised after GE (abandoned 2005)Lisbon TreatyFurther expansion likely, e.g. TurkeyWhy do you think Blair was more pro-European? Why is Gordon Brown seen to be more hostile to closer European integration?
10 The outcome for the EU Constitution 2004, Blair announced referendum on EU constitution (promised in 2005 manifesto)2005 Spain & France held referendums. Spain ‘yes’ but France & Holland ‘NO!’France says ‘Non!’, 55% reject the constitution on a turnout of 70%
11 Your taskYour teacher will give you information about 4 key European treaties. Get into groups of 4. Two of you will be Europhiles and two will be Eurosceptics. Debate the details of your given treaty according to your adopted perspective.
12 3 pillars European Community Foreign & security policy Justice & home affairs