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Electronic Warfare IW - 150 College of Aerospace Doctrine, Research, and Education.

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Presentation on theme: "Electronic Warfare IW - 150 College of Aerospace Doctrine, Research, and Education."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Electronic Warfare IW - 150 College of Aerospace Doctrine, Research, and Education

3 INFORMATION SUPERIORITY INFORMATION OPERATIONS AFDD 2-5 Successfully executed Information Operations achieve information superiority ISR Precision Nav & Position Other Info Collection/ Dissemination Activities PAO Weather INFORMATION-in-WARFARE exploitgain INFORMATION WARFARE DEFENSIVE COUNTERINFORMATION OFFENSIVE COUNTERINFORMATION Counter- Intelligence Information Assurance OPSEC Counter- Propaganda Counter- Deception Electronic Protect CNDPAO PSYOP Physical Attack Military Deception Electronic Warfare PAO CNA defend attack

4 Overview EW FUNDAMENTALS ELECTRONICATTACK - Basics - Assets INTEGRATION ELECTRONICSUPPORT - Basics - Assets ELECTRONICPROTECT - Basics - Assets

5 … any military action involving the use of electromagnetic and directed energy to control the electromagnetic spectrum or to attack an adversary. AFDD 2-5.1 Electronic Warfare

6 Why is Electronic Warfare a pillar of Information Warfare? COMINT COMINT COMMS COMMS SIGINT SIGINT Denial (OPSEC) Denial (OPSEC) Indications & Warning Indications & Warning Deception Deception Examples Laser Rangefinders Microwave Comms Radar Surveillance Electronic ID (IFF) Infrared Imagery EHF for Satellite Control INFORMATION FUNCTIONS ACROSS THE EM SPECTRUM!

7 IW Flights at Selected NAFs MISSION: Provide full OCI/DCI planning capability to the NAF Flight Chief / Deputy OPSEC Planner IA Planners Counterintelligence Analysts Counterintelligence Planner Counterdeception Planner Space Planner NOSC-Defense Planner (A6) OCI Officer DCI Officer Deception Planner PSYOP Planner EW Planner Special IO Planner SIGINT, ELINT, MASINT HUMINT Specialists 26-29 Personnel

8 Electromagnetic Spectrum The range of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation from zero to infinity

9 EM SPECTRUM THzTHz 300KHz300KHz 3MHz3MHz 30MHz30MHz 300MHz300MHz 300THz300THz 3GHz3GHz 30GHz30GHz 300GHz300GHz 3THz3THz 30THz30THz DCDC WAVELENGTH MICROWAVES MF HF VHF UHF SHF EHF RAYS MM WAVES RADIO WAVES INFRARED VISIBLE VIOLET ULTRA GAMMA 1km1m 1 mm1 um.72 um.4 um.1 um 30003000 ELECTRO-OPTICAL X-RAYS INFINITY

10 Frequency Bands LF LORAN C 100 kHz MF LORAN A 1750-1950 kHz AM RADIO 535-1605 kHz HF CITIZENS BAND 26.965-27.405 MHz VHF TV (CH 2-6)54-88 MHz FM RADIO88-108 MHz VOR108 - 118 MHz VHF COMM118 - 136 MHz TV (CH 7-13)174-216MHz UHF UHF COMM225 - 400 MHz TV (CH 14-83)470-890 MHz TACAN 962-1213 MHz

11 EW FUNDAMENTALS ELECTRONICATTACK INTEGRATION ELECTRONICPROTECT ELECTRONICSUPPORT

12 Electronic Attack  That division of electronic warfare involving the use of electromagnetic (EM), directed energy (DE) or anti-radiation weapons to attack personnel, facilities, or equipment with the intent of degrading, neutralizing, or destroying enemy combat capability

13 Anti-Radiation Munitions Any munition using an enemy’s source of electromagnetic radiation as a primary means of terminal guidance for the purpose of damaging or destroying the source

14 ARM Effects? BEFORE AFTER SA-2 FAN SONG RADAR

15 Directed Energy  Directed energy is an umbrella term for technologies relating to the production of a beam of concentrated EM energy or atomic or subatomic particles

16 LASERS Common on the battlefield Low power – Dazzle / disorient personnel – Degrade sensors / optics – Objects with or near the source veiled High power – Eye damage – Destroy sensors / optics – Damage / degrade guidance & seeker hardware – At long ranges dazzle / disorient

17 NonDestructive EA Jamming Electromagnetic Deception

18 Noise Jamming Advantages + Instantaneous application + Repeated applications + Degrades radar capabilities Disadvantages – Loss of surprise – Effects on friendly systems – Effectiveness measured by end game response The deliberate radiation, reradiation or reflection of electromagnetic energy

19 Electromagnetic Jamming...Often a battle of brute force

20 Electronic Attack Assets EC-130H F-16 CJ EA-6BDRONES

21 EC-130H Compass Call ROLE: Conducts information warfare using a computer-assisted and operator-controlled narrow band comm & data-link jammer system DESIGNED TO COUNTER: Air-to-air communication systems (A/A) Airborne-controlled intercept systems (ACI) Ground-controlled intercept systems (GCI) Command and control networks (C 2 )

22 F-16CJ Wild Weasel ROLE: Multi-role, single seat, all weather, air superiority fighter MISSIONS: Suppression of Enemy Air Defenses (SEAD) Destruction of Enemy Air Defenses (DEAD) Offensive-Counter Air (OCA) Defensive-Counter Air (DCA)

23 EA-6B Prowler MISSIONS: Electronic Support (ES) Electronic Attack (EA) Suppression of Enemy Air Defense (SEAD) ROLE: To support strike aircraft and ground troops by degrading enemy electronic activity and to obtain tactical electronic intelligence

24 Electronic Deception  The deliberate radiation, re-radiation, alteration, absorption, or reflection of electromagnetic energy in a manner to mislead an enemy in the interpretation or use of information received by his electronic systems Meaconing Chaff Flares A-10 Rudders B-2 Engines Stealth Technology

25 Chaff Thin strips of metal or metalized glass Reradiate the radar energy Cut to counter specific frequencies Purpose – Generate False Targets – Deny Radar Scan (Chaff Corridor) – Track breaking (against target trackers) In operational use since 1943

26 Flares Rapid burning dispensable Function – Decoy for IR missile Characteristics – Must have more IR energy in the missile’s FOV than the aircraft – Appropriate frequency coverage – Enough burn time SMALL FOV LARGE FOV

27 Drones Designed to saturate the enemy’s air defense systems Act as missile bait – Quail – Sampson – TALD Shooters?

28 OVERVIEW EW FUNDAMENTALS ELECTRONICATTACK INTEGRATION ELECTRONICPROTECT ELECTRONICSUPPORT

29 Electronic Protect Actions taken to protect personnel, facilities, and equipment from any effects of friendly or enemy employment of EW that degrade, neutralize, or destroy friendly combat capability.

30 EMCON Emissions control Selective and controlled use of EM, acoustic, or other emitters to optimize C2 capabilities while minimizing detection of enemy sensors Example: Turn off mapping radar... Turn off IFF? What sort of IW is EMCON? Defensive Counterinformation

31 EM Hardening Action taken to protect personnel, facilities, and/or equipment against undesirable effects of EM energy Methods – Filtering – Attenuating – Grounding – Shielding Hardening forms a solid barrier against unwanted EM energy

32 Frequency Deconfliction Joint Restricted Frequency List (JRFL) – Guarded Frequencies exploited by intelligence – Restricted Friendly frequencies which should not be jammed unless absolutely necessary – Taboo Friendly frequencies that must never be jammed – Who cares about the JRFL?

33 Other EP Techniques WARM Frequency Hopping Directional Antennas LPI Go off spectrum

34 EW FUNDAMENTALS ELECTRONICATTACK INTEGRATION ELECTRONICPROTECT ELECTRONICSUPPORT

35 Electronic Support Actions taken by, or under direct control of an operational commander to search for, identify, and locate sources of radiated electromagnetic energy for immediate threat recognition in support of EW and other tactical operations

36 ES provides a source of information required for immediate decisions involving electronic attack (EA), avoidance, targeting and other tactical employment of forces—particularly SEAD forces! ES assets and data can also be used to produce signals intelligence (SIGINT), communications intelligence (COMINT) and electronic intelligence (ELINT) Electronic Support

37 Electronic Support Assets U-2EP-3 RC-12RC-135

38 U-2S Dragon Lady ROLE: ES / SIGINT / IMINT support to theater commander, battlestaff & warfighters

39 EP-3 Aries ROLE & MISSION: Multi-INT scientific and technical collection of naval and littoral targets Fleet support SENSORS: ACINT COMINT ELINT LASINT IMINT: oblique camera, vertical camera, FLIR, & TOSS

40 RC-12 Guardrail US Army modified C-12 COMINT / ELINT collection program – Common sensor Tethered to a ground site Subordinate to army corps CC

41 RC-135 Rivet Joint ROLE: Collect, correlate, fuse, and disseminate tactical intelligence in near real-time to the warfighter DESIGNED TO: Conduct electronic warfare support Provide ELINT and COMINT Establish OB baselines Provide indications and warnings Provide limited BDA

42 AUTOMATIC SYSTEMS Computer driven Timeliness Data link Accuracy LOB’s Limited parametric data – RF, PRI, PW Process thousands of signals per mission – Hundreds of signals simultaneously

43 THE FUTURE - UAVs 5 UAVs UNDER DEVELOPMENT JOINT AIRBORNE SIGINT ARCHITECTURE (JASA)

44 EW FUNDAMENTALS ELECTRONICATTACK INTEGRATION ELECTRONICPROTECT ELECTRONICSUPPORT

45 SUPPRESSION OF ENEMY AIR DEFENSE (SEAD) neutralizes, destroys, or temporarily degrades enemy air defenses That activity which neutralizes, destroys, or temporarily degrades enemy air defenses in a specific area by physical attack, deception and/or electronic warfare

46 Goals of SEAD Isolate -- SAM or AAA operator from C2 Minimize --shrink associated weapon’s system engagement envelope (jamming and deception) Disable/Destroy -- the weapon system (ARMs, bombs, etc.) Bombs on Target -- allow the strike package to deliver ordnance on the JFACC’s targets.

47 Theater SEAD Campaign Integrates IW, IIW, and EW EA—HARMs, Jamming Acquisition radars, Deceiving Passive collectors, denying Comms ES--Use of Collectors to target IADS nodes (TCT) and provide warning to strikers/HVAA OPSEC to protect mission PSYOPS to reinforce desired behavior Information Attack: Deceive or Deny IADS IIW: IPB, fused real-time intel, assessment


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