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College of Aerospace Doctrine, Research, and Education

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1 College of Aerospace Doctrine, Research, and Education
IW 150 EW Notetaker College of Aerospace Doctrine, Research, and Education Electronic Warfare IW - 150

IW 150 EW Notetaker AFDD 2-5 INFORMATION SUPERIORITY INFORMATION OPERATIONS ISR Precision Nav & Position Other Info Collection/ Dissemination Activities PAO Weather INFORMATION-in-WARFARE exploit gain INFORMATION WARFARE DEFENSIVE COUNTERINFORMATION OFFENSIVE Counter- Intelligence Information Assurance OPSEC Propaganda Deception Electronic Protect CND PAO PSYOP Physical Attack Military Warfare CNA defend attack Here is the construct or framework for Information Operations. We are going to expose you to each of the elements throughout the week ahead. Successfully executed Information Operations achieve information superiority

IW 150 EW Notetaker Overview EW FUNDAMENTALS ELECTRONIC SUPPORT - Basics - Assets ELECTRONIC ATTACK - Basics - Assets ELECTRONIC PROTECT - Basics - Assets First we’ll introduce a few basics on electronic warfare and and the electromagnetic spectrum. EW is subdivided into 3 categories: Electronic Attack Electronic Protect Electronic Support Then we’ll show how effective all these can be when they are carefully integrated by examining the Israeli attack on the Beka’a Valley in June of 1982. INTEGRATION

4 IW 150 EW Notetaker Electronic Warfare AFDD 2-5.1 … any military action involving the use of electromagnetic and directed energy to control the electromagnetic spectrum or to attack an adversary. Note that according to the definition, EW is more than just a battle between “trons.” It includes using the EM spectrum as a weapon, the same as a bullet. Caution: EM weapons are starting to emerge into antipersonnel and antimateriel roles; we will see infantrymen using them—perhaps without due consideration to the whole IW fight unless we pay attention to the doctrine and its applications!

5 Why is Electronic Warfare a pillar of Information Warfare?
IW 150 EW Notetaker Why is Electronic Warfare a pillar of Information Warfare? INFORMATION FUNCTIONS ACROSS THE EM SPECTRUM! COMINT COMMS SIGINT Denial (OPSEC) Indications & Warning Deception Examples Laser Rangefinders Microwave Comms Radar Surveillance Electronic ID (IFF) Infrared Imagery EHF for Satellite Control Harnessing EM energy and the use of EM principles are the basis for the technologies that have made the information revolution possible. EM energy is the means by which modern information systems process, store, and TRANSMIT information. EM energy is also used for sensing, measuring, analyzing and communicating information. This dependence on EM energy and use of the EM spectrum by the systems that sense, process, store, measure, analyze, and communicate information create IO opportunities and vulnerabilities that EW can address. We use virtually the entire electromagnetic spectrum for communications and data transfer activities. LASER rangefinders, microwave communications, infrared imagery, RADAR tracking, EHF for satellite controls are all information functions that fall within the EM spectrum. And let’s not forget the most overlooked portion of EW--the visual spectrum. Our ability to dominate control of the spectrum directly affects how well we can protect our systems and affect those of our adversary.

6 IW Flights at Selected NAFs
IW 150 EW Notetaker IW Flights at Selected NAFs MISSION: Provide full OCI/DCI planning capability to the NAF Flight Chief / Deputy OPSEC Planner IA Planners Counterintelligence Analysts Planner Counterdeception Space Planner NOSC-Defense Planner (A6) OCI Officer DCI Officer Deception Planner PSYOP Planner EW Planner Special IO Planner SIGINT, ELINT, MASINT HUMINT Specialists Composed of multiple, functional experts Composition All functional IW areas represented (e.g. deception, PSYOPs, EW, OPSEC) OCI/DCI officers Organic Intelligence support NOSC-D Inserts from A6 staffs Locations 6 IWFs in CAF personnel assigned 26-29 Personnel

7 Electromagnetic Spectrum
IW 150 EW Notetaker Electromagnetic Spectrum The range of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation from zero to infinity The electromagnetic spectrum extends over a vast range of frequencies.

IW 150 EW Notetaker EM SPECTRUM T H z 3 3 K H z 3 M H z 3 M H z 3 M H z 3 G H z 3 G H z 3 G H z 3 T H z 3 T H z 3 T H z D C VISIBLE INFINITY RADIO WAVES ELECTRO-OPTICAL MM X-RAYS MICROWAVES INFRARED VIOLET ULTRA WAVES As you move along the spectrum, the behavior and usefulness of the frequency bands for specific applications changes. The long wavelengths of HF range allows us to bounce signals off the ionosphere. The extremely short wavelengths of the x-ray and gamma ray allow us to “see” into objects. GAMMA RAYS MF HF VHF UHF SHF EHF 1km 1m 1 mm 1 um .1 um .72 um .4 um WAVELENGTH

9 Frequency Bands LF LORAN C 100 kHz MF LORAN A 1750-1950 kHz
IW 150 EW Notetaker Frequency Bands LF LORAN C kHz MF LORAN A kHz AM RADIO kHz HF CITIZENS BAND MHz VHF TV (CH 2-6) MHz FM RADIO MHz VOR MHz VHF COMM MHz TV (CH 7-13) MHz UHF UHF COMM MHz TV (CH 14-83) MHz TACAN MHz The EM spectrum is fixed. Both you and the enemy must share the spectrum. If the enemy is using a portion of the spectrum that you want to deny him, you may want to check if you are using the same portion. The EM spectrum does not discriminate sides of a conflict. Just looking at a small section of the frequency band, you can see that we use all of it for many purposes. TRANSITION: So does the adversary...


11 IW 150 EW Notetaker Electronic Attack That division of electronic warfare involving the use of electromagnetic (EM), directed energy (DE) or anti-radiation weapons to attack personnel, facilities, or equipment with the intent of degrading, neutralizing, or destroying enemy combat capability - The term “ECM” is Dead! Notice the inclusion of directed energy and personnel. Directed energy weapons, such as LASERs are EM spectrum users. People are not excluded as targets. Using EM waves to affect the function of a person’s brain or bowels (you’ll see examples of this in emerging technologies) is EA. The brain is a sophisticated information function--this is also IW.

12 Anti-Radiation Munitions
IW 150 EW Notetaker Anti-Radiation Munitions Any munition using an enemy’s source of electromagnetic radiation as a primary means of terminal guidance for the purpose of damaging or destroying the source There are a number of ARMs out there. The High Speed Anti Radiation Missile (HARM) shown here is built by Texas Instruments and is the one currently on the F-16CJ and the EA-6B. Although highly capable, the warhead is relatively small and the damage done is usually only to the antenna. Getting a site operational after a HARM attack is usually only a matter of replacing the antenna.

13 ARM Effects? BEFORE AFTER SA-2 FAN SONG RADAR IW 150 EW Notetaker
This shows the effect a large weapon, perhaps an AGM-130 or even artillery, has on a SA-2, Fan Song RADAR. The HARM is not the only game in town. ALARM is the ECR Tornado’s radar homing missile. There are also artillery shells which can home in on electronic emissions. - should have turned it off - Iraq -- “Magnum” call had utility—bad guys turn off radars! SA-2 FAN SONG RADAR

14 IW 150 EW Notetaker Directed Energy Directed energy is an umbrella term for technologies relating to the production of a beam of concentrated EM energy or atomic or subatomic particles EXAMPLE: LASER: in this case a Navy DEW High Energy LASER Weapons System (HELWS). With ARMs, you are attacking an information system--the RADAR. With directed energy, you are back to the physical destruction scenario whereby not all DEW (Directed Energy Weapon) use is IW. It is target dependent. What is your target? This is also where trying to place things in neat little categories has some flaws. Few of today’s LASERs are powerful enough to be destructive. (Progress toward that end is moving along rapidly, however). But, many of todays directed energy does serve an information function. Because directed energy is placed on the destructive side of the house, we’ll deal with it.

15 LASERS Common on the battlefield Low power High power
IW 150 EW Notetaker LASERS Common on the battlefield Low power Dazzle / disorient personnel Degrade sensors / optics Objects with or near the source veiled High power Eye damage Destroy sensors / optics Damage / degrade guidance & seeker hardware At long ranges dazzle / disorient LASERs are extremely common on today’s battlefield. They are used for ranging and target designation. They are used for security (ie. LASER beam intrusion systems). Many of these are information functions. Eyeballs, a critical information function, are extremely sensitive to LASER light. [have someone read aloud the warning on the LASER pointer]. This pointer is a very low power model. Even low power systems can cause disorientation. Protection is available in the form of helmet visors and laser goggles. These are limited in that each one can only protect against a narrow frequency band. So there is no all-encompassing laser eye protection. Research is also being done to build in laser protection to the canopies of aircraft such as the F The US has said it will not use LASER intentionally as a blinding device, however, LASERs as antipersonnel weapons... “Such use would not cause unnecessary suffering when compared to other wounding mechanisms to which a soldier might be exposed on the modern battle field, and hence would not violate any international law obligation of the united states. Accordingly, the use of antipersonnel laser weapons is lawful.” 26 SEP 1988 JAG IAW DOD Instr But they can also be used to attack information systems such as light-sensitive sensors while remaining concealed.

16 NonDestructive EA Jamming Electromagnetic Deception
IW 150 EW Notetaker NonDestructive EA Jamming Electromagnetic Deception - The intent here is to dominate: to buy time so that other tasks, such as bombing the stew out of the bad guys, can be accomplished. Some methods and tools of this type of EA include: Jamming Electromagnetic Deception Drones

17 Noise Jamming Advantages Disadvantages
IW 150 EW Notetaker Noise Jamming The deliberate radiation, reradiation or reflection of electromagnetic energy Advantages Instantaneous application Repeated applications Degrades radar capabilities Disadvantages Loss of surprise Effects on friendly systems Effectiveness measured by end game response - Generally speaking instantaneous and flexible. Not expendable, so you don’t run out of it and it’s reuseable. And, depending on age/generation of the system and the skill of the RADAR operator, can be very effective in masking friendly forces. Important point, here. Remember good guys and bad guys share the same EM spectrum. Noise jamming does not discriminate friend or for. In general, if the adversary’s scope looks like this, a friendly scope on the same frequency will look the same way. Anything operating in the jammed frequency will be affected. There also is little feedback to the operator on his success. The jammer does not have the luxury of viewing the enemy’s scope to see how well he’s obscured the friendly forces. Usually effectiveness will be measured by the results of the engagement. It becomes difficult to measure the effectiveness of platforms like the EA-6B

18 Electromagnetic Jamming
IW 150 EW Notetaker Electromagnetic Jamming Here you can see the differences in the various types of scopes. The top shows a clear scope with a single target illuminated. The bottom show the same scope and single target with the protection of noise jamming. Jamming often becomes a battle of brute force. Aircraft jamming systems have limited power output. The ground systems typically have much greater power availability. At some point, the target becomes close enough to the RADAR and/or the output signal is made powerful enough that the reflected energy is greater than the incoming jamming. At that point, the target the jammer intended to mask begins to show on the scope in spite of the noise. This is ‘burn through.’ ...Often a battle of brute force

19 Electronic Attack Assets
IW 150 EW Notetaker Electronic Attack Assets EC-130H F-16 CJ EA-6B DRONES Note that every aircraft’s self-protection ECM pod or internal is considered “defensive EA”

20 EC-130H Compass Call ROLE:
IW 150 EW Notetaker EC-130H Compass Call ROLE: Conducts information warfare using a computer-assisted and operator-controlled narrow band comm & data-link jammer system DESIGNED TO COUNTER: Air-to-air communication systems (A/A) Airborne-controlled intercept systems (ACI) Ground-controlled intercept systems (GCI) Command and control networks (C2)

21 IW 150 EW Notetaker F-16CJ Wild Weasel ROLE: Multi-role, single seat, all weather, air superiority fighter MISSIONS: Suppression of Enemy Air Defenses (SEAD) Destruction of Enemy Air Defenses (DEAD) Offensive-Counter Air (OCA) Defensive-Counter Air (DCA) F-16 CJ may claim to do all those things… in fact, not a bad SEAD platform. However, DEAD it really has trouble with, and OCA/DCA is practically a pipe dream: these guys usually fly with MIG CAP over them. They are quite limited air-to-air—particularly before the big missiles leave!

22 EA-6B Prowler ROLE: To support strike aircraft and
IW 150 EW Notetaker EA-6B Prowler ROLE: To support strike aircraft and ground troops by degrading enemy electronic activity and to obtain tactical electronic intelligence MISSIONS: Electronic Support (ES) Electronic Attack (EA) Suppression of Enemy Air Defense (SEAD)

23 IW 150 EW Notetaker Electronic Deception The deliberate radiation, re-radiation, alteration, absorption, or reflection of electromagnetic energy in a manner to mislead an enemy in the interpretation or use of information received by his electronic systems Meaconing Chaff Flares A-10 Rudders B-2 Engines Stealth Technology Navigation systems--Meaconing--the practice of inserting a navigation beacon on the same frequency as a know navigation signal with the intention of causing users of the known signal to divert their course based on information from the bogus signal. Heat signature concealment-- The heat signature that “heat seeking” missiles use is actually infrared energy. Thus, the proper name for “heat seeking” is Infrared homing. Attempts to conceal the IR signature is evident by the placement of the rudders on the A-10 Thunderbolt, an aircraft whose mission places it in the prime tactical range of IR missiles. The B-2 worked this problem by burying the engines deep inside the fuselage, giving the exhaust time to cool before it is vented outside the aircraft.

24 Chaff Thin strips of metal or metalized glass
IW 150 EW Notetaker Chaff Thin strips of metal or metalized glass Reradiate the radar energy Cut to counter specific frequencies Purpose Generate False Targets Deny Radar Scan (Chaff Corridor) Track breaking (against target trackers) In operational use since 1943 We have a video that demonstrates this. Setup: B-52 on bombing range. RADAR locks on, chaff is dropped and RADAR tracks off BUFF and on to chaff. Operator reacquires aircraft and again, RADAR is thrown off by chaff. This sequence is shown twice so you can see it more clearly. AFTER VIDEO: As you can see, if you expose yourself long enough, you are going to get shwacked.

25 Flares Rapid burning dispensable Function Characteristics
IW 150 EW Notetaker Flares Rapid burning dispensable Function Decoy for IR missile Characteristics Must have more IR energy in the missile’s FOV than the aircraft Appropriate frequency coverage Enough burn time LARGE FOV Flares mimic the IR emissions of an aircraft. The intent is to divert the IR seeker on an IR missile from looking at the aircraft to locking on to the flare. To accomplish this, it is hoped that the missile will begin to follow the flare as it is ejected from the aircraft. This will work only if the flare has a very fast rise time (it become hot very quickly) and emits in the same IR frequency band as the aircraft. As the aircraft maneuvers away from the flare, it also begins to move out of the missile’s field of vision. Theoretically, by the time the missile realizes it has locked on to a flare, the aircraft has safely exited the missile’s field of vision, never to be acquired again. Modern IR missiles have larger FOVs and improved flare rejection capabilities, making this feat increasingly difficult. SMALL FOV

26 Drones Designed to saturate the enemy’s air defense systems
IW 150 EW Notetaker Drones Designed to saturate the enemy’s air defense systems Act as missile bait Quail Sampson TALD Shooters? - Quail: Same radar cross-section of the B-52; idea was to saturate the Russian IADS with numerous sitings of ingressing bombers. - Sampson: Israel used these drones to saturate Syrian IADS. After numerous Israeli losses to the SA-6 in the ‘70s, the drones were developed/used to deplete the Syrian SA-6s/SA-8s in more recent operations. - TALD (Tactical Air Launched Decoy): high success rate. S-3, F-18, A-7, EA-6 launched -11Th recon sqdrn at Nellis standing up and will increase our interoperability with unmanned aerial vehicles during exercises. These decoys are often equipped with tranmitters to mimic actual aircraft. These emitters can enlarge the drones RADAR cross section, replicate a RADAR system, and perform electronic protection like an actual aircraft...


28 IW 150 EW Notetaker Electronic Protect Actions taken to protect personnel, facilities, and equipment from any effects of friendly or enemy employment of EW that degrade, neutralize, or destroy friendly combat capability. Yes, there is some effective EA hardware out there, but we must also protect ourselves against their use--we aren’t the only folks with the cool toys...

29 EMCON Defensive Counterinformation Emissions control
IW 150 EW Notetaker EMCON Emissions control Selective and controlled use of EM, acoustic, or other emitters to optimize C2 capabilities while minimizing detection of enemy sensors Example: Turn off mapping radar... Turn off IFF? What sort of IW is EMCON? EMCON: Don’t give away the farm. If you aren’t using it, don’t broadcast. This can help prevent the adversary from getting a DF steer and also limits his ability to collect on you. Fence Check: Before aircraft cross the proverbial fence into hostile territory, perform a check to shut down extra emitters. Electromagnetic masking The controlled radiation of EM energy on friendly frequencies in a manner to protect the emissions of friendly communications and es systems against enemy ES/SIGINT, without degrading the operation of friendly systems??? I get the definition, but give me an example…more research needed. Defensive Counterinformation

30 Hardening forms a solid barrier against unwanted EM energy
IW 150 EW Notetaker EM Hardening Action taken to protect personnel, facilities, and/or equipment against undesirable effects of EM energy Methods Filtering Attenuating Grounding Shielding Hardening forms a solid barrier against unwanted EM energy Built in to the equipment, prevents electronic interference. Good ole SAC (may she rest in peace) was great at installing EMP hardened equipment in her aircraft. This would allow them to function in spite of severe EM pulse associated with nuclear blast.

31 Frequency Deconfliction
IW 150 EW Notetaker Frequency Deconfliction Joint Restricted Frequency List (JRFL) Guarded Frequencies exploited by intelligence Restricted Friendly frequencies which should not be jammed unless absolutely necessary Taboo Friendly frequencies that must never be jammed Who cares about the JRFL? Frequency deconfliction: Lessons derived from previous conflict showed that there is a requirement to prioritize the use and denial of the EM spectrum. The JRFL binds all players and provides a format to ensure that operations will not be hindered by other friendly operations. Compass call is fairly driven by the JRFL—a bad one makes them much less effective.

32 Other EP Techniques WARM Frequency Hopping Directional Antennas LPI
IW 150 EW Notetaker Other EP Techniques WARM Frequency Hopping Directional Antennas LPI Go off spectrum WARM: War Reserve Modes Directional antennas avoid hostile exploitation, are more private & less likely to be seen LPI=Low Probability of Intercept=better idea Going off spectrum could mean using visual signals between cockpits, using land lines instead of radios, or maybe laser comm links?


34 IW 150 EW Notetaker Electronic Support Actions taken by, or under direct control of an operational commander to search for, identify, and locate sources of radiated electromagnetic energy for immediate threat recognition in support of EW and other tactical operations - Electronic Support is there to provide the Operational Commander, and those others who need it, the information necessary to carry out the operational needs on a daily basis. - Electronic Support was vital during the Gulf campaign. It insured the battlefield commanders were kept up to date on Iraqi troop movements, and Iraqi offensive and defensive capabilities. - ES is still an on-going process during Operation Southern Watch, and Bosnian Civil War. - Unlike intelligence, ES deals closer with real time and near real time information. During a conflict, possibly the most important information observed and passed out is combat information. (Next slide)

35 IW 150 EW Notetaker Electronic Support ES provides a source of information required for immediate decisions involving electronic attack (EA), avoidance, targeting and other tactical employment of forces—particularly SEAD forces! ES assets and data can also be used to produce signals intelligence (SIGINT), communications intelligence (COMINT) and electronic intelligence (ELINT)

36 Electronic Support Assets
IW 150 EW Notetaker Electronic Support Assets U-2 EP-3 RC-12 RC-135

37 IW 150 EW Notetaker U-2S Dragon Lady ROLE: ES / SIGINT / IMINT support to theater commander, battlestaff & warfighters U-2’s provide SIGINT /ES / IMINT support to theater CC. There are no more TR-1’s in the inventory, they are all U-2’s. The bump on the back of the one above allows for NRT satellite links (SPAN). Without SPAN, the U-2 is “tethered” to a ground site within its line of site where the information is processed. With SPAN, it can data link information to processors anywhere in the world. U-2’s fly between 65,000’ to 73,000’ giving it a line-of-site of approximately 300nm. It flies on internal fuel only (no in-flight refueling) and is capable of flying for approximately 8 hours. The pilot flies a pre-canned flight plan and has no interaction with the ES equipment. All equipment manipulation (other than turning it on) occurs from the ground via data links.

38 EP-3 Aries ROLE & MISSION:
IW 150 EW Notetaker EP-3 Aries ROLE & MISSION: Multi-INT scientific and technical collection of naval and littoral targets Fleet support SENSORS: ACINT COMINT ELINT LASINT IMINT: oblique camera, vertical camera, FLIR, & TOSS

39 RC-12 Guardrail US Army modified C-12
IW 150 EW Notetaker RC-12 Guardrail US Army modified C-12 COMINT / ELINT collection program Common sensor Tethered to a ground site Subordinate to army corps CC Army’s version of the U-2 The ARMY’S GUARDRAIL common sensor is a platform that provides both ELINT and COMINT capability. The plane’s crew consists of 2 pilots only. All information is data linked to a ground site, much like the U-2. Guardrail does not have a satellite link capability so it is limited to line of site processing from the ground. The ground processing takes place in a large structure that is not easily moved. This could be a limitation if the FLOT moves rapidly Typically flies in 3 ship formations. The 3 aircraft are linked and provides instant lob information by combining information from all three aircraft. The GUARDRAIL is subordinate to the CORPS CC only. To task the GUARDRAIL for information, you must get permission from the CC. takes 5 C-5’s to put in a ground site

40 IW 150 EW Notetaker RC-135 Rivet Joint ROLE: Collect, correlate, fuse, and disseminate tactical intelligence in near real-time to the warfighter DESIGNED TO: Conduct electronic warfare support Provide ELINT and COMINT Establish OB baselines Provide indications and warnings Provide limited BDA

41 AUTOMATIC SYSTEMS Computer driven Timeliness Data link Accuracy LOB’s
IW 150 EW Notetaker AUTOMATIC SYSTEMS Computer driven Timeliness Data link Accuracy LOB’s Limited parametric data RF, PRI, PW Process thousands of signals per mission Hundreds of signals simultaneously - This is a generic look at an automatic system. Automatic systems are aboard the RIVET JOINT, COMBAT SENT, SENIOR SCOUT (if requested) EP-3 and U2 (with ELINT package). Generally speaking, automatic systems provide the following capabilities: - Automatic systems are primarily computer driven with some human interface. Most parameters are permission loaded on the ground via software. - The system can quickly, in a matter of a few seconds to a minute, identify and locate a ground system. - Once collected, the information is data linked to the users NRT via TADIL, MIBS or TIBS. - The system can quickly and accurately locate a system on the ground within a mile or less. - The system requires at least 2, but generally more lobs to get an accurate location. - One of an automatic systems biggest weakness when ID’ing a target is the fact it only looks at RF, PRI, and PW. It does not look at the scan time or scan type and it does not give the operator audio of the system. - Generally speaking, used correctly and weaknesses in ID’ing aside, the system is an outstanding tool in searching, ID’ing, and locating signals. It can literally processes hundreds of signals per hour and thousands of signals per mission.

IW 150 EW Notetaker THE FUTURE - UAVs 5 UAVs UNDER DEVELOPMENT JOINT AIRBORNE SIGINT ARCHITECTURE (JASA) Have the ability to loiter in hostile areas and perform ES by collecting/relaying data or actively jamming in support of a package without placing a friendly, warm pink body at risk.

IW 150 EW Notetaker EW FUNDAMENTALS ELECTRONIC SUPPORT ELECTRONIC ATTACK ELECTRONIC PROTECT The careful integration of ES, EA, EP can result in extremely effective EW. A prime example of this is Operation PEACE FOR GALILEE on 9 June 1982. INTEGRATION

IW 150 EW Notetaker SUPPRESSION OF ENEMY AIR DEFENSE (SEAD) That activity which neutralizes, destroys, or temporarily degrades enemy air defenses in a specific area by physical attack, deception and/or electronic warfare SEAD is exactly what it says: Suppression.

45 Goals of SEAD Isolate -- SAM or AAA operator from C2
IW 150 EW Notetaker Goals of SEAD Isolate -- SAM or AAA operator from C2 Minimize --shrink associated weapon’s system engagement envelope (jamming and deception) Disable/Destroy -- the weapon system (ARMs, bombs, etc.) Bombs on Target -- allow the strike package to deliver ordnance on the JFACC’s targets. Not necessarily destructive. Just get the enemy to hide in the sand while we accomplish our mission.

46 Theater SEAD Campaign Integrates IW, IIW, and EW
IW 150 EW Notetaker Theater SEAD Campaign Integrates IW, IIW, and EW EA—HARMs, Jamming Acquisition radars, Deceiving Passive collectors, denying Comms ES--Use of Collectors to target IADS nodes (TCT) and provide warning to strikers/HVAA OPSEC to protect mission PSYOPS to reinforce desired behavior Information Attack: Deceive or Deny IADS IIW: IPB, fused real-time intel, assessment SEAD uses all aspects of EW.

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