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An introduction to solar cells Hanne Lauritzen, Danish Technological Institute n What is a solar cell? n A brief description of the working principle n Applications n Grid-connected installations n Energy production n Wafer-based solar cells vs. thin film cells n Semitransparent panels

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A solar cell is a device that converts light energy to electrical energy

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+ -

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A solar cell is a device that converts light energy to electrical energy...

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Rules of thumb: 1 m 2 ~ 100 W p ~ 9 kWh/year Typical one-family house installation: 2-5 kW or 20 – 50 m 2 Pay-back time: 4 - 5 years for energy ca. 30 years for investment

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Large area South-facing No shadows Tilted

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How to evaluate the energy production? Depends on the local weather conditions, the orientation, the temperature, eventual shading ……. energy input energy output T = 25 O C 1000 W/m 2 to be measured Nominal power – energy output under standardized conditions,1000 W/m 2, 25 O C, AM 1.5 – Watt peak, W p Efficiency = Energy output / Energy input 1000 W/m 2 x area

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10 % 100 W p 10 % 50 W p 20 % 100 W p The nominal effect W p allows you to compare the energy output from various panels The efficiency allows you to compare the energy output per area - but how do we compare with other energy sources?

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How to compare with other energy sources? Price per kWh annual production, cost of installation, expected life time for installation local weather conditions, the orientation, the efficiency of the panel

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PRODUCT LIGHTENERGYPRODUCTIONPRICE åbningsgradper panelper areaper energyper area (%)(kWh/year)(kWh/year.m2)(DKK/Wp)(DKK/m2) MSKSi, amorf1030 550200 Si, amorf535 500200 Schott SolarSi, amorf102030300100 GSKSi, amorf20301535075 Würth Solar CIS104560200150 CIS403040300150 CIS502535350150 PhotoSolarSi, amorf195026250145 Gaia/IdealCombiSi, multi????? REF., ENERGYSi, multi0105 100 REF., LIGHTSi, multi495040250100

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Crystalline silicon solar cells made from wafers

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”The black diamond” Efficiency: 20 % Efficiency: 0 %

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energy input energy output T = 25 O C 1000 W/m 2 x area of cell 0,01 W Efficiency = Energy output / Energy input

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Efficiency of unit producing 0.01 W energy, input energy 1000 W/m 2 Area: 10 cm x 10 cm = 100 cm 2 Energy input: 1000 W/m 2 x 100 cm 2 = 0.1 W Efficiency: 0.1 W / 0.01 W = 10 % Area: 100cm 2 – 64 x 0.25 cm 2 = 84 cm 2 Energy input: 1000 W/m 2 x 84 cm 2 = 0.084 W Efficiency:0.01 W / 0.084 W = 12 % Efficiency of the unit Efficiency of the active area

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CIGS products from Würth Solar - uniform dark grey appearance

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Nnnnnnnnnnnnnn

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Great Cell - Australien

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www.orgionenergy.com.au/sliver

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PhotoVoltaic System Sizing © ARJ 2002. This is not a How-To presentation. It is a What and Why presentation.

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