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An introduction to solar cells Hanne Lauritzen, Danish Technological Institute n What is a solar cell? n A brief description of the working principle n.

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Presentation on theme: "An introduction to solar cells Hanne Lauritzen, Danish Technological Institute n What is a solar cell? n A brief description of the working principle n."— Presentation transcript:

1 An introduction to solar cells Hanne Lauritzen, Danish Technological Institute n What is a solar cell? n A brief description of the working principle n Applications n Grid-connected installations n Energy production n Wafer-based solar cells vs. thin film cells n Semitransparent panels

2 A solar cell is a device that converts light energy to electrical energy

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4 A solar cell is a device that converts light energy to electrical energy...

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6 Rules of thumb: 1 m 2 ~ 100 W p ~ 9 kWh/year Typical one-family house installation: 2-5 kW or 20 – 50 m 2 Pay-back time: 4 - 5 years for energy ca. 30 years for investment

7 Large area South-facing No shadows Tilted

8 How to evaluate the energy production? Depends on the local weather conditions, the orientation, the temperature, eventual shading ……. energy input energy output T = 25 O C 1000 W/m 2 to be measured Nominal power – energy output under standardized conditions,1000 W/m 2, 25 O C, AM 1.5 – Watt peak, W p Efficiency = Energy output / Energy input 1000 W/m 2 x area

9 10 % 100 W p 10 % 50 W p 20 % 100 W p The nominal effect W p allows you to compare the energy output from various panels The efficiency allows you to compare the energy output per area - but how do we compare with other energy sources?

10 How to compare with other energy sources? Price per kWh annual production, cost of installation, expected life time for installation local weather conditions, the orientation, the efficiency of the panel

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13 PRODUCT LIGHTENERGYPRODUCTIONPRICE åbningsgradper panelper areaper energyper area (%)(kWh/year)(kWh/year.m2)(DKK/Wp)(DKK/m2) MSKSi, amorf1030 550200 Si, amorf535 500200 Schott SolarSi, amorf102030300100 GSKSi, amorf20301535075 Würth Solar CIS104560200150 CIS403040300150 CIS502535350150 PhotoSolarSi, amorf195026250145 Gaia/IdealCombiSi, multi????? REF., ENERGYSi, multi0105 100 REF., LIGHTSi, multi495040250100

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15 Crystalline silicon solar cells made from wafers

16 ”The black diamond” Efficiency: 20 % Efficiency: 0 %

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19 energy input energy output T = 25 O C 1000 W/m 2 x area of cell 0,01 W Efficiency = Energy output / Energy input

20 Efficiency of unit producing 0.01 W energy, input energy 1000 W/m 2 Area: 10 cm x 10 cm = 100 cm 2 Energy input: 1000 W/m 2 x 100 cm 2 = 0.1 W Efficiency: 0.1 W / 0.01 W = 10 % Area: 100cm 2 – 64 x 0.25 cm 2 = 84 cm 2 Energy input: 1000 W/m 2 x 84 cm 2 = 0.084 W Efficiency:0.01 W / 0.084 W = 12 % Efficiency of the unit Efficiency of the active area

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22 CIGS products from Würth Solar - uniform dark grey appearance

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26 Nnnnnnnnnnnnnn

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29 Great Cell - Australien

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32 www.orgionenergy.com.au/sliver

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