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Titrations An Introduction

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Have a cookie… Remember my delicious cookie recipe: 1 cup flour + 24 choc. chips 3 cookies

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How many chips do you have? You know how many chips, without counting them because you know how many chips in each cookie! 2 cookies * 24 choc. chips = 16 choc chips 3 cookies

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Titrations This is the purpose of a titration: determining the thing you cant see based on the thing you know. Usually, chemical titrations involve relating the reactants to each other rather than relating the reactants to the product (as we just did)

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Back to the Cookies If I used 8 cups of flour to make these cookies, how many chocolate chips did I have? 8 cups flour * 24 choc. chips = 192 chips 1 cup flour Youre sure? Of course you are! Even though we didnt count the chips

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Titrations Its all about the moles, folks! (Isnt it always…) Suppose I have a solution of waste water and I need to know how much Compound A (like chocolate chips only toxic! ) is in it. How would you do it? Find something that reacts with Compound A in a known chemical reaction: A + 2 B C This is a recipe, it gives an exact ratio between the moles of A and B. So if I know how much B I add to the sample to get it to all react, then I know how much A was there when I started!

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Known vs. Unknown A + 2 B C Well, if I add B to the sample, what will happen? If I add B to the sample, it should form C but only if… …I have A

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A + 2 B C B A So, I start with 5 As in my beaker and then add B to it. What happens?

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A + 2 B C B A After I add 2 Bs, I get one C…

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A + 2 B C B A After I add 4 Bs, I get two Cs…

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A + 2 B C B A After I add 6 Bs, I get 3 Cs…

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A + 2 B C B A After I add 8 Bs, I get 4 Cs…

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Watching A: B A After I add 10 Bs, I get 5 Cs…

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A + 2 B C B A After I add 1,000,000 Bs, I get 5 Cs. As soon as I ran out of A, the amount of B becomes irrelevant! I cant make C without both A and B!

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Completion of the Reaction A + 2 B C So, if I think A is there, I can add known amounts of B. If I form C, then there was A there. If I gradually add more known amounts of B until I stop forming C, then Ill know how much A was originally there. How much?

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Equivalence Point A + 2 B C I stop making C when Moles of B added = 2x moles of A original there! This is called the equivalence point!

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Titrations ALL titrations work the same way: You have an unknown amount of one compound (call it A). You have a known amount of a different compound (call it B). You know a chemical reaction that occurs between A and B. Add B until no more reaction occurs. The amount of A is stoichiometrically equivalent to B!

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The tough part: How do I know the reaction has stopped? 1. I get no new C. 2. I have no A left. 3. I have extra B left over.

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Watch A: B A 5 A

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Watch A: B A 4 A

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Watch A: B A 3 A

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Watch A: B A 2 A

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Watch A: B A 1 A

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Watch A: B A 0 A! Im DONE!

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Or you could watch B

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Watch B: B A 0 B

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Watch B: B A 0 B

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Watch B: B A 0 B

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Watch B: B A 0 B

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Watch B: B A 0 B

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Watch B: B A 0 B

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Watch B: B A 1 B! There it is! Im DONE!

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Or you could watch C

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Watch C: B A 0 C

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Watch C: B A 1 C

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Watch C: B A 2 C

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Watch C: B A 3 C

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Watch C: B A 4 C

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Watch C: B A 5 C

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Watch C: B A Still 5 C! Im DONE!

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A and B are easier to watch… …its more obvious if there is none vs. some.

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Acid/Base Titrations How does this work for an acid/base titration? What is the first thing we need to know? EXACTLY! The Chemical Reaction

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Acid-base Reaction In an acid/base titration, the generic reaction is: H + + OH - H 2 O H 3 O + + OH - 2 H 2 O An acid is a proton donor (H + ) A base is a proton acceptor, is it always an OH - ? Does it matter?

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H + + OH - H 2 O As I make water, by adding OH - to H + (or H + to OH - ), the pH changes. How do I know that Im done adding…? When I reach equivalence (Im done), the pH should be… 7 (for strong acids/bases)

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Indicators of the endpoint You can use a pH meter to monitor pH. You can use chemical indicators to monitor pH. Some dyes change color when the pH changes. If you add a little bit of one of these dyes that changes color around pH = 7, then it will change color when you reach equivalence.

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Watch B: pH is low

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Watch B: B A pH is getting higher

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Watch B: B A pH is even higher

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Watch B: B A pH is even higher

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Watch B: B A pH is near 7

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Watch B: B A pH is 7

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Watch B: B A pH is over 7

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pH vs. mL Base added pH mL OH- added 7

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An example of titration. I have a mL sample of an acid of unknown concentration. After addition of mL of a M NaOH solution, equivalence was reached. What was the concentration of acid in the original wastewater sample? Where do I start?

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Chemical Reaction: H + + OH - H 2 O At equivalence…? Moles of H + = Moles of OH - added

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An example of titration. I have a mL sample of an acid of unknown concentration. After addition of mL of a M NaOH solution, equivalence was reached. What was the concentration of acid in the original wastewater sample? What do I need to determine? Moles of OH - added! How do I figure that out? Molarity combined with volume!

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The solution mL NaOH 1 L = L NaOH added 1000 mL M NaOH = moles NaOH 1 L solution moles NaOH * L = 1.308x10 -3 moles NaOH 1 L solution What does that number tell us? How many moles of H + were originally there! 1.308x10 -3 moles NaOH added = 1.308x10 -3 moles H + in original sample

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An example of titration. I have a mL sample of an acid of unknown concentration. After addition of mL of a M NaOH solution, equivalence was reached. What was the concentration of acid in the original wastewater sample? 1.308x10 -3 moles H + in original sample Am I done? Not quite. We need the concentration of acid: How do I calculate that? Molarity = moles/L

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An example of titration. I have a mL sample of an acid of unknown concentration. After addition of mL of a M NaOH solution, equivalence was reached. What was the concentration of acid in the original wastewater sample? 1.308x10 -3 moles H + in original sample = M L original sample

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Basically the end… You can actually summarize this in an algebraic relationship…but IGNORE ME NOW if you understand the way we just did it.

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Equivalence Point If you have a reaction: i A A + i B B products One way of stating the molar relationship in the titration is: i B M A V A = i A M B V B Where M = molarity and V = volume and i = stoichiometric coefficient

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i B M A V A = i A M B V B This really just summarizes the calculation we did in multiply steps last time: M A *V A = moles A * moles B = moles B moles A moles B = M B *V B M A *V A * moles B = M B *V B moles A

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A little example A mL sample of waste water is titrated to its phenolphthalein endpoint by addition of mL of M NaOH. What is the pH of the original waste water sample? NaOH = Na + + OH - [OH-]=[NaOH] H + + OH - = H 2 O 1*36.32 mL * M = 1*10.00 mL * X M X = M

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pH = - log [H + ] Does the [H+] = [acid]? What if its a polyprotic acid? M of what? Of [H + ] – we reacted the waste water with OH -, all we know is the equivalent amount of H + - which is all we need to know to get the pH We dont actually know what the acid (or acidS) were or what their concentrations are, we just know the H +. But thats OK, the H + is the active part of the acid!

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pH = - log [H + ] pH = - log ( M) pH = 0.56

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Another Little Problem Titration of mL of a sulfuric acid solution of unknown concentration required mL of M NaOH to reach equivalence. What is the concentration of the sulfuric acid? What do you need to notice about this problem? Sulfuric Acid (H 2 SO 4 ) is a diprotic acid.

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If it helps… …write the balanced equation (a chemist would). H 2 SO 4 (aq) + 2 NaOH (aq) Na 2 SO 4 (aq) + 2 H 2 O (l)

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Stoichiometry ALWAYS Matters 1*43.57 mL* M = 2*25.00 mL * X M X = M H 2 SO 4 If you wanted to calculate the pH…? You need to again consider stoichiometry: each H 2 SO 4 gives 2 protons

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2 [H 2 SO 4 ] = [H+] 2* M = M H + pH = - log (0.3408) = 0.47

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Acid-base Reaction Acid + Base H 2 O + salt HA + MB H-B + MA An acid is a proton donor (H + ) A base is any proton acceptor – whered the OH - come from?

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Acid-base Reaction It could come from the base: HCl + NaOH H 2 O + NaCl But, not all bases have an OH: HCl + NH 3 ??? NH 3 + H 2 O = NH 4 OH HCl + NH 4 OH H 2 O + NH 4 Cl You can always generate OH - in water, because water can always act as an acid.

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A little bitty problem… A mL sample of waste water is titrated to its phenolphthalein endpoint by addition of mL of M NaOH. What is the pH of the original waste water sample? (This is just another way to phrase the question.)

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Solution A mL sample of waste water is titrated to its phenolphthalein endpoint by addition of mL of M NaOH. What is the pH of the original waste water sample? mL * M = mL * X M X = M

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pH = - log [H + ] Does the [H+] = [acid]? What if its a polyprotic acid? M of what? Of [H + ] – we reacted the waste water with OH -, all we know is the equivalent amount of H + - which is all we need to know to get the pH

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pH = - log [H + ] pH = - log ( M) pH = 0.56

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Another Little Problem Titration of mL of an unknown sulfuric acid solution required mL of M NaOH to reach equivalence. What is the concentration of the sulfuric acid? What do you need to notice about this problem? Sulfuric Acid (H 2 SO 4 ) is a diprotic acid.

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If it helps… …write the balanced equation (a chemist would). H 2 SO 4 (aq) + 2 NaOH (aq) Na 2 SO 4 (aq) + 2 H 2 O (l) This is sometimes written as a net ionic equation: H + (aq) + OH - (aq) H 2 O (l)

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Stoichiometry ALWAYS Matters 1*43.57 mL* M = 2*25.00 mL * X M X = M H 2 SO 4 If you wanted to calculate the pH…? You need to again consider stoichiometry: each H 2 SO 4 gives 2 protons

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2 [H 2 SO 4 ] = [H+] 2* M = M H + pH = - log (0.3408) = 0.47

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An example of titration. I have a mL sample of a wastewater. After addition of mL of a M NaOH solution, equivalence was reached. What was the concentration of acid in the original wastewater sample?

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The solution (13.62 mL) (0.096 M) = (25.00 mL) (X M) Is this correct? Units! Units! Units! M = moles/L If I want moles, I need to have Volume in L. But, since the only different is 10 -3, if I have V=mL, then I have mmoles (10 -3 moles) on each side.

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The solution (13.62 mL) (0.096 M) = (25.00 mL) (M 2 ) mmoles = mL (M 2 ) M 2 = M

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Titration problem A mL sample of wastewater of unknown pH is titrated with a standardized M NaOH solution. It takes mL of the NaOH to reach equivalence. What is the pH of the original wastewater sample?

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M NaOH V NaOH = M H+ V H+ ( M) (16.92 mL) = M H+ (25.00 mL) M H+ = M pH = - log [H+] = - log ( ) pH = 1.16

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Another little problem A mL sample of wastewater of unknown pH is titrated with a standardized M H 2 SO 4 solution. It takes mL of the sulfuric acid to reach equivalence. What is the pH of the original wastewater sample?

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2 OH- + H 2 SO 4 = 2 H 2 O + SO 4 2- i base M H2SO4 V H2SO4 = i H2SO4 M OH- V OH- (2)( M) (16.92 mL) = (1) M OH- (25.00 mL) M OH- = M pOH = - log [0.136] = 0.86 pH = 14 – 0.86 = 13.14

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Weak acids The pH of an acid/base titration at equivalence is not always 7. (I lied, I admit it!) Its only 7 if it is a strong acid and a strong base. What does strong mean in this context?

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