Presentation on theme: "The shift to learning outcomes The EQF defines learning outcomes as statements of what a learner knows, understands and is able to do on completion of."— Presentation transcript:
The shift to learning outcomes The EQF defines learning outcomes as statements of what a learner knows, understands and is able to do on completion of a learning process (European Commission, 2006). The EQF definition of learning outcomes was arrived after extensive research and discussion. It is a definition agreed between the governments and social partners participating in Education and training 2010. Nevertheless, given the wide variety of systems and contexts covered by the Cedefop study,this definition was further simplified to allow the term maximum applicability. Therefore, the following definition was adopted for the study: Learning outcomes are statements of what a learner knows, understands and is able to do after completion of learning in the field of his work.
Learning outcomes – Opening up towards active learning? On the one hand traditional (behaviourist and cognitive) approaches assume that: learning is basically a steady accumulation of discrete entities of knowledge and skills that can be presented to learners; there is one best way of learning; learning is essentially an individual activity; learning that is non transparent or tacit is inferior; learning centres on the stable and enduring – facts and proven evidence; learning is replicable.
On the other hand, active learning (constructivist) approaches see learning as a selective process in which people give their own meaning to information, continuously interacting with their various environments. Thus: people build up their own meanings, based on what they already know and how they see the world around them; different people give different interpretations to the same thing, may retain different aspects and may act differently based on the same information; there are many ways through which people can learn without someone else passing on pieces of expert knowledge; learning is a social activity and much learning is tacit (Lave and Wenger, 1991; Wenger, 1999; Schön, 1983); learning is dynamic and context–bound and, therefore, good learning depends on meaningful learning environments (Kolb, 1984).
To place this comparative table in an international framework intrinsically based on learning outcomes encompassing all forms of learning, they have chosen the Unesco four pillars of learning. These are: learning to know, learning to do, learning to live
Learning outcomes; drivers for change? Learning outcomes and assessment Learning outcomes and lifelong learning Learning outcomes and stakeholders The crucial role of social partners The role of teachers and trainers The role and interests of learners