Presentation on theme: "Masculinities Week 10 Gender and Society. Recap Considered different strands of feminist thinking Looked at social structures such as media, work and."— Presentation transcript:
Recap Considered different strands of feminist thinking Looked at social structures such as media, work and education Considered different strands of feminist theory
Masculinities Theorising masculinities Education Crime Alternative masculinities?
Study of Masculinities Study of masculinities arose after feminism began to theorise affect of gender on women’s lives Earlier feminist work implied that masculinity could be as restrictive for men as femininity is for women, but little detailed investigation Masculinity is understood as socially constructed and culturally specific
‘Hegemonic masculinity’ Bob Connell outlined hegemonic masculinity Dominant over women and subordinate masculinities Not a fixed category but a cultural ideal type An image that sustains male power –Whiteness, heterosexuality, authority and physical toughness
Education Masculinities constructed through hierarchal organisation of schools Success/failure written into construction Different typologies of masculinities –Aggressive, macho sporting culture –Academic success –Delinquency
Education Epstein argues that –Up to GCSE macho version of masculinity in ascendancy –Sixth form rational intellectual takes over
Compulsory heterosexuality School masculinities are predominantly heterosexual –Non-conformity can lead to homophobic insults Taking school work seriously –But also conformity at some aspects can legitimate homosexuality/reduce racism Being good at sports
Education To what extent do you recognise these ideal types of masculinity in education?
Failing Boys Widespread concern about academic under achievement by boys Girls academic success is now understood as a social problem But working-class boys have never achieved academic sucess
Learning to Labour Willis (1977) classic study of working-class boys School rejected as class resistance Education based on middle-class values Valorisation of manual work
Transition to Adulthood School failure is not new for boys- but no longer have manual jobs to go into The transition to adult masculinity is traditionally associated with move from school to work Youth unemployment threatens masculine identity
Being in control The need for control supported by hegemonic masculinity –Control can shift to areas other than work Technology (cars) Public space People (‘lesser’ men and women) This control can be asserted through crime
Masculinity and youth crime Crime is predominately a male issue 80% of crimes are committed by men 40% indictable crime is carried out by under 21s
Masculinity and crime To what extent do you think the values of hegemonic masculinity are supported through crime?
Choosing masculinity Young men used to grow up to be ‘breadwinners’ and rarely had a choice over identity Alternative forms of masculinity are now popularised –New man –Gay consumer –Metrosexual
New masculinities? To what extend do you think that alternative forms of masculinity are challenging the more macho images?
Masculinity in Crisis? Feminism has often been portrayed as the enemy of masculinity –Male unemployment/criminality a result of women’s ‘unreasonable behaviour’ Rise in acceptance of ‘laddish’ behaviour –New magazines glorifying sexism –“Win a boob job for your girlfriend" Zoo magazine
Summary Considered the role that hegemonic masculinity plays in policing men and women Looked at education and crime Considered the rise of alternative forms of masculinity