Presentation on theme: "Working Together to Safeguard and Protect Children"— Presentation transcript:
1Working Together to Safeguard and Protect Children Delivered by BSCB Training Team 12th and 13th June 2014Check fire arrangements before startingIntroduction of trainersMention guest speakers coming later
2Welcome and housekeeping FireToiletsMobile phones and tabletsRefreshments/lunch ordersTimetableLearning ObjectivesExplain them to the participantsAt CLC lunches need to be ordered at the morning break.Timetable: range of trainers – no boredom!
3Training Aim:To provide participants who work with children and their families with an opportunity to learn in a multi-agency environment about the key principles of safeguarding and protecting children.Briefly cover the overall aim and say that multi-agency working is the key to protecting children.Advantages of different perspectives leads to the full picture and best outcomes for children.
4Objectives:To be able to contribute to and promote children’s welfare e.g. through assessment, planning, participation in core groups, planning groups, conferences and decision making.To acquire sound understanding of processes for effective working together.To be able to communicate and develop working relationships in the interests of children.Be aware of some of the key changes that are taking placeBriefly go through the programme.We will be taking them through:BackgroundInfo sharingLevels of concernReferral processPolice roleCase ConferenceCore groupsAlso themes of communication, challenge and cooperationIn order to achieve the objectives we need to establish a learning agreement- Next slide
5Learning AgreementConfidentiality: What is shared in the room stays in the room (few exceptions)Knowledge: We all have different experiences thus different knowledge, (No such thing as a silly question)Responsibility: You have a role to play in training. You will get out what you put inDisagreement: it is OK not to agree, but listen and respect others point of viewTime keeping: Start on time, finish on timeNetworking: Talk to new peopleAny Others?Look after yourselfThe purpose of all BSCB training is to improve safeguarding practice, thereby improving outcomes for children.Encourage them to use the opportunity to networkMention the participants pack. Some material is sent after the course. The bookmarks are just a trigger to remind you of some of the messages from SCRs.The slides they were sent may not be identical to the ones shown as they have been edited for brevity.We are all experts in our own role.It’s Ok not to know things about others’ roles or things you may not have come across before. Please ask.
6Introductions Please introduce yourself Your name Your organisation and your roleOne thing that gives you satisfaction at workWhat your main hope is from attending the trainingYou will need to keep introductions brief due to time restraints
7Roles and responsibilities of key professionals in the safeguarding processes Quiz is in their packs.Mix them into multi-agency groups and ask them to answer the questions – not to worry if they don’t know the answers.Once they are done, go through each question taking their answers and clarifying.
8Thresholds Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Universal Vulnerable ComplexAcuteAll children within Blackpool and who are routinely in receipt of community services. Assumes backdrop of universal Education and Health serviceDisadvantaged children who would benefit from extra help - to make the best life chances. Services operating at a preventative level.Children whose vulnerability is such that they are unlikely to reach or maintain a satisfactory level of health or development.Children at risk of significant harm / or has suffered abuse and for whom there is continued risk.This is the new thresholds diagram – copy in pack.Use it to explain that the term ‘safeguarding’ covers all levels of concern..We will be coming back to this for an exercise after lunch.Now going to set the scene.
9Blackpool Safeguarding Children Board Objectives:To coordinate what is done by each person or body represented on the Board for the purposes of safeguardingand promoting the welfare of children in the area of the authority by which it is established;To ensure the effectiveness of what is done by each such person or body for those purposes;Sect 13 Children Act 2004Does anyone know what a LSCB does?Formed after Children Act 2004, replaced ACPCsMulti-agency fundingMulti-agency membership at strategic levelPolicy and procedures – sometimes shared with other LAs e.g. Pan Lancashire procedures.TrainingChild deaths/SCRs/Case reviewsAudits of practice –core group as exampleHold agencies to account for their contribution to safeguarding workThe focus is on children most at risk of serious harm’
10The legal context for Safeguarding Children Children Act 1989Framework for Assessment 2000Education Act 2002Children Act 2004Safeguarding Vulnerable Groups Act 2006Working Together to Safeguard Children (Guidance)Blackpool Child Protection ProceduresChildren Act 1989 – legal structure (e.g. care orders/Residence orderAssessment frameworkEd act – responsibility of schools to provide safe school environmentCA 2004 – From ECM agenda after VC enquiry (Laming)Described how agencies should work togetherSet up LSCBsChildren’s Commissioner Dr Maggie AtkinsonShe represents views of C and YP. Recent report on school exclusions.Vul groups Act (vetting and barring) amended by protection of freedoms act 2012.
11The Children Act 1989The Act started from the principle that the responsibility for raising children rests with families, and for most children their interests are best served by enabling them to grow up with that family.Local Authorities have a duty to safeguard and promote the welfare of the childThe Local Authority has a duty to protect children fromabuse or harm within the familyAgencies are required to work together for theprotection and well-being of children (s.27)Term Sect 47 enquiry comes from this actAlso ‘significant harm’.
12A period of changeThis is on the back page of the handout. Do you recognise them?Victoria ClimbieEvery Child MattersChildren Act 2004Lauren Wright DOD 6th May 2000 aged 6Safeguarding Children in EducationEducation Act 2002Similar to Daniel Pelka – was attending schoolHolly Wells and Jessica Chapman(Soham, Ian Huntley)Bichard reportSafeguarding Vulnerable Groups Act 2006Safer recruitment/managing allegations/LADO (more later)Peter ConnellyLaming’s review Protection of children in EnglandMunro review of CPNow going to look at some of them and some of the theme that emerged from their cases.
13Victoria Climbié Died aged 8 in Feb 2000 Physical, emotional, sexual abuse & neglectGreat Aunt & Partner were found guilty ofmurder and sentenced to life imprisonmentin 2001Victoria moved countries & areas, hadcontact with many different agenciesHaringay CSC Dept took Victoria off CPRegister on the day she diedLaming identified 12 key occasions whenservices could have successfully intervened108 recommendations for agencies and multi-agency workThemes:MiscommunicationInfo sharingStaff ill prepared, little experience, poor supervision.Some assumptions made about African families
14Peter ConnellyHad a broken back, cracked ribs, numerous cuts and bruisesNot safeguarded despite the fact that he had been put on the Child Protection Register and had 60 contacts with health and social work professionals and police over eight months
15Peter Connelly Mother’s cooperation with professionals and appointments, positive response to offers of help,and her own frequent initiations of contact, led to ahigh level of trust in her.Need for:Constant vigilanceOpen and inquisitive approach, regardless of any assumptions from previous assessmentsResistant or manipulative families is a common theme.Disguised complianceDisguised resistanceDaniel Pelka’s mother managed to convince practitioners that she was a caring mother.
16‘Thinking the unthinkable’ ‘Adults who deliberately exploit thevulnerability of children can behave indevious and menacing ways. They will oftengo to great lengths to hide their activitiesfrom those concerned for the wellbeing ofthe child’.‘Child Protection cases do not always comelabelled as such’.Lord LamingJimmy Savile is a good example.
17Daniel Pelka‘…the practitioners involved were not prepared to ‘think the unthinkable’ and tried to rationalise that the evidence in front of them did not relate to abuse.’ ‘If practitioners were not prepared to accept that abuse existed for Daniel, then they would not see it.’Theme; be open to the unthinkable. Do not take things at face value.Colour in room exercise
18Lord Laming report into the death of Peter Connelly (2009) Keeping the child at the centre of your workEngaging in effective training and supervision (one to one)No need for further legislative changePractitioners to understand their roles and responsibilitiesChildren and young people get support as early as possibleShare information, assess risk and make decisions effectively togetherTheme: Focus on the childChild at the centre – theme of Working Together 2103 and Munro’s reviewThe law is Ok as it standsLarge enquiries are useful for learning but we also learn from SCRs undertaken by LSCBs.When are they carried out?
19Serious Case Reviews (SCRs)- a key driver for child protection practice Carried out when abuse & neglect are known or suspected factors when a child dies (or is seriously injured or harmed) & there are lessons to be learnt about interagency working to protect childrenThe most recent analysis is New Learning from Serious Case Reviews 2012
20Serious Case Reviews (SCR) SCRs and other case reviews should be conducted in a way which:Recognises the complex circumstances in which professionals work together to safeguard children;Seeks to understand precisely who did what and the underlying reasons that led individuals and organisations to act as they did;Seeks to understand practice from the viewpoint of the individuals and organisations involved at the time rather than using hindsight;Is transparent about the way data is collected and analysed; andMakes use of relevant research and case evidence to inform the findings.This is from Working Together 2013At this stage reiterate the Health Warning as there might be people in the group that were involved in the original cases or the Serious case reviewsThis Slide explains what Serious case reviews are.Systems analysis as proposed by Eileen Munro looks at contributing factors:CaseloadsSupervisionExperience of practitionersInformation sharing processes e.g. Daniel Pelka DA notifications came through very late.
21Serious Case Reviews - Local These are managed by BSCB Case Review Sub Group Child ‘B’ age almost 13 (at time of incident) Sexual messages - SCR completed 2008Implications in respect of children and young people who display sexually harmful behaviour. Potential ‘child on child’ abuse needs greater emphasis in training.Child ‘F’ a baby who died whilst in the care of a family member; the cause of death was established as overlayThere were a number of missed opportunities for agencies to work together and share informationAll agencies must ensure that assessments, monitoring and support include fathers as routine.Please refer to SCR PAN LANCASHIRE NEWSLETTER in your handout pack
22Daniel Pelka Opportunities to protect must be taken Domestic abuse should be understoodSole reliance on parents explanations may leave children at riskDirect engagement with the child is essentialPatterns of behaviour rather than incidentsRecord keeping (reports/key actions) is central to practiceFacial injuries – view with concern and in context of other informationThese are the lessons learned from Daniel’s SCR and also the next slide.The mother was believed when she said her relationship was over, so risks of DA were not addressed.Few people spoke directly to Daniel about his experiences. First language Polish. Sister used to interpret.School had no formal system for recording concerns and didn’t know about the domestic abuse at home.Injuries were viewed as accidental
23Daniel Pelka Systems in place to ensure collation of concerns Total reliance on medical evidence alone can leave children at riskThink the unthinkable – consider child abuse as a causeBalance optimism with evidenceDo not assume others have acted – check it outMedical view was inconclusive regarding his broken arm, which led to false sense of it being an accidental injury.SCR in Lancashire. Baby taken to GP with bruising to hand. Abuse not considered.
24Things we need to learn from national analysis Serious Case ReviewsThings we need to learn from national analysisSerious Case Reviews are not about apportioning blame but learning from them!SCRs in England and Wales are analysed every 2 years and the analysis brings up themes - family situationsdisabled childrenPrevalence of neglectFilicide suicideToxic trio (86% had one or more/22% had all 3)Young mothersResistant parentsCommon examples of where practice could be better- not attending to a child’s emotional development - Lack of focus on childEmotional toll on practitionersProfessional judgement is complex.Importance of challenge and reflective supervision.
25SCRs and children with disabilities Support needs to be tailored to the needs of the childCloser links between the safeguarding workers andworkers specialising in working with children with disabilitiesSpecific training for safeguarding children with disabilitiesRobust safeguarding training for organisations specialisingin working with children with disabilitiesClear communication (with child and family and betweenagencies)New Learning from Serious Case Reviews, 2012Go through the points on this slide highlighting the facts that there are many additional difficulties when safeguarding and protecting children with disabilities and it does take a lot of additional planning to make sure you have the processes in place to support the additional needs e.g. communicationNew learning from SCRs said that a lower level of care was sometimes accepted for disabled children.e.g. A disabled child with severe eczema having their hands strapped to a chair to stop them scratchingA disabled child being locked in a bedroom for ‘safety’ reasons.Parents seen as saints. Their needs met first e.g. a disabled child being kept in nappies instead of being toilet trained as it was easier for the parents to change nappiesMultiple carersInstitutionsInjuries/behaviour put down to the disabilitye.g. development delayAggression, bruising, failure to thrive.
26Final Report of the Munro Review Key points:The child's journeyOne assessment processEarly interventionGreater freedom to develop own approachesStrengthen supervision, recognise pressures and dilemmasSCR Systems methodologyStrengthen LSCBsProfessor Eileen Munro was asked to look into CP systems by the Govt.Her finding fit with many of the common themes.New WT is less prescriptive.Emotional toll. Workers should be able to talk about their difficulties and complex cases.
27Working Together 2013 Child centered and a focus on outcomes Statutory guidance on the function of Local Safeguarding Children Boards and how agencies should work together to safeguard childrenChild centered and a focus on outcomesOne assessment processLearning and Improvement FrameworkNew guidance on the conduct of SCRsChild death reviewsHow are your interventions impacting on the child?No timescalesSystemic approach to SCRs
28Some of the worst failures of the system have occurred when professionals have lost sight of the child…’Keep the child in focusIf there is one message that you take away from these two days it should be this one.Refer to the BSCB document: ‘What have we learned about working with neglect?’Point 1: Keeping the child at the centre of your work is key.
33Aims and ObjectivesTo further develop a better understanding of common language, which includes the concept of ‘a team around the child’ (integrated working).To improve the common understanding of the different professional responsibilities within the Common Assessment Framework.To enhance the importance of sharing information. This information might be specific only to you or your agency and thus vital to the completion of the ‘jigsaw’.
34Activity:What are the significant key indicators and events for your agency?Is your level of concern high, medium or low?What further information would you require to meet the needs of the child and family?
35Jigsaw Health Police Extended family Voluntary Agencies Children’s ServicesEducation
36“…it is only when information from a range of sources is put together that a child can be seen to be in need or at risk of harm.”
37Information sharing Why do we hold back from sharing information? Data protection?Breach of confidence?Is the information correct ?
38Information sharingRecognising the uncertainty many of you have about sharing information, particularly outside your own setting, the first cross government guidance on this subject has been published, Information Sharing: Practitioner’s Guide 2006Most of the government reports, legislation local findings from Serious Case Reviews highlight that Sharing information is a failing.There is also a guide for managersintegratedworking/a /information-sharing
39What happens if information is not shared? Victoria ClimbiéIan HuntleyLauren WrightGary GlitterJimmy SavileDaniel PelkaWe will briefly go through cases where things have gone wrong
40Significant HarmThe Children Act 1989 uses the concept of significant harm to justify the compulsory intervention in family life in the best interests of the children.The local authority is under a duty to make enquiries where it has reasonable cause to suspect a child is suffering significant harm.BEFORE going onto next slide, start to talk about how many people had significant information that could have led to a better outcome for Victoria Climbie. All these people had some information and gathering what everyone knew might have resulted in a higher level of concern for her. (then click onto the next slide)
41All these people had information that could have been a piece of the jigsaw that lead to the saving of Victoria’s Life, highlight a few (copy of this slide in the pack)Substitute Victoria’s name with Peter Connelly or Daniel Pelka and you would have the same sort of spider graph, the same would be for local childrenTaxi Driver had significant information no one asked him/her.If you know you have information share it. If you know someone else might have information pass their details onto the investigating officers (social workers, police, case worker etc.)Spend a bit of time dwelling on this slide
42‘Data Protection Disaster’ Police chief admits Huntley errorThe Chief Constable of Humberside has told the Bichard Inquiry he was ‘wrong’ to claim Ian Huntley’s police record was deleted because of the Data Protection ActHumberside police did not share with Cambridgeshire police four accusations of rape against Huntley, and one of indecent assault on an 11year old girl, because of data protectionPolice now have integrated systems for info sharing – so it can be shared across borders
43Lauren WrightLauren was starved and physically abused for months and eventually diedThis abuse was in full view of various professionals (including doctors and school staff)Moved from Hertfordshire were she was on the Child Protection Register, to Norfolk, but Norfolk SSD not told of her arrival in their areaAs a result of the failings in this case section 175 of the Education Act 2002 was implemented, clearly defining the responsibilities of all professionals to safeguard childrenThis is a particularly important case as Lauren was in full view of the professionals and she was in education but they missed the key indicators and did not share information.Sleepy village in Norfolk. Mother told school she was under paediatric review.Stepmother was the perpetrator.There are similarities in the Daniel Pelka case.The Education Act which resulted from Lauren’s case says that schools have a responsibility to inform social care re removals out if child subject to a CP plan.Also a designated person in each school to coordinate safeguarding in the school.
44International arrangements A campaign led by NSPCC has resulted in a government crackdown which restricts the movement of sex offenders overseas and allows the authorities to remove their passports.Under the MAPPA arrangement convicted sex offenders (such as Gary Glitter) are required to sign the sex offenders register and remain under supervision for the rest of their lives, including notifying police if they leave the area for more than a few days. This information will need to shared to reduce the abuse of children both here and overseas.Do not need to dwell long but just to say international arrangements for working with sex offenders overseas is improving (still can be a lot of obstacles though)
45Sharing InformationKnowing when and how to share information is not always easy – but it is important get it right “the data protection act is not a barrier to sharing information, but is in place to ensure that personal information is shared appropriately. This guidance is welcome as it sets out a framework to help practitioners share information both professionally and lawfully” Richard Thomas, Information CommissionerMany people use many things as a barrier to sharing information (e.g. relationships, Data Protection Act, Human Rights Act, self preservation etc [you might want to ask for a few examples])You often know you should share information – Share it no excusesYou sometimes know you should not share information – Don’t share it but record it and the reasons whyAll other areas seek advice – from senior colleagues, solicitors, duty social worker (get second opinion if you are unsure with the answer)
46How and when do we share information? This is only a brief section it is important that they look in the booklet (sharing information guidance ) and are aware of their agency procedures and protocolsYou will probably be asked some probing questions in this section so please prepare yourself and think of the questions you might be askedYou should be able to ask most of the questions by understanding the booklet
47Confidential information is: Personal information of a private or sensitivenature; andInformation that is not already lawfully in the public domain or readily available from another public source; andInformation that has been shared in circumstances where the person giving the information could reasonably expect that it would not be shared with others.Information Sharing: Guidance for practitioners and managers 2009:p15
48Consent why information needs to be shared Consent must be ‘informed’. The person giving consent should understand:why information needs to be sharedwho will see their informationthe purpose to which their information will be putthe implications of sharing that informationHM Government (2006) What To Do If You’re Worried A Child Is Being Abused. Department for Education and Skills, London. Appendix 3
49Consent Consent can be: explicit – obtaining explicit consent is good practice; can be expressed orally or, preferably, in writingimplicit e.g., when a patient agrees to a GP making a referral to a specialist, the patient is also agreeing to the sharing of information with that specialist. (also a Common Assessment)Get your head around this Nigel uses example of his son medical problem (arthritis) given implicit consent from medical staff to share info about this condition, but not for anything else, they would need my consent to share information to others (except CP issues)Think of your own example if you wantIf it is explicit consent always get it written if possible prior to the sharing or even after e.g. you got consent on the phoneRECORD ALL YOUR REASONS FOR SHARING OR NOTHM Government (2006) What To Do If You’re Worried A Child Is Being Abused. Department for Education and Skills, London. Appendix 3
50Seven key questions about information sharing 1 Is there a clear and legitimate purpose for sharing information?Does the information enable the person to be identified?Is the information confidential?If so, do you have consent?Guide the participants through the Info sharing book dwelling on these seven questions to help you decide whether to share information or notIf you look in the info sharing guidance it gives detailed answers to each of these questions starting on page 14Why are you wanting to share?..Verbally refer back to confidential slideVerbally refer back to consent slidesInformation Sharing: Guidance for practitioners and managers 2009:p12
51Seven key questions about information sharing 2 5. If consent is refused, is there sufficient public interest to share the information?6. Are you sharing the information correctly and securely?7. Have you properly recorded your information sharing decision?This includes is it a child protection concernThink about who is receiving or can see a fax, are you sending it to the correct person (is there more than one Nigel Smith in your organisations?) have you asked for clarification who is on the other side of the phone? Think of an illustration of where it went wrongVital you record your decisions in as much detail as possible children families might want to know why you have shared the information, courts might ask for a reason if it is written at time more likely to be correct, if any thing goes wrong you have evidence. If you have asked for advice don’t accept it if you think it could be wrong, seek second advice, even if it is your boss or a solicitor we all get it wrong at times, recently happened in health where wrong info was given and this led to significant negative outcome for a childInformation Sharing: Guidance for practitioners and managers 2009:p12
52You could… contribute a vital piece of the jigsaw to prevent the death of a childbe the first link in the chain to offer support to a family in crisisGuidance in Pan Lancs procedures
54Safeguarding Levels of concern Show the new eligibility doc.Thresholds for intervention are always an issue. Working out how concerned to be is not always easy.
55What is Safeguarding?Safeguarding and promoting the welfare of children is defined as:protecting children from maltreatment;preventing impairment of children's health or development;ensuring that children grow up in circumstances consistent with the provision of safe and effective care;Andtaking action to enable all children to have the best outcomes.Working Together to Safeguard Children 2013Not just child protection
56Every Child Matters Outcomes These aspects of safeguarding contribute to the five outcomes:Stay safeBe HealthyEnjoy and achieveMake a positive contributionAchieve economic well beingWhen we look at a child’s needs, it is helpful to think about the 5 outcomes.
57MaltreatmentA person may abuse or neglect a child by inflicting harm or failing to act to prevent harmChildren and young people may be abused in a family or an institutional or community setting by those known to them or, more rarely by a strangerSettings – disabled children more vulnerableMore carers
58Significant HarmThere is no absolute criteria for identifying significant harm. It is necessary to consider:The nature of the harmThe impact on the child’s developmentThe child’s development within the context of their family and wider environment.From Children Act 1989Level 4Section 47
59Significant Harm Harm is defined in the Children Act 1989 as: Ill treatment (including sexual abuse and physical abuse)Impairment of health(physical or mental) or development as compared to that of a similar childHarm now includes the impairment of a child’s health or development as a result of witnessing the ill treatment of another person(Adoption and Children Act 2002)You may wish to talk about some of the family situations that lead to harmDomestic abuseMental ill healthSubstance useLearning difficultyYoung mothersIncreasing numbers subject to CP plan for emotional abuse due to Domestic abuse
60Significant Harm - 2Any special needs such as a medical condition, communication impairment or disability that may affect the child’s development and care within the familyThe capacity of the parents to adequately meet the child’s needsThe wider environmental contextThe child’s reactions, wishes, feelings according to age and understanding.Last 3 points from the Assessment framework triangle
61Children in NeedChildren whose vulnerability is such that they are unlikely to reach or maintain a satisfactory level of health or development orThat their health or development will be significantly impaired, without the provision of servicesSection 17Preventative end
62Thresholds Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Universal Vulnerable ComplexAcuteAll children within Blackpool and who are routinely in receipt of community services. Assumes backdrop of universal Education and Health serviceDisadvantaged children who would benefit from extra help - to make the best life chances. Services operating at a preventative level.Children whose vulnerability is such that they are unlikely to reach or maintain a satisfactory level of health or development.Children at risk of significant harm / or has suffered abuse and for whom there is continued risk.This is the new thresholds diagram.Go through it briefly.
63Groupwork Activity For each case scenario, decide if the child is: in needin need of safeguardingneitherWhy have you decided this?What do you think should happen next?In same groups look at scenarios and decide the levelTrainers go through them at end and explain the level.Input on private fostering.Tell them that it is not acceptable in any circumstances to take photographs of school children’s injuries to send in with referrals. If the injury is concerning enough to warrant a referral, then it will be assessed medically by an appropriate doctor.
64Children’s Services new front door More on this from Kath McTavish later
65Remember Recording Recommendation 12 Frontline staff in each of the agencies which regularlycome into contact with families with children must ensure that in each new contact, basic information about the child is recorded. This must include the child’s name, address, age, the name of the child’s primary carer, the child’s GP and the name of their school if they are school age. Gaps in this information should be passed on to the relevant authority in accordance with local arrangements.The Victoria Climbie Inquiry 2003If time, flip chart why do we record?ObservationsChild’s voice (words/demeanour/behaviour)EvidenceMonitor changeCollate info to see a patternInfo sharingClarityDecision making explainedWork done/planned6 Dean Park Road and 16 Park Road.- 2 addresses that sound the same – check it out.VC’s name was misspelledDaniel Pelka’s injuries were not recorded in a way that information could be collated and a pattern seen.from LADO to LADO: ‘I am leaving Salford to carry out the investigation’Consider:Who will read itCould someone else understand itJargon (fit for discharge)Is it clear?
66Blackpool Children, Adult and Family Services FROM REFERRAL TO CHILD PROTECTION
67Restructure of the Service May 2011 Still have 3 localities.Teams are:Duty & Assessment 1 & 2South 1& 2North 1&2Central 1&2 CatalystAwaken
68Thresholds for referrals to Social Services Child in Need (Section 17, Children Act 1989)Child Protection (Section 47, Children Act 1989)See revised Blackpool Child Protection procedureson line‘Thresholds’ now often referred to as ‘Eligibility forIntervention’
69Section 17, Children Act 1989 Child in Need: Unlikely to achieve a reasonable standard of health and development without the provision of additional services by the Local AuthorityHealth or development likely to be impaired without servicesDisabled
70Duty of every Local Authority: To safeguard and promote the welfare of children within their area who are in needSo far as is consistent with that duty, to promote the upbringing of such children by their familiesBy providing a range of services
71REFERRALS and Parental Consent Section 17 Honesty and transparencyMembers of public (only) have right to confidentialityThe assessment will address your concernsOngoing work will require consentMust seek consent before making a referral71
72Parental consent (cont) You do not need to seek consent if there is evidence to suggest risk to the child which may result in further harm, OR –To do so may prejudice a potential criminal investigation (physical abuse, sexual abuse or criminal neglect)
73What if consent is refused Section 17 Continue to support and monitor under the CAFRefer if concerns suggest possible significant harmDiscuss way forward with the locality Duty Social Worker and your own supervisorRequest joint visit with the locality teamClimbie enquiry highlighted the importance of the above
74Section 47, Children Act 1989Duty to investigate possible significant harm (see online procedures)Possibly in conjunction with the PoliceDecision to undertake a section 47 investigation taken at a strategy meeting/discussionOutcomesMay lead to Child Protection Conference
75CONTINUED State what kind of referral it is Be specific about current concernsDistinguish between fact and hearsayUse bullet pointsRecord carefully any disclosure but do notquestion the childExplain action taken to date in relation to the CAF process
77What to do when the CAF is completed Child in Need referral: Post or fax to Football Stadium, Seasider’s wayChild Protection referral: Telephone then follow up in writing using the CAFIf unsure telephone Duty Social Worker for advice
78CAF FORM Give as much detail as possible about household members (who has PR?)Dates of birth are essential if availableIf referring more than one child please fill ina form for each of themThe CAF is the only mechanism for referralThe CAF form must be completed78
79Response sheet Allocated – section 47 Allocated – Initial Assessment Awaiting allocationReferred direct to…Family sent details of relevant support servicesNo action, but information would be loggedRecommendation that the referrer undertakes a CAF
80Initial assessment:Gathers information about a child’s development needsParents’ capacity to meet these needsFamily and environmental factorsInformation analysedDecision made as to action neededContributing to an AssessmentYou may be asked for information about the family, including personal/sensitive data
81Analysis of information gathered Recommendations:Services required, e.g. Children’s Centre, housing or benefits assistance – a child and young persons plan is drawn up identifying actionsEmergency accommodation requiredBegin a Section 47 inquiry if is felt that the child may be at risk of significant harm.Direct to other agenciesNo further action
82Core Assessment In depth assessment Is the means by which a section 47 investigation is completedMay incorporate specialist informationNormally completed in 35 daysIs triggered by a section 47 enquiry
83Ongoing Work with Families Care proceedingsChild becomes ‘looked after’ LACStrategy meetingConvene a Child Protection ConferenceFamily support Section 17 basisReferral to other agencies
84And Finally – Child Protection in Blackpool Referrals – 2819 for one year(from 01/04/ /03/2012)Blackpool has one of the highest rates of referrals in the countryChildren LAC 434 in March 2012316 Children subject to CP Plans in March 2012
85CONTINUEDAssessments – 2075 Initial Assessments (over 95% of all referrals lead to IA)1700 Core Assessments(All figures for one complete year from 01/04/ /03/2012)
86Referral FormsLink on the BSCB website for the referral forms and where to send them to.m/chapters/p_referral_social_care.htmlThese can be found in the section/link ‘how to make a referral’
88Police Role in Child Protection Detective InspectorNick Connaughton
89Public Protection Unit (PPU) Child Protection TeamDomestic Abuse TeamChild Sexual Exploitation Team (Awaken)Missing PersonsRape Team (Op Aquamarine)Teams are co-located with Children’s Social Care counterparts at Blackpool Football Club
90Child Protection Team Sexual abuse Physical abuse Neglect INVESTIGATESexual abusePhysical abuseNeglectWHERE THERE ISA family relationshipA carer relationshipA position of trust relationshipBETWEEN THE VICTIM AND THE OFFENDERAT THE TIME OF THE OFFENCEALL SEXUAL ABUSE TOWARDS CHILDREN IS NOW INVESTIGATED BY PPU TEAMS
91Referral ProcessStrategy discussion Joint decision Joint investigation Interview with child PPO/EPOTargeted servicesFamily backgroundAssessmentsFamily CourtLiaison with other agenciesKey WorkerCore GroupPoliceMedical/forensic evidenceArrest/interview offenderCharge/RIC/BailBail pending further enquiriesCourtConviction/acquittalTelling parents (Neil Esseen)I think the steer from us at the centre is very much that as a general rule, the parents should be informed UNLESS this increases the risk to the child / other vulnerable people. This will necessarily be done on a case by case basis and may well require some contact between the two agencies prior to the parents being told but this should not be too long and will have to rely a great deal on professional judgement / personal relationships and understanding of each other's role. I do not envisage this causing any significant delay in the informing of the parents - conversations can happily be done on the phone - and should ensure that the interests of all parties are safeguarded. If it was decided that any disclosure to parents would increase the risk to the child, I would suggest this indicates urgent action is required anyway.What is important is that any reasons for disclosure / non disclosure are properly recorded and can be defended at a later date. Hope this makes sense - default position of telling the parents, subject to professional judgement around levels of risk, with all decisions properly recorded - and starts to defuse the tensions
92ExamplesMother of three young children gone missing with them whilst intoxicated. Home conditions amongst the worst seen – all found and mother subsequently convicted of child neglect x3 Father of 3-month old baby convicted of child neglect following the baby being found deceased after co-sleeping with the parents Couple sent to prison for neglect for keeping their son in what amounted to a cell at night
93Examples continuedTeacher sent to prison for abuse of position of trust by engaging in sexual activity with at least one of her pupils Man sent to prison for 39 months assaulting one month old baby left in his care by the mother (his partner). Baby suffered fractures to legs and other bruising.
94Physical abuseMay involve hitting, shaking, throwing, poisoning, burning or scalding, drowning, suffocating or otherwise causing physical harm to a child Physical harm may also be caused when a parent or carer fabricates or induces illness, or deliberately causes ill health to a child in their care
95Medical ExaminationWhy are they necessary? To ensure a child’s condition is medically assessed and treatment given as appropriate To reassure the child as to their well being To obtain an assessment about possible indicators of abuse To ensure that any injuries or signs of neglect are noted for evidential purposes To secure forensic evidence
96Medical ConsentForensic medical examination only carried out with consent of child – if capacity to give Or with consent of parent/carer with parental responsibility If refuse consider Child Assessment Order/EPO
97Who is managed through MAPPA? Category 1 - Registered Sexual Offenders Category 2 - Violent Offenders (and other sexual offenders) Category 3 - Other Dangerous Offenders
99Allegations of abuse against professionals Procedures for dealing with allegations should be followed where it has been alleged that a member of staff has:behaved in a way that has harmed a child, or may have harmed a child;possibly committed a criminal offence against or related to a child;behaved towards a child or children in a way that indicates s/he is unsuitable to work with children.(Safeguarding Children & Safer Recruitment in Education – 2007)
100How safe are you when working and socialising with new technologies? E-safetyHow safe are you when working and socialising with new technologies?
101LADO contact detailsContact details are published on website Amanda Quirke is the Local Authority Designated Officer for BSCB. Tel: (01253)
102Child AbuseIdentification of child abuse is almost always arrived at through the piecing together of a number of factors. Therefore abuse can not be identified by ticking a check list.‘Some of the worst failures of the system have occurred when professionals have lost sight of the child…’Working Together 2006
103Working Together to Safeguard Children provides a framework for all professionals to protect children and promote their welfare. Keeping children safe and promoting their wellbeing is clearly a responsibility for us all ……….. Lord Laming 2009