Presentation on theme: "WASH Cluster – Water in Emergencies W W91 Water in Emergencies Session 9 Water Facilities & Good Practices."— Presentation transcript:
WASH Cluster – Water in Emergencies W W91 Water in Emergencies Session 9 Water Facilities & Good Practices
WASH Cluster – Water in Emergencies W W92 Exercise - Meeting the Needs of the Users 1.List the different facilities connected to water provision in an emergency which the beneficiaries will use directly? 2.Select two or three types of facilities and identify the key design features which you think the users would identify as important?
WASH Cluster – Water in Emergencies W W93 Water Facilities Design features from the users’ perspective: –Acceptable level of service – water quantity, queuing time, distance –Accessible – to people with different levels of mobility, safe –Culturally appropriate – level of privacy, availability of water for anal cleansing –No protection risk – siting, distance, lighting –Hygienic – good drainage, regular cleaning
WASH Cluster – Water in Emergencies W W94 Best Practices for: Drainage Tapstands Handwashing facilities Accessibility for people with disabilities Bathing units Clothes and cooking pots washing Cholera treatment centres
WASH Cluster – Water in Emergencies W W95 Designing to Meet the Needs of the User Involve the different groups of users in design facilities: –Siting / safety / protection ? –Privacy ? –Accessibility ? –Cultural acceptability ? –Water for anal cleansing ? –Dealing with menstruation ?
WASH Cluster – Water in Emergencies W W96 Designing to Meet the needs of the User Early stages - ad hoc questions to women and men and children if possible After the immediate situation is stabilised - more discussions, small focus groups, household visits –Consider gender, age and ethnicity for FGDs Work with communities together with - hygiene promotion staff –What staff are available to talk to different groups
WASH Cluster – Water in Emergencies W W97 Drainage ? REDR
WASH Cluster – Water in Emergencies W W98 Water-Points & Drainage of Wastewater Burmese refugee camp in Bangladesh Gary Campbell Refugee camp, Zaire S House / WEDC
WASH Cluster – Water in Emergencies W W99 Water-Points & Drainage of Wastewater Nepal, IDP camp for flood affected population S House / OXFAM-GB Soak-pit IDP camp, northern Uganda (to be covered) S House / MSF-OCBA
WASH Cluster – Water in Emergencies W W910 Soakpits Davies & Lambert (1995) Engineering in Emergencies, REDR & ITDG Not essential to cover soak pits Uncovered soakpits - can become flooded with heavy rains if poor infiltration Covered soakpits - easier for pipe / entrance to become blocked Large soakpit constructed under the platform, Pakistan earthquake response S House / OXFAM--GB The simpler the better High O&M Not always possible – clayey soil
WASH Cluster – Water in Emergencies W W911 Using Wastewater for Other Purposes Wastewater can be collected for other uses: –Animal watering –Collection by bucket for use on small vegetable gardens –Feed directly into a small garden Each needs appropriate management Cattle trough constructed for wastewater on a community water point, Zimbabwe S House / ACF
WASH Cluster – Water in Emergencies W W912 Package GS Tapstand OXFAM equipment manuals
WASH Cluster – Water in Emergencies W W913 Hand-Washing Facilities IFRC REDR If water supply for hand-washing is not constant: Who will fill the water containers? What will be the mechanism? How will it be sustained?
WASH Cluster – Water in Emergencies W W914 Soap R.Scott, / WEDC At least 250g of soap available for personal hygiene per person per month WASH Cluster Hygiene Project
WASH Cluster – Water in Emergencies W W915 Hand-Washing Facilities Inter-agency manual on excreta disposal in emergencies, 2007
WASH Cluster – Water in Emergencies W W916 Hand-Washing Hand-washing drum standing on soak pit near exit to latrine / bathing block, NWFP, Pakistan Hand-washing stand in a school in Tajikistan (drainage from stand could be improved) S House / OXFAM-GB
WASH Cluster – Water in Emergencies W W917 Accessibility to Water in Emergencies Ask disabled people, their carers and others with limited mobility including the aged Are there improvements which could improve ease of access? Work with hygiene promotion and health facility staff to reach people who may have limited mobility Not all people are standard sizes or have the same mobility All photos / drawings - WEDC
WASH Cluster – Water in Emergencies W W918 Accessibility to Water in Emergencies Example of improvements: Add handrails, improve difficult paths Add slopes to access facilities Add washable seats in bathing units Provide smaller / adapted water containers
WASH Cluster – Water in Emergencies W W919 Bathing Shelters Drainage problem from a bathing shelter, northern Uganda User improved surface inside bathing shelter, IDP camp, northern Uganda S House / MSF-OCBA
WASH Cluster – Water in Emergencies W W920 Bathing Units & Privacy for Menstruation Discuss with users - particularly women & adolescent girls: What are their needs? Where should bathing units be located? Type of doors, locks? Needs for dealing with menstruation hygiene? Separate male / female facilities What is culturally appropriate? Will users feel secure when using?
WASH Cluster – Water in Emergencies W W921 Bathing Units Hygiene Privacy Dignity Safety WASH Cluster Hygiene Project
WASH Cluster – Water in Emergencies W W922 Pakistan earthquake response, OXFAM-GB
WASH Cluster – Water in Emergencies W W923 Bathing Units & Privacy for Dealing with Menstruation Screened units for toilets and bathing – Pakistan earthquake response Trial menstrual cloth washing units – located inside latrine / bathing blocks (these were used in one camp, not used in another) S House / OXFAM-GB
WASH Cluster – Water in Emergencies W W924 Clothes & Cooking Pot Washing S House / WEDCS House / OXFAM-GB Clothes washing slab, refugee camp, Zaire Clothes / pot washing slab, IDP camp, Pakistan
WASH Cluster – Water in Emergencies W W925 Cooking Pot Washing Area - Grease Trap Davies & Lambert (1995) Engineering in Emergencies, REDR & ITDG
WASH Cluster – Water in Emergencies W W926 Cholera Treatment Centres – Chlorinated Water for Cleaning Cleaning implements, foot bath & easy to clean surfaces in latrine and cholera ward F Polo / UNICEF MSF-B
WASH Cluster – Water in Emergencies W W927 CTCs – chlorinated water for bathing, clothes washing, hygiene F Polo / UNICEF Active chlorine Use 0.02% Hand-washing Bathing 0.2% Floors, objects, beds Clothes, footbaths 2% Vomit, faeces Dead bodies S House / UNICEF F Polo / UNICEF
WASH Cluster – Water in Emergencies W W928 Designing facilities to meet the needs of the (different groups of) users Discuss with the beneficiaries their needs - ask for feedback - modify where appropriate
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