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WASH Cluster – Water in Emergencies W W11C1 Water in Emergencies Session 11C Context Specific Scenarios (3 of 4) Cold Climates.

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Presentation on theme: "WASH Cluster – Water in Emergencies W W11C1 Water in Emergencies Session 11C Context Specific Scenarios (3 of 4) Cold Climates."— Presentation transcript:

1 WASH Cluster – Water in Emergencies W W11C1 Water in Emergencies Session 11C Context Specific Scenarios (3 of 4) Cold Climates

2 WASH Cluster – Water in Emergencies W W11C2 Challenges in Cold Climates Exercise: What are the particular challenges that can be faced in the provision of water for emergencies in cold climates? Tajikistan S House / OXFAM-GB

3 WASH Cluster – Water in Emergencies W W11C3 Challenges for Water Provision in Cold Climates Logistics Access for users - slipping risks Problems with queuing time – hypothermia, respiratory infections Need for hot water for bathing Freezing water – tanks & pipes Increased snow loads Malfunctioning mechanical pumps Water quality may change Treatment processes need modification Concrete curing Welfare of staff Tajikistan S House / OXFAM-GB

4 WASH Cluster – Water in Emergencies W W11C4 Water & Cold Temperatures Water density decreases when frozen & volumes expand Viscosity increases – reduces settling speeds Water to ice can excerpt pressures up to 2,500 kg/cm 2 (25km high) New snow is a relatively good thermal insulator compares with more compacted snow

5 WASH Cluster – Water in Emergencies W W11C5 Supplying Water in Mountainous Areas Northern Iraq (Kurdistan) 1991: Airdrops of water on plastic pallets – up to 95% broken on impact Water in storage tanks by helicopter – cost approx USD 3.50 / litre Stockpiling useful for hard to access areas Snow can be used as a temporary water source

6 WASH Cluster – Water in Emergencies W W11C6 Insulated Water Tanks Design to reduce heat loss: Larger tanks Round tanks Straight sides vs corrugated – less surface area Insulate base, valves, sides Strong roofs – snow loads Buttle, M, Smith, M & Shaw, R (no date) ‘Emergency water supply in cold regions’, Waterlines Technical Brief, No 62

7 WASH Cluster – Water in Emergencies W W11C7 Preventing Freezing Pipes & Fittings Buttle, M & Smith, M (1999) ‘Out in the Cold, Emergency Water Supply and Sanitation for Cold Regions’, WEDC Water freezing in pipes & fittings can cause them to burst Continuous flow preferable Drain intermittent supplies in- between use Bury pipes deeper than frost penetration Insulate pipes – with lagging or ‘insulating concrete’ MDPE still ductile at very low temperatures (- 60 o C), PVC is more brittle Insulate tapstands, place near to users ‘Tap box’ for insulation

8 WASH Cluster – Water in Emergencies W W11C8 Mechanical Equipment & Construction Mechanical equipment: Use correct grade engine oil for the temperature Use diesel suitable for cold climates Anti-freeze in cooling system Keep pumps indoors Construction: Use local knowledge Keep concrete warm while curing Add anti-freeze chemicals to the concrete, but care with selection for reinforced concrete Careful of constructing on frozen ground – may weaken when thawed Design for snow loads

9 WASH Cluster – Water in Emergencies W W11C9 Water Quality & Treatment Salts & impurities concentrated in non frozen parts of lakes Protozoan cysts, Giardia & Cryptosporidium, can be capable of living in cold environments Boiling – increase by one minute for each 1,000m above sea level Chlorination – increase retention time x for every 6 o C drop in temp (below 20 o C)

10 WASH Cluster – Water in Emergencies W W11C10 Hot Water for Bathing in Cold Climates Additional challenge in cold climates Pakistan earthquake – particular challenge of hot water for bathing The main challenges: –The availability and continuity of fuel / power – wood, gas, electricity –Providing culturally acceptable facilities for women who previously lived in seclusion

11 WASH Cluster – Water in Emergencies W W11C11 Hot Water for Bathing in Cold Climates ‘Put & take’ water heater Ref: Buttle & Smith (1999) ‘Out in the Cold’, WEDC

12 WASH Cluster – Water in Emergencies W W11C12 Hot Water Heater, Abbatobad, NWFP, Pakistan Hot water heater for supply to bathing units - Havelian camp, Abbatobad, NWFP, Pakistan Construction arranged by the local government Thought to have functioned well but problems of fuel availability meant they were not used much Fuel was improvised by using clothes, wooden boxes, etc Photo: S House / OXFAM-GB

13 WASH Cluster – Water in Emergencies W W11C13 Bathing Block with Hot Water, Battagram, NWFP, Pakistan Bathing block, Shingli Paen village, Battagram, NWFP, Pakistan Developed by Austrian & German Red Cross - as part of the PRCS earthquake response Stoves provided inside for heating water - users bring fuel Separate sides for male and female in the same block – agreed with community – but some cultural challenges faced IFRC Pakistan Delegation

14 WASH Cluster – Water in Emergencies W W11C14 Stoves Distributed in Pakistan Stoves provided by the Pakistan Red Crescent Society and the IFRC - household level in response to the Pakistan earthquake IFRC Pakistan Delegation

15 WASH Cluster – Water in Emergencies W W11C15 Warm Bath Shelters, Balakot, NWFP, Pakistan Separate single sex, warm bath shelters designed by ACF, Balokot, Pakstan ACF

16 WASH Cluster – Water in Emergencies W W11C16 Warm Bath Shelters, Balakot, NWFP, Pakistan Fuel – kerosene Includes – 10 dressing / shower boxes & laundry area 2 to 3 times per week per person Small fee for adults to use – managed by community Challenges: –Constant supply of fuel –Less use by women – cultural challenges ACF

17 WASH Cluster – Water in Emergencies W W11C17 Passive Solar Water Heating Mansehra, NWFP, Pakistan Supported by OXFAM Each unit had 10 parallel fluorescent light tubes Each unit heated 60 litres of water at a time, at 65% on high cloud days Could fill each unit 3 to 4 times per day Cost about 200 USD / unit (excluding pipes and tapstands) Set up to allow everyone a hot bath every 3 days (See the commercial examples on next slide)

18 WASH Cluster – Water in Emergencies W W11C18 Passive Solar Water Heating Passive solar water heating using fluorescent tubes – can also be purchased from commercial companies, such as SunMaxx

19 WASH Cluster – Water in Emergencies W W11C19 Electric Water Heated Showers, Bam Earthquake Response, Iran S Sow / ACF

20 WASH Cluster – Water in Emergencies W W11C20 Electric Water Heated Showers, Bam Earthquake Response, Iran Supported by ACF 1 unit for a group of 3-5 families Families helped dig drainage pits Electric heaters brought from province capital Electricity was provided free at the time Very well accepted by users and authorities S Sow / ACF

21 WASH Cluster – Water in Emergencies W W11C21 Chulli Water Treatment (& water heating system) Chulli system from Bangladesh & supported in response to the cyclone emergency by OXFAM- GB Developed as a water treatment system but also providing hot water which could be used in cold climates Photos: Richard Johnston / UNICEF The system was developed by the Rajshahi University, tested by Integrated Approach for Community Development and supported by UNICEF

22 WASH Cluster – Water in Emergencies W W11C22 Designing facilities to meet the needs of the (different groups of) users Discuss with the beneficiaries their needs ask for feedback modify where appropriate

23 WASH Cluster – Water in Emergencies W W11C23 Acknowledgement Much of the material for the first part of this Module (prior to hot water for bathing in cold climates) has been taken from: Buttle, M & Smith, M (1999) ‘Out in the Cold, Emergency Water Supply and Sanitation for Cold Regions’, WEDC & Buttle, M, Smith, M & Shaw, R (no date) ‘Emergency water supply in cold regions’, Waterlines Technical Brief, No 62


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