Presentation on theme: "User needs Quality Control Prototyping ICT Copyright."— Presentation transcript:
User needs Quality Control Prototyping ICT Copyright
Anthropometrics Anthropometrics is the name given to the study of the sizes of people in relation to the design of products. The study of the human body and its movement, often involving research into measurements relating to people. It also involves collecting statistics or measurements relevant to the human body, called Anthropometric Data.
ANTHROPOMETRICS APPLIED TO A HAIR DRYER Anthropometric data (measurements) are used to determine the shape of handle and distance to be held from head. Designed for average size hand. The length of lead is determined from anthropometric data (length of average arms and average height of users). The hair dryer is now ergonomically designed.
Ergonomics Ergonomics is concerned with the relationship between people and the products which they use. It is also the study of people and their relationship with the environment around them. Anthropometric data is used to help when designing products to meet ergonomic needs. As well as sizes of people, ergonomics has to consider the force which someone can apply – for example using a packaged product.
The Design Specification When designing a graphic product, a designer has to make sure that it meets the design specification. A specification is a statement that tells the designer exactly what the product has to do and what the design requirements are. A specification will always: describe what the product has to do; describe what the product will look like; include details of any other requirements to suit the target market.
Specification The specification describes precise details of a design, ( eg.materials, dimensions, tolerances, quality, any important safety features, finish, etc.) A specification may have essential elements to it – this is the primary specification. A specification may also have desirable elements to it – this is the secondary specification.
The Design Specification In detail, a specification should include the following information about the product: the main function of the product; the main overall dimensions of the product; the main materials and processes which are likely to be used; an outline of the appearance of the product; user requirements; how anthropometrics and ergonomics effect the design; the cost of the graphic product; possible production levels - one-off, batch, mass production; legal requirements which may have to be met; environmental considerations and requirements.
What is meant by Quality Control? Quality Control refers to the checks carried out on a product by workers, during stages of its manufacture. These checks may include, simply ensuring that components are positioned correctly, or that they are the correct type and size. A final quality check should include testing the product to ensure it is to the correct standard, before it is distributed to the retailer / customer. A combination of visual checks and automated checks (by sensors and computers) are usually carried out.
Quality Control There are two aspects to quality control: 1.The quality of the design itself, or how well the graphic product meets the needs of the user, 2.The quality of the manufacture, or how well the graphic product has been made.
Quality Control These two aspects of quality can be independent of each other. A graphic product can be designed well but be poorly made, or a well-made product may be of a poor design which does not meet the needs of the user. For example, a popup card may be designed well, but could be poorly made with rough edges, inaccurate cutting and poor choice of colour. Alternatively it could be well made, but poorly designed A product can only be a quality product if it is good design that is made to a high standard.
Designers will make a number of prototypes before deciding on a final product. There are many reasons for making a prototype, such as: Making a scaled prototype allows the designer/manufacturer to work out the method of construction; Evaluating the manufacture of the prototype, allows the designer to plan an efficient and cost effective manufacturing production line. Design faults and errors can be detected more easily and refined or solved before the product goes into production. A prototype can be tested on potential customers and focus groups. Safety issues can be identified. The prototype can be tested against any relevant regulations and legislation. Testing against the design specification, helps ensure a full and relevant evaluation of a prototype is carried out. This should be carried out during the entire development process.
Rapid prototyping o Rapid Prototyping (RP) can be defined as a group of techniques used to quickly fabricate a scale model of a part or assembly using three-dimensional computer aided design (CAD) data. o Rapid Prototyping has also been referred to as solid free-form manufacturing, computer automated manufacturing, and layered manufacturing. o RP has an obvious use as a vehicle for visualization (ie Virtual prototyping software produces a 3D representation, which can be manipulated and viewed from any angle).
Rapid prototyping The reasons for Rapid Prototyping are: To increase effective communication; To decrease development time; To decrease costly mistakes; To minimize sustaining engineering changes; To extend product lifetime by adding necessary features and eliminating redundant features early in the design; Rapid Prototyping decreases development time by allowing corrections to a product to be made early in the process.
CAD - Computer Aided Design CAD involves the use of computers to model product ideas 2D or 3D and either view them on screen or print them out for review and reference. CAD modelling is a key part of industrial design process because it enables manufacturers to test and modify ideas in 2D and simulate products on screen in 3D
CAM - Computer Aided Manufacture This is the use of computer software to control machinery. When a design is complete the drawing is processed. This converts the drawing into a detailed series of X, Y and Z coordinates. When the CNC machine shapes the material the cutter follows the coordinates, in sequence, until the shape has been manufactured.
Designers and manufacturers can use CAD and CAM in various ways to: Make accurate working drawings for manufacturing specifications and make changes easily and quickly. Store style and colour information Create, model and modify designs ideas quickly and easily Apply texture, rendering or shading to drawings to create virtual products (wood grain, shiny or rough surfaces, lighting effects, etc). Present a virtual 3D animation of a product using multimedia.
Identify all design aspects of the product, style (appearance ) - function to ensure product fulfils all requirements of the specification Calculate the volume/quantities and therefore cost of materials required to produce product. Produces coded information of drawn component parts to drive CNC /CAM machines in a fully computer integrated system/automated system. The use of ICT enables CAD information to be sent electronically anywhere in the world between clients, designers and manufacturers, so that design decisions can be made quickly.
CNC Machines Computer Numerically Controlled Machines This term refers to the use of computers in the manufacture of products. Examples of these machines in graphic production include laser cutters, routers, vinyl cutters, etching machines and 3D printers used for rapid prototyping.
Copyright is all about protection. It protects physical ideas. Copyright gives the creator of an original piece of work control over its publication, distribution and adaptation. When you upload anything to public websites, what you are doing is copying and sharing content - and you are only allowed to do that if you own the copyright or have permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright The term "piracy" has been used to refer to the unauthorized copying, distribution and selling of works in copyright. However, you can use copyright-free images such as clip art.
Exam Question Explain the difference between quality of design and quality of manufacture. (6)
Level 1 (0-2 marks) Explanation shows limited understanding of quality of design and quality of manufacture. There will be little or no use of specialist terms. Answers may be ambiguous or disorganised. Errors of grammar, punctuation and spelling may be intrusive. Level 2 (3-4 marks) Explanation shows some understanding of the differences between quality of design and quality of manufacture. There will be some use of specialist terms, although these may not always be used appropriately. The information will be presented for the most part in a structured format. There may be occasional errors in spelling, grammar and punctuation Level 3 (5-6 marks) Explanation shows a thorough understanding of the differences between quality of design and quality of manufacture and illustrates this understanding. Specialist terms will be used appropriately and correctly. The information will be presented in a structured format. The candidate can demonstrate the accurate use of spelling, punctuation and grammar. Explanation should focus on: Quality of design There is an element of user perception in making judgements about the quality of a design but all quality designs must:...function as intended...be aesthetically pleasing...have user appeal...be sustainable Quality of manufacture The four main features that define quality of manufacture are: appropriate material selection appropriate manufacturing methods high quality surface finish well fitting components The combination of quality of design and quality of manufacture does not always result in a quality product. For example a product can be: a poor design that is made badly a poor design that is made well a good design that is made badly A product can only be a quality product if it is good design that is made to a high standard.
A children’s craft kit to be sold in a department store
Exam Question State, with as much detail as you can, what you think was the most important design specification point for each of the following aspects. (i) The purpose of the package.  (ii) The environmental impact of the package.  (iii) Explain why the logo and the package will appeal to the parents of young children. 
(iv) The box is made from 500 micron duplex folding boxboard. Describe one physical property of this material that makes it the most suitable material for the package (2) (v) State one quality issue relating to the box.  (vi) The box has been designed to appeal to the target market and the duplex folding boxboard has been used in a particular way. Describe in detail the target market that would find this product appealing.  (Vii) Explain how the Design Specification helps when evaluating the product at the end of the design process. (2)
Quality Control e.g. random sampling , visual checks for colour and alignment, materials etc, tolerance tests. Well explained and reasoned 2 marks Some understanding 1 mark No understanding or not attempted 0 mark