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Qualitative Inquiry: An advanced introduction David Hiles www.psy.dmu.ac.uk/drhiles/ DMU Research Methods for Research and Related Staff - 2010/11 © David.

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Presentation on theme: "Qualitative Inquiry: An advanced introduction David Hiles www.psy.dmu.ac.uk/drhiles/ DMU Research Methods for Research and Related Staff - 2010/11 © David."— Presentation transcript:

1 Qualitative Inquiry: An advanced introduction David Hiles DMU Research Methods for Research and Related Staff /11 © David Hiles

2 Outline This seminar will introduce a broad framework for the design, collection and analysis of data in Qualitative Inquiry (QI) Two broad traditions: Quantitative & Qualitative Two broad traditions: Quantitative & Qualitative Placing QI within a model of Disciplined Inquiry Placing QI within a model of Disciplined Inquiry The logic of QI The logic of QI Paradigm assumptions Paradigm assumptions Strategies of design Strategies of design Methods of data collection Methods of data collection Analysis of qualitative data Analysis of qualitative data Critical evaluation Critical evaluation Plenary Discussion Plenary Discussion

3 Two broad traditions of inquiry It is important to realize that the difference between Quantitative and Qualitative inquiry is largely misconceived. It is important to realize that the difference between Quantitative and Qualitative inquiry is largely misconceived. While of course there is a difference between these two types of data, what is far more important is the two different views of knowledge involved, which is reflected in (at least) two different logics of inquiry. While of course there is a difference between these two types of data, what is far more important is the two different views of knowledge involved, which is reflected in (at least) two different logics of inquiry. One way to tackle these issues is to take a very broad view of inquiry – i.e. my own model of Disciplined Inquiry. One way to tackle these issues is to take a very broad view of inquiry – i.e. my own model of Disciplined Inquiry.

4 SCR © IPT – Good Research Criteria S – Systematic C – Critical R – Rigorous I – Innovative P – Paradigm driven P – Paradigm driven T – Transparency T – Transparency

5 DISCIPLINED INQUIRY Paradigm Guba & Lincoln’s (1994; 2000; 2005) basic questions: ■ Ontological ■ Epistemological ■ Methodological ■ Axiology Three alternative paradigms: ■ Positivist ■ Constructionist ■ Participatory Paradigm Guba & Lincoln’s (1994; 2000; 2005) basic questions: ■ Ontological ■ Epistemological ■ Methodological ■ Axiology Three alternative paradigms: ■ Positivist ■ Constructionist ■ Participatory Strategy Research question Logic of Inquiry: Theory driven Data driven Explanation driven Thick description Triangulation Sampling (phen.) Naturalistic inquiry Action research Cooperative inquiry Participant observ. Phenomenological Heuristic inquiry Autoethography Mindful inquiry Appreciative inquiry Ethical issues etc... Strategy Research question Logic of Inquiry: Theory driven Data driven Explanation driven Thick description Triangulation Sampling (phen.) Naturalistic inquiry Action research Cooperative inquiry Participant observ. Phenomenological Heuristic inquiry Autoethography Mindful inquiry Appreciative inquiry Ethical issues etc... Method Experimental Grounded theory Observational Case study Survey Interviewing Sampling (pop.) Human inquiry groups Lived inquiry Visual methods Mixed methods etc... Method Experimental Grounded theory Observational Case study Survey Interviewing Sampling (pop.) Human inquiry groups Lived inquiry Visual methods Mixed methods etc... Analysis Quantitative: inferential/descriptive Qualitative: interpretative Coding: open/axial Content analysis Discourse analysis Conversation analysis IPA Narrative analysis Phenomenological analysis Protocol analysis etc... Analysis Quantitative: inferential/descriptive Qualitative: interpretative Coding: open/axial Content analysis Discourse analysis Conversation analysis IPA Narrative analysis Phenomenological analysis Protocol analysis etc... Critical Evaluation Identifying the addition to knowledge: □ Interpretation/ Implications  literature review  theory (sufficiency)  practice  paradigm  future research □ Transparency  critical reflection  design/method/analysis  assumptions, bias, etc.  reliability/validity/rigor  credibility/transferability/ dependability/ confirmability □ Dissemination  sharing knowledge  creative synthesis  writing/publication  use/application  action/control Critical Evaluation Identifying the addition to knowledge: □ Interpretation/ Implications  literature review  theory (sufficiency)  practice  paradigm  future research □ Transparency  critical reflection  design/method/analysis  assumptions, bias, etc.  reliability/validity/rigor  credibility/transferability/ dependability/ confirmability □ Dissemination  sharing knowledge  creative synthesis  writing/publication  use/application  action/control © Hiles (2006, 2008a) Research as Disciplined Inquiry

6 DISCIPLINED INQUIRY Paradigm Guba & Lincoln’s (1994; 2000; 2005) basic questions: ■ Ontological ■ Epistemological ■ Methodological ■ Axiology Three alternative paradigms: ■ Positivist ■ Constructionist ■ Participatory Paradigm Guba & Lincoln’s (1994; 2000; 2005) basic questions: ■ Ontological ■ Epistemological ■ Methodological ■ Axiology Three alternative paradigms: ■ Positivist ■ Constructionist ■ Participatory Strategy Research question Logic of Inquiry:: Theory driven Data driven Explanation driven Thick description Triangulation Sampling (phen.) Naturalistic inquiry Action research Cooperative inquiry Participant observ. Phenomenological Heuristic inquiry Autoethography Mindful inquiry Appreciative inquiry Ethical issues etc... Strategy Research question Logic of Inquiry:: Theory driven Data driven Explanation driven Thick description Triangulation Sampling (phen.) Naturalistic inquiry Action research Cooperative inquiry Participant observ. Phenomenological Heuristic inquiry Autoethography Mindful inquiry Appreciative inquiry Ethical issues etc... Method Experimental Grounded theory Observational Case study Survey Interviewing Sampling (pop.) Human inquiry groups Lived inquiry Visual methods Mixed methods etc... Method Experimental Grounded theory Observational Case study Survey Interviewing Sampling (pop.) Human inquiry groups Lived inquiry Visual methods Mixed methods etc... Analysis Quantitative: inferential/descriptive Qualitative: interpretative Coding: open/axial Content analysis Discourse analysis Conversation analysis IPA Narrative analysis Phenomenological analysis Protocol analysis etc... Analysis Quantitative: inferential/descriptive Qualitative: interpretative Coding: open/axial Content analysis Discourse analysis Conversation analysis IPA Narrative analysis Phenomenological analysis Protocol analysis etc... Critical Evaluation Identifying the addition to knowledge: □ Interpretation/ Implications  literature review  theory (sufficiency)  practice  paradigm  future research □ Transparency  critical reflection  design/method/analysis  assumptions, bias, etc.  reliability/validity/rigor  credibility/transferability/ dependability/ confirmability □ Dissemination  sharing knowledge  creative synthesis  writing/publication  use/application  action/control Critical Evaluation Identifying the addition to knowledge: □ Interpretation/ Implications  literature review  theory (sufficiency)  practice  paradigm  future research □ Transparency  critical reflection  design/method/analysis  assumptions, bias, etc.  reliability/validity/rigor  credibility/transferability/ dependability/ confirmability □ Dissemination  sharing knowledge  creative synthesis  writing/publication  use/application  action/control © Hiles (2006, 2008a) Research as Disciplined Inquiry Explicit “logics” of inquiry Rejection of simplistic qual/quant distinction

7 DISCIPLINED INQUIRY Paradigm Guba & Lincoln’s (1994; 2000; 2005) basic questions: ■ Ontological ■ Epistemological ■ Methodological ■ Axiology Three alternative paradigms: ■ Positivist ■ Constructionist ■ Participatory Paradigm Guba & Lincoln’s (1994; 2000; 2005) basic questions: ■ Ontological ■ Epistemological ■ Methodological ■ Axiology Three alternative paradigms: ■ Positivist ■ Constructionist ■ Participatory Strategy Research question Logic of Inquiry:: Theory driven Data driven Explanation driven Thick description Triangulation Sampling (phen.) Naturalistic inquiry Action research Cooperative inquiry Participant observ. Phenomenological Heuristic inquiry Autoethography Mindful inquiry Appreciative inquiry Ethical issues etc... Strategy Research question Logic of Inquiry:: Theory driven Data driven Explanation driven Thick description Triangulation Sampling (phen.) Naturalistic inquiry Action research Cooperative inquiry Participant observ. Phenomenological Heuristic inquiry Autoethography Mindful inquiry Appreciative inquiry Ethical issues etc... Method Experimental Grounded theory Observational Case study Survey Interviewing Sampling (pop.) Human inquiry groups Lived inquiry Visual methods Mixed methods etc... Method Experimental Grounded theory Observational Case study Survey Interviewing Sampling (pop.) Human inquiry groups Lived inquiry Visual methods Mixed methods etc... Analysis Quantitative: inferential/descriptive Qualitative: interpretative Coding: open/axial Content analysis Discourse analysis Conversation analysis IPA Narrative analysis Phenomenological analysis Protocol analysis etc... Analysis Quantitative: inferential/descriptive Qualitative: interpretative Coding: open/axial Content analysis Discourse analysis Conversation analysis IPA Narrative analysis Phenomenological analysis Protocol analysis etc... Critical Evaluation Identifying the addition to knowledge: □ Interpretation/ Implications  literature review  theory (sufficiency)  practice  paradigm  future research □ Transparency  critical reflection  design/method/analysis  assumptions, bias, etc.  reliability/validity/rigor  credibility/transferability/ dependability/ confirmability □ Dissemination  sharing knowledge  creative synthesis  writing/publication  use/application  action/control Critical Evaluation Identifying the addition to knowledge: □ Interpretation/ Implications  literature review  theory (sufficiency)  practice  paradigm  future research □ Transparency  critical reflection  design/method/analysis  assumptions, bias, etc.  reliability/validity/rigor  credibility/transferability/ dependability/ confirmability □ Dissemination  sharing knowledge  creative synthesis  writing/publication  use/application  action/control © Hiles (2006, 2008a) Research as Disciplined Inquiry Five phases of research Strategies of research Transparency Three paradigms Pluralism

8 The place of Qualitative Research Exploring new areas of inquiry Exploring new areas of inquiry Human/Social/Cultural fields (and the life sciences) Human/Social/Cultural fields (and the life sciences) Especially fields with a focus upon language, meaning, discourse, phenomenological experience, etc. Especially fields with a focus upon language, meaning, discourse, phenomenological experience, etc. Any area of study where complexity (non-linear dynamics) is involved, i.e. phase transitions, bifurcation, etc. Any area of study where complexity (non-linear dynamics) is involved, i.e. phase transitions, bifurcation, etc. V.S. Ramachandran (2011): “Science needs a variety of styles and approaches.. homogeneity breeds weakness: theoretical blinds pots, stale paradigms, an echo-chamber mentality, and cults of personality... My point is that science should be question driven, not methodology driven.” (p. xix)

9 Paradigm Assumptions Beginning QI: Beginning QI: Guba & Lincoln (1994) Guba & Lincoln (1994) “Paradigm issues are crucial; no inquirer, we maintain, ought to go about the business of inquiry without being clear about just what paradigm informs and guides his or her approach.” (p.116) “A paradigm may be viewed as a set of basic beliefs [or assumptions] that deals with ultimates or first principles... [it is] not open to proof in any conventional sense.” (p.107-8) “A paradigm may be viewed as a set of basic beliefs [or assumptions] that deals with ultimates or first principles... [it is] not open to proof in any conventional sense.” (p.107-8)

10 DISCIPLINED INQUIRY Paradigm Guba & Lincoln’s (1994; 2000; 2005) basic questions: ■ Ontological ■ Epistemological ■ Methodological ■ Axiology Three alternative paradigms: ■ Positivist ■ Constructionist ■ Participatory Paradigm Guba & Lincoln’s (1994; 2000; 2005) basic questions: ■ Ontological ■ Epistemological ■ Methodological ■ Axiology Three alternative paradigms: ■ Positivist ■ Constructionist ■ Participatory Strategy Research question Logic of Inquiry:: Theory driven Data driven Explanation driven Thick description Triangulation Sampling (phen.) Naturalistic inquiry Action research Cooperative inquiry Participant observ. Phenomenological Heuristic inquiry Autoethography Mindful inquiry Appreciative inquiry Ethical issues etc... Strategy Research question Logic of Inquiry:: Theory driven Data driven Explanation driven Thick description Triangulation Sampling (phen.) Naturalistic inquiry Action research Cooperative inquiry Participant observ. Phenomenological Heuristic inquiry Autoethography Mindful inquiry Appreciative inquiry Ethical issues etc... Method Experimental Grounded theory Observational Case study Survey Interviewing Sampling (pop.) Human inquiry groups Lived inquiry Visual methods Mixed methods etc... Method Experimental Grounded theory Observational Case study Survey Interviewing Sampling (pop.) Human inquiry groups Lived inquiry Visual methods Mixed methods etc... Analysis Quantitative: inferential/descriptive Qualitative: interpretative Coding: open/axial Content analysis Discourse analysis Conversation analysis IPA Narrative analysis Phenomenological analysis Protocol analysis etc... Analysis Quantitative: inferential/descriptive Qualitative: interpretative Coding: open/axial Content analysis Discourse analysis Conversation analysis IPA Narrative analysis Phenomenological analysis Protocol analysis etc... Critical Evaluation Identifying the addition to knowledge: □ Interpretation/ Implications  literature review  theory (sufficiency)  practice  paradigm  future research □ Transparency  critical reflection  design/method/analysis  assumptions, bias, etc.  reliability/validity/rigor  credibility/transferability/ dependability/ confirmability □ Dissemination  sharing knowledge  creative synthesis  writing/publication  use/application  action/control Critical Evaluation Identifying the addition to knowledge: □ Interpretation/ Implications  literature review  theory (sufficiency)  practice  paradigm  future research □ Transparency  critical reflection  design/method/analysis  assumptions, bias, etc.  reliability/validity/rigor  credibility/transferability/ dependability/ confirmability □ Dissemination  sharing knowledge  creative synthesis  writing/publication  use/application  action/control © Hiles (2006, 2008a) Research as Disciplined Inquiry Guba & Lincoln (1994) - A pluralism of paradigms: Positivist (G&L: i. Positivism ii. Post-positivism) Constructionist (G&L: iii. Critical theory iv. Constructivism) Participatory (see Heron & Reason, 1997; Lincoln & Guba, 2000; Hiles, 2008a)

11 Strategies of Design Strategies provide the key to the bridge between paradigm and method/analysis Strategies provide the key to the bridge between paradigm and method/analysis The Research Question The Research Question Sampling (phen.) Sampling (phen.) The Logic of Inquiry The Logic of Inquiry e.g. The Grounded Theory approach e.g. The Grounded Theory approach

12 The Research Question Research Question 1: Is there a significant advantage to patients/clients in using the new intervention as compared to the traditional methods? (i.e. test the prediction that there is an advantage). Research Question 1: Is there a significant advantage to patients/clients in using the new intervention as compared to the traditional methods? (i.e. test the prediction that there is an advantage). Research Question 2: What are the reported advantages in using the new intervention as compared to the traditional methods? (i.e. we can not predict what these will be, the findings will only emerge after we have collected and analysed the data). Research Question 2: What are the reported advantages in using the new intervention as compared to the traditional methods? (i.e. we can not predict what these will be, the findings will only emerge after we have collected and analysed the data). Research Question 3: “How useful is such-and-such a theory/construct in understanding/explaining why some patients/clients respond to the new intervention while others do not?” Research Question 3: “How useful is such-and-such a theory/construct in understanding/explaining why some patients/clients respond to the new intervention while others do not?”

13 Strategies of Design Strategies provide the key to the bridge between paradigm and method/analysis Strategies provide the key to the bridge between paradigm and method/analysis The Research Question The Research Question Sampling (phen.) Sampling (phen.) The Logic of Inquiry The Logic of Inquiry e.g. The Grounded Theory approach e.g. The Grounded Theory approach

14 “THEORY” “DATA” Theory Generation Prediction Explanation Induction Deduction Abduction © David Hiles 2009 The Logic of inquiry

15 Methods of Data Collection Distinguishing Methods from Analysis Distinguishing Methods from Analysis Interviewing – narrative, unstructured, semi-structured, structured, etc Interviewing – narrative, unstructured, semi-structured, structured, etc Sampling (participants) – theoretical; saturation Sampling (participants) – theoretical; saturation Other data sources – visual methods, mixed methods, etc, etc Other data sources – visual methods, mixed methods, etc, etc

16 Analysis of Data Wide range of approaches to data analysis Wide range of approaches to data analysis Heavily paradigm dependent Heavily paradigm dependent e.g. discourse analysis, conversation analysis, IPA, narrative analysis, etc, etc e.g. discourse analysis, conversation analysis, IPA, narrative analysis, etc, etc Issues: interpretation, bias, reflexivity, etc Issues: interpretation, bias, reflexivity, etc

17 Critical Evaluation Addition to knowledge (implication & implications) Addition to knowledge (implication & implications)  literature review  theory (sufficiency)  practice  paradigm  future research Transparency (see Hiles, 2008b) Transparency (see Hiles, 2008b)  critical reflection  design/method/analysis  assumptions, bias, etc.  reliability/validity/rigor  credibility/transferability/dependability/confirmability Dissemination Dissemination  sharing knowledge  creative synthesis  writing/publication  use/application  action/control

18 Some Further Issues Reflexivity Reflexivity Ethical Issues Ethical Issues Software for QI: NVivo8/9 Software for QI: NVivo8/9

19 Source View List View (Coding) Nodes Data View (Interview transcripts/audio/video, etc) [Drag & drop] Software for QI: NVivo8/9

20 References and further reading Bazeley, P. (2007) Qualitative Data Analysis with NVivo. Sage. Guba, E.G. & Lincoln, Y.S. (1994) Chap 6 in N.K. Denzin & Y.S. Lincoln, Handbook of Qualitative Research. Sage. Heron, J. & Reason, P. (1997) A participatory inquiry paradigm. Qualitative Inquiry, 3, Hiles, D.R. (2006) The Logic of Human Inquiry: Epistemological and pluralistic issues. Paper presented at 6th European Qualitative Research Conference in Health and Social Care, Bournemouth, * Hiles, D.R. (2008a) Participatory Perspectives on Counselling Research. Paper presented at NCCRC, Newport. * Hiles, D.R. (2008b) Transparency. In L.M. Given (Ed). The Sage Encyclopaedia of Qualitative Research Methods. Sage Lincoln, Y.S. & Guba, E.G. (2000) Chap 6 in N.K. Denzin & Y.S. Lincoln, Handbook of Qualitative Research. 2 nd Ed. Sage. Ramachandran, V.S. (2011) The Tell-Tale Brain. Heinemann. * Available from:

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