2 OutlineThis seminar will introduce a broad framework for the design, collection and analysis of data in Qualitative Inquiry (QI)Two broad traditions: Quantitative & QualitativePlacing QI within a model of Disciplined InquiryThe logic of QIParadigm assumptionsStrategies of designMethods of data collectionAnalysis of qualitative dataCritical evaluationPlenary Discussion
3 Two broad traditions of inquiry It is important to realize that the difference between Quantitative and Qualitative inquiry is largely misconceived.While of course there is a difference between these two types of data, what is far more important is the two different views of knowledge involved, which is reflected in (at least) two different logics of inquiry.One way to tackle these issues is to take a very broad view of inquiry – i.e. my own model of Disciplined Inquiry.
8 The place of Qualitative Research V.S. Ramachandran (2011):“Science needs a variety of styles and approaches . . homogeneity breeds weakness: theoretical blinds pots, stale paradigms, an echo-chamber mentality, and cults of personality My point is that science should be question driven, not methodology driven.” (p. xix)Exploring new areas of inquiryHuman/Social/Cultural fields (and the life sciences)Especially fields with a focus upon language, meaning, discourse, phenomenological experience, etc.Any area of study where complexity (non-linear dynamics) is involved, i.e. phase transitions, bifurcation, etc.
9 Paradigm AssumptionsBeginning QI:Guba & Lincoln (1994)“Paradigm issues are crucial; no inquirer, we maintain, ought to go about the business of inquiry without being clear about just what paradigm informs and guides his or her approach.” (p.116)“A paradigm may be viewed as a set of basic beliefs [or assumptions] that deals with ultimates or first principles [it is] not open to proof in any conventional sense.” (p.107-8)
11 Strategies of DesignStrategies provide the key to the bridge between paradigm and method/analysisThe Research QuestionSampling (phen.)The Logic of Inquirye.g. The Grounded Theory approach
12 The Research QuestionResearch Question 1: Is there a significant advantage to patients/clients in using the new intervention as compared to the traditional methods? (i.e. test the prediction that there is an advantage).Research Question 2: What are the reported advantages in using the new intervention as compared to the traditional methods? (i.e. we can not predict what these will be, the findings will only emerge after we have collected and analysed the data).Research Question 3: “How useful is such-and-such a theory/construct in understanding/explaining why some patients/clients respond to the new intervention while others do not?”
13 Strategies of DesignStrategies provide the key to the bridge between paradigm and method/analysisThe Research QuestionSampling (phen.)The Logic of Inquirye.g. The Grounded Theory approach
15 Methods of Data Collection Distinguishing Methods from AnalysisInterviewing – narrative, unstructured, semi-structured, structured, etcSampling (participants) – theoretical; saturationOther data sources – visual methods, mixed methods, etc, etc
16 Analysis of Data Wide range of approaches to data analysis Heavily paradigm dependente.g. discourse analysis, conversation analysis, IPA, narrative analysis, etc, etcIssues: interpretation, bias, reflexivity, etc
17 Critical Evaluation Addition to knowledge (implication & implications) literature review theory (sufficiency) practice paradigm future researchTransparency (see Hiles, 2008b) critical reflection design/method/analysis assumptions, bias, etc. reliability/validity/rigor credibility/transferability/dependability/confirmabilityDissemination sharing knowledge creative synthesis writing/publication use/application action/control
18 Some Further Issues Reflexivity Ethical Issues Software for QI: NVivo8/9
19 Software for QI: NVivo8/9 Data View (Interview transcripts/audio/video, etc)List View (Coding)Source ViewNodes[Drag & drop]
20 References and further reading Bazeley, P. (2007) Qualitative Data Analysis with NVivo. Sage.Guba, E.G. & Lincoln, Y.S. (1994) Chap 6 in N.K. Denzin & Y.S. Lincoln, Handbook of Qualitative Research. Sage.Heron, J. & Reason, P. (1997) A participatory inquiry paradigm. Qualitative Inquiry, 3,Hiles, D.R. (2006) The Logic of Human Inquiry: Epistemological and pluralistic issues. Paper presented at 6th European Qualitative Research Conference in Health and Social Care, Bournemouth,* Hiles, D.R. (2008a) Participatory Perspectives on Counselling Research. Paper presented at NCCRC, Newport.* Hiles, D.R. (2008b) Transparency. In L.M. Given (Ed). The Sage Encyclopaedia of Qualitative Research Methods. SageLincoln, Y.S. & Guba, E.G. (2000) Chap 6 in N.K. Denzin & Y.S. Lincoln, Handbook of Qualitative Research. 2nd Ed. Sage.Ramachandran, V.S. (2011) The Tell-Tale Brain. Heinemann.* Available from: