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Chapter 3 Understanding the Boot Process and Command Line.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 3 Understanding the Boot Process and Command Line."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 3 Understanding the Boot Process and Command Line

2 You Will Learn…  To understand the process of booting to a command prompt  To create and use Windows 9x rescue disks to troubleshoot and solve problems when booting Windows  To use many commands at the command prompt

3 Understanding the Boot Process  When OS is functioning: Interface: command driven, menu driven or icon driven GUI (graphical user interface) Desktop: menu & icon driven Launch application using Windows Explorer to copy files or create folders & troubleshoot

4  When OS is NOT functioning: No desktop Must use command driven interface  MS-DOS: real mode to boot computer  Command line: tried & true tool for worst OS problems Essential to PC trouble shooting Understanding the Boot Process

5 Booting Up Your Computer  Refers to the computer bringing itself up to an operable state without user intervention  Soft (warm) boot : CTRL + ALT + DEL Faster or Restart Uses OS to reboot  Hard (cold) boot Uses on/off switch More stressful on the machine because of power surge

6 Booting Up Your Computer  Plug and Play (PnP) standard  File system  What happens when PC is first turned on and startup BIOS takes control and then loads OS  What happens when essential components of OS are loaded from hard drive or floppy disk

7 Plug and Play  Standard designed to make installation of hardware devices easier  Applies to OS, system BIOS, and hardware devices  Supported by Windows 9x and Windows 2000/XP but not by Windows NT  ESCD (extended system configuration data) Plug and Play BIOS: creates a list of all things you have done manually to the configuration the PnP doesn’t do Last paragraph on page 78 and 1 st paragraph on 79

8 What Is a File System?  Organizational method used by an OS to store files and folders on a secondary storage device  FAT (file allocation table) file system  Files and directories  File naming conventions  File organization  Partitions and logical drives on a hard drive

9 FAT File System  Most common file system for floppy disks and hard drives  Contains list of clusters and which clusters are used for each file stored on the disk  Tracks: concentric circles on the disk surface  Sector: each track is divided into these segments  Cluster: smallest unit of space on a disk for storing data

10 Tracks and Sectors

11 Files and Directories Directory table: Root Directory:

12 File Naming Conventions  Under DOS Can contain up to eight characters, a separating period, and a file extension of up to three characters a through z, 0 through 9, _, ^, $, ~, !, #, %, &, -, {, }, --- do NOT use space, period, *, ? or \ Acceptable file,.sys,.bat., and.exe Example: filename.ext  Under Windows 95 and later Windows OSs Can be as long as 255 characters and can contain spaces

13 File Organization  Create different directories on a hard drive or other secondary storage media

14 Partitions and Logical Drives on a Hard Drive 1 logical drive 2+ logical drives

15 Startup BIOS Controls the Beginning of the Boot  Boot steps 1. BIOS checking hardware 2. Loading the OS 3. OS initializing itself 4. Loading and executing an application  Startup BIOS is in control for first step of the boot, then it turns over control to the OS Boot errors: communicated as beeps or messages (Appendix A)

16 Overview of Boot Steps  Step 1: POST (Power-on self test)  Step 2: ROM BIOS startup program searches for and loads an OS  Step 3: OS configures the system and completes its own loading  Step 4: User executes application software

17 Boot Step 1: POST Page 84

18 How the BIOS Finds and Loads the OS Partition table: Active partition:

19 Boot Step 2: Loading the OS

20 Loading the MS-DOS Core of Windows 9x  When only MS-DOS core of Windows 9x is loaded during booting Brings OS to real-mode command prompt similar to DOS command prompt  Real-mode DOS core is often used as a troubleshooting tool when hard drive fails Buffer: Batch file:

21 Boot Step 3: OS Initializes Itself

22 Loading the MS-DOS Core of Windows 9x  When OS loads from hard drive, BIOS first executes the MBR, which executes OS boot record, which, for Windows 9x, attempts to find Io.sys on hard drive  Io.sys, which uses Msdos.sys, and, form the core of real-mode Windows 9x All three are necessary to boot to a command prompt  Autoexec.bat and Config.sys contain commands used to customize 16-bit portion of Windows 9x load process RAM drive

23 Emergency Startup Disks (ESDs)  Bootable Disk: floppy with enough software to load OS  Bootable disks with some utility programs to troubleshoot a failed hard drive  Also called rescue disk or startup disk  Created automatically by the OS beginning with Windows 95

24 Windows 9x Startup Disks


26 Files Contained in the Cabinet File, Cabinet file:

27 Windows 9x Startup Disks  Creating your own bootable rescue disk for Windows 9x  Using a Windows startup disk with another OS

28 Creating Your Own Bootable Rescue Disk for Windows 9x


30 Using the Command Prompt  Accessing a command prompt  Launching programs from the command prompt  Using commands to manage files and folders  Using utility tasks to troubleshoot a failed system

31 Ways to Access a Command Prompt  Click Start, Programs, MS-DOS Prompt  Click Start, Run, enter in the Run dialog box  When booting from a bootable disk or rescue disk, you get a command prompt instead of Windows desktop

32 Command Prompt Window

33 To Get a True Real-Mode Environment in Windows 9x  Click Start, click Shutdown, and select Restart in MS-DOS mode from Shutdown dialog box  Boot to a command prompt by holding down Ctrl or F8 while booting; select “Command prompt only” from the menu Read paragraph on page 97

34 Launching a Program Using the Command Prompt  OS receives command to execute the application  OS locates the program file for the application  OS loads the program file into memory  OS gives control to the program  Program requests memory addresses from OS for its data  Program initializes itself; possibly requests that data from secondary storage be loaded into memory  Program turns to user for first instruction

35 Finding a Program File

36 Using the Path Command

37 Using Commands to Manage a Floppy Disk or Hard Drive  Dir  Type  Del or Erase  Undelete  Recover  Diskcopy continued… Wildcards:

38 Using Commands to Manage a Floppy Disk or Hard Drive  Copy  Xcopy /C /S /Y /D:  Deltree  Mkdir [drive:]path or MD [drive:]path  Chdir [drive:]path or CD [drive:]path or CD..  Rmdir [drive:]path or RD [drive:]path continued… Page 104 Tip

39 Mkdir Command continued…

40 Using Commands to Manage a Floppy Disk or Hard Drive  Attrib  Unformat  Path  Sys Drive:  Chkdsk [drive:] /F /V  Scandisk Drive: /A /N /P continued…

41 Using Commands to Manage a Floppy Disk or Hard Drive  Scanreg /Restore /Fix /Backup  Defrag Drive: /S  Ver  Extract file1.ext /D  Debug  Edit [path][filename] continued…

42 Using Commands to Manage a Floppy Disk or Hard Drive  Editing Autoexec.bat and Config.sys: always make a rescue disk before editing Don’t use a word processor to edit unless saved ad.txt file  Fdisk /Status /MBR Fdisk: prepares HD for 1 st use  Format Drive: /S /V:Volumename /Q /U /Autotest continued… Page 110 Tip

43 Edit Autoexec.bat continued…

44 Options for the Fdisk Command continued…

45 Options for the Format Command continued…

46 Options for the Format Command

47 Using Batch Files  To execute a group of commands using only a single command to execute the batch file

48 Chapter Summary  How a PC first boots up and loads the operating system  How to create floppy disks that can be used to boot to a command prompt  Essential commands for troubleshooting a failing system

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