2 Chemcatalyst:___.___Think back to marking period one and define in your own words the difference between a homogeneous and a heterogeneous mixture?
3 Mixtures Uniform throughout 1 continual phase HOMOGENEOUSHETEROGENEOUSUniform throughout1 continual phaseExample: solutions like salt waterNot uniform throughoutMultiple phasesExample: Oil and water
4 Other Heterogeneous Mixtures: SuspensionColloidsParticles are much largerDo not stay suspend indefinitelyParticles begin to separate outMultiple phasesExample: Clay in water or sand in waterParticles are medium-sizedSpread out and dispersedCloudy or milky appearanceExamples: Whipped cream, glue, milk, or mayo
5 Did you know?Colloidal solutions, like fog, disperse or separate light!It is called the Tyndall effect!When light passes through it, the particles reflect or scatter the light in all different directions!
8 Chemcatalyst: __.__Predict and explain whether sugar will dissolve faster in iced tea or hot tea.Follow up: Which would dissolve faster cubed sugar or granular sugar?
9 Solutions, eh? Solutions are homogeneous mixtures! Meaning same throughout They can be solids, liquids, or gases!
10 How do I make this said solution…? A solution has a solute and solventSOLUTESOLVENTThe dissolved particles in a solution is known as a solventThe solute will become dispersed throughout the solventCan be solids, liquids, or gasesThe dissolving medium is the solventThe solvent dissolves the soluteCan be solids, liquids, or gases
12 Agitation Stirring or shaking speeds up the solution process More of the solute will be brought into contact with solventOnly affects the time it takes to dissolve, not the amount of solute dissolvingInsoluble will always be insoluble
13 Back to the C.C Hot or cold tea dissolves sugar faster?
14 TemperatureHigh temperature, more kinetic energy molecules move fasterThe rapid motion is an increase in collisions between the solvent and the solute
15 Back to the C.C. follow up Sugar cube or granular sugar dissolves faster?
16 Particle Size of Solute The smaller the particles, the greater surface area to collide with the solventThe more surface area, more collisions and the faster rate of dissolving
17 Chemcatalyst __.___ What does it mean if something is soluble? Give an example
18 SolubilityThe amount of solute that dissolves in a given quantity of solvent at a given temperature and pressureThis amount creates a saturated solutionSolubility is expressed in g/100 g H2O
20 Supersaturated vs Unsaturated A solution that contains more solute that is able to dissolveOnly so much will dissolve, the rest will be solid on the bottomEx: Adding too much of the Kool Aid powder, rock candyA solution that contains less solute than the saturated solutionEx: Not adding enough Kool Aid Powder
21 Did you know?Miscible means soluble or the ability to dissolve in one anotherExample: Water and EthanolImmiscible means they are insolubleExample: Oil and water
22 Mini Lab Solution and solubility mini lab Play at end of lab
23 Factors affecting solubility TemperaturePressureIn general, the solubility of a solid increases as the solvent is heatedIn general, the solubility of a gas increases as the solvent is cooledLittle effect on the solubility of solids and liquidsIf the pressure above the liquid increases, the solubility of the gas increases
24 Henry’s LawAt a given temperature, the solubility of a gas in a liquid is proportional to the pressure above the liquid.If the pressure increases, the solubility increasesExample: Carbonated soda (CO2)
25 Chemcatalyst: __.___ What would you need to change? A saturated solution to an unsaturated solutionA saturated solution to a supersaturated solutionAn unsaturated solution to a saturated solution
26 What is concentration?The measure of the amount of solute that is dissolved in a given solventDepending on the amount it can be classified as dilute or concentrated
27 Concentrated solution ConcentrationDilute solutionConcentrated solutionA small amount of solute dissolvedLarge amounts of solute dissolved*** Only qualitative, not QUANTITATIVE
28 If that’s qualitative, then how do we measure concentration?
29 Molarity (M)Molarity is the number of moles dissolved in 1 liter of solutionReferred to a molar concentration or solutionUnits are moles/liter or represented as M (molar)Molarity = Moles of the soluteLiters of the solution** Volume must be in liters
30 Let’s calculate the molarity together! What is the molarity of a solution that contains 0.70 mol of NaCl in 250. mL?250. 𝑚𝐿 1 𝑥 1 𝐿 1000𝑚𝐿 =0.250 𝐿Molarity= 𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑒𝑠 𝐿 =2.8 𝑀
31 Try this one on your own: IV fluid has 0.15 moles of saline solution in it, what would the molarity be for 200. mL?200. 𝑚𝐿 1 𝑥 1 𝐿 1000𝑚𝐿 =0.200 𝐿Molarity= 𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑒𝑠 𝐿 =.75 𝑀
33 Reach question!A solution has a volume of 2.0 L and contains 36.0 grams of glucose. If the molar mass of glucose is 180 g/mol, what is the molarity of the solution?0.10M
34 Chemcatalyst: __.__What would the molarity be a solution that has moles of solute and a given volume of 400. mL?Show work with units, try your best with SF
35 Dilution 1 is initial conditions( concentrated solution) To create a dilution, the number of moles of solution will be reducedA dilution is created from a concentrated solutionWe use this equation:M1V1 =M2V21 is initial conditions( concentrated solution)2 is final conditions (dilute “new” conditions)
36 Let’s do this together! M1V1 =M2V2 (2.00 M) V1= (0.400 M) (100.0 mL) How many mL of 2.00 M MgSO4 solution must be diluted to prepare a mL of M MgSO4 ?M1= 2.00 MV1= ? mLM2= MV2= mLM1V1 =M2V2(2.00 M) V1= (0.400 M) (100.0 mL)V1= 20.0 mL
37 Try this one on your own! M1V1 =M2V2 (4.00 M) V1= (0.760 M) (250.0 mL) How many mL of a solution of 4.00 M KI are needed to prepare mL of M KIM1= 4.00 MV1= ? mLM2= MV2= mLM1V1 =M2V2(4.00 M) V1= (0.760 M) (250.0 mL)V1= 47.5 mL
38 Chemcatalyst: __.__How many moles of ammonium nitrate are in 355 mL of a M solution0.151 molHow many mL of a 1.0 M solution to prepare 250. mL of a 0.20 M solution?50. mL