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North Carolina Government Roots of Government NC State Government Local Government and Finances.

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1 North Carolina Government Roots of Government NC State Government Local Government and Finances

2 NC Government Vocabulary 1. Federal System: government that divides powers between the national government and the states 2. Popular Sovereignty: People are the ultimate source of any power given to the government 3. Suffrage: the right to vote 4. Civil Rights: protections granted in the Constitution that recognize that all citizens must be treated equally under the law. (14th Amendment) 5. Statute: General laws that apply statewide

3 NC Government Vocabulary 6. Commute: to reduce a criminal’s sentence 7. County Seat: center of county government 8. Ordinance: local laws 9. Incorporated: the state has declared that a specific geographic area is a municipality (city, town, and village) and has been given a charter (basic rules for the municipal government) 10. Public Policy: course of action government takes to fix an issue or problem 11. Balanced Budget: Balancing estimated expenditures and estimated revenue

4 Roots of NC Government First in Freedom 1663  King Charles II grants allies territory south of Va. Officially became 2 territories in 1729 NC insists of representative gov’t, general assembly to pass laws, levy taxes  Charter of Carolina NC legislature bicameral  governor and council-upper house; elected reps- lower house (House of Burgesses) Lower house had “power of purse”  control money

5 Roots of NC Government Independence French and Indian War had created huge debt for GB  levy taxes on colonists to pay war debts NC held congress in Wilmington to elect reps to attend the Continental Congress The Mecklenburg Declaration –All GB offices vacant, the NC gov. was only lawful gov. in colony The Halifax Resolves –1st Colonial gov’t to call for total independence from GB Articles of Confederation are failing, Constitutional Convention meets to create US Constitution  Federal System NC fears strong federal gov’t  call for Bill of Rights

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7 Roots of NC Government Constitution of NC Preamble- similar to US Const. Declaration of Rights- civil liberties and basic rights Popular Sovereignty –Ultimate power lies with people –Legislative, Executive, and Judicial Branch –Separation of Powers; Checks and Balances

8 Roots of NC Government Changes to the Constitution Constitution of 1776 –Meet in Halifax to create state const. –Two house legislature  General Assembly; Executive branch with governor and Council of State; court system voters gain power to elect the governor and approve or reject constitutional amendments; voting rights taken from AA and NA Constitution of 1868 –New const. must be written after Civil War  Abolish slavery, males over 21 could vote Constitution of 1971 –lower voting age from 21 to 18; gov. serves 2 four yr. terms; gov. can veto legislation

9 Roots of NC Government Rights of Citizens Colonial times: only free, male, property owning citizens at least 21 could vote AA’s could not vote, even free AA, until after Civil War –13th Amendment: Abolish Slavery –14th Amendment: defines US citizenship  equal protection under law –15th Amendment: all male citizens over 21 could vote, regardless of color Voting restrictions remained through Jim Crow laws (segregation)- poll tax, literacy test, grandfather clause Women’s Suffrage –In early days, women could not vote, own property –1920: 19th A. gives women right to vote –Most AA and NA women still did not vote –Civil Rights Act of 1964; Voting Rights Act of 1965 enforced voting rights 1971: 26th Amendment lowers voting age to 18 To vote in NC you must: be citizen of US; 18 yo; lived in precinct 30 days; not be serving felony sentence; be registered to vote

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11 Roots of NC Government The Civil Rights Movement For almost 100 years, 14th A. was not upheld in US De facto segregation a problem  segregation by custom and habit NC bans white and black children from attending same school –Plessy v. Ferguson: upheld separate but equal clause in society –Brown v. BOE: overturned Plessy, violates 14th A. Pearsall Plan in NC provides ways to avoid integration in schools By 50s and 60s, school begin to mix –Swann vs. Char-Meck: busing students to desegregate schools is ok Greensboro Sit-In –4 AA freshman from NCA&T sat at segregated lunchcounter, Woolworths –Were refused service, sparked sit ins across nation  Jesse Jackson

12 Plessy vs. Ferguson Greensboro Sit In Swann vs. Charlotte Meck

13 NC State Government The Legislative Branch AKA- The General Assembly Makes 2 kinds of laws –General statutes that apply statewide –Enact local/special laws to specific counties or cities General Assembly examines gov’t operations  oversight –allows legislatures to learn how well current laws are working General Assembly elects members to sit on University of NC Board of Governors

14 NC State Government Organization of General Assembly Bi-cameral  senate (50 members) and house of reps (120 members) Members are elected from districts, whose lines are redrawn after every census Senate and house members are elected for 2 years, with no limit are terms Member of General Assembly rules: –House  21 years old, Live in the district for a year before election –Senate  25 years old, live in district for a year before election Speaker of the House, Lieutenant Governor are leaders of house and senate; also elects president pro-tem

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16 North Carolina State Government The Executive Branch The Governor is NC’s chief of state, chief executive Governors roles: –leader of state agencies –administers state budget –grants pardons to criminals or commutes (reduces) sentences Gov. serves for 4 years, 2 consecutive term limit, can serve more than 2 nonconsecutively –30 years old –US citizens for at least 5 years –live in NC for 2 years Lieutenant Governor is like VP  president of senate Gov. and L. Gov. run for office on separate tickets

17 NC State Government Executive Officers Gov. appoints 10 department chairs to head various administrations  cabinet Some officers are appointed by Gov., other officers are elected by voters  Council of State ( attorney general) Council of State operates independently of governor

18 NC State Government The Judicial Branch NC courts resolve disputes under NC law 2 types of trial courts to hear cases and issue decisions –District Courts: Judge who hears case, decides case  juvie law, divorce, civil cases, misdemeanors  voters in districts elect judges –Superior Courts: handle civil cases involving more than $10,000, and felonies; 8 judicial divisions; voters elect superior court judges Other judicial officers –Clerk of court- handle paperwork –magistrate (issue search warrants) –District attorney- represents state in all criminal cases

19 NC State Government Appellate Courts Hear disputes about whether the decision of a trial court should be overturned  Question laws and procedures, not facts of case NC has 2 appellate courts –NC Court of Appeals- 15 appeals judges hear cases in groups of 3; at least 2 of 3 must agree to reach a decision –NC Supreme Court- 7 justices review cases from lower court and interprets state constitution Voters elect chief justice and 6 other justices Justices decide which cases to hear, majority wins SC hears all appeals on death sentences Unless case involves US constitution, all decisions are final

20 NC State Government Landmark Court Decisions Bayard v. Singleton (1787) –State seized property of Loyalists (ppl. loyal to British) during the American Rev. –Elizabeth Bayard petitioned court to get her land back, court agreed –Court used Judicial Review to strike down Confiscation Act State v. Mann (1830) –Slaveholders should not be prosecuted for attacking the enslaved The Leandro Case –Families from low-income areas argued their child didn’t have enough money spent on them by state –Initially, state says equal funding is not required, but later admitted “at-risk” students need increased funding

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22 Local Government and Finances Municipal Government Two basic types of local government: –Counties: largest territorial and political subdivision 100 Counties . governing body is board of commissioners Voters elect county commissioner Commissioners set public policy, hire administrators (education, social services) County hires a professional to run day to day operations  county manager Manager hires/fires for various depts., drafts budget

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24 Local Government and Finances –Municipality: cities, towns, villages Every county/municipality has a legislative and executive branch, sometimes judicial Local gov’t does not decide cases involving ordinances, state courts do that. Municipalities provide services to meet needs of its citizens Each has been incorporated (officially given a charter)  basic rules for gov’t Cities can expand by annexation  bringing unincorporated land into an existing municipality (Midway, Davidson County) All municipalities elect their own governing board  city/town council Most towns use “at-large” elections (all voters can vote), but some vote by district (ward) Citizens elect a major, but city council hires a “professional” to run the city  council-manager form of gov’t

25 Local Government and Finances Government Finances Two parts to budget: revenues and expenditures Fiscal budget year begins July 1 for state as well as for local gov’t NC adopts a biennial budget they use for 2 years, with revisions halfway through Budgeting begins in governor’s office  she must present a balanced budget General Assembly studies and revises budget proposed by governor Health and Human Services, plus education, account for more than half of gov’t spending More than half of all revenue comes from individual income tax NC gov’t cannot borrow money for their operating expenses, but can for major projects Gov’t gets the borrowed money through bonds  revenue bonds, General Obligation bonds

26 Local Government and Finances Municipal and County Budgets Most expenditures from cities go to utilities (water, sewage) and schools  LEA’s (Local Education Authority) Revenue comes from utility user fees, property taxes Property taxes increase or decrease depending on fiscal budget and value of the property


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