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Breads Unit.

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Presentation on theme: "Breads Unit."— Presentation transcript:

1 Breads Unit

2 Baked Product Quick breads Yeast breads Cakes Cookie Pastries – pies
Muffins, biscuits, pancakes, waffles, popovers Yeast breads Sandwich bread, pizza crust, pita bread, rolls, pretzels, pastries, doughnuts, croissants, and bagels Cakes Cookie Pastries – pies

3 Selecting Baked Products
Freshly baked items Brown-and-serve baked goods Refrigerated Doughs Frozen doughs and baked goods

4 Storing Baked Products
Air tight packaging Room temperature Freezer Prevents molding Product may dry out – bread is best for toast

5 Cost of Baked Products Depends on the amount of convenience
Baking items at home = cost can vary depending upon the item The overall taste will increase Breads Differ In: Size variation Watch the serving size! Extra ingredients Add to flavoring but can increase the cost Brand Sarah Lee vs Great Value

6 Baking tips Oven temps Choosing pan
Correct temps help baked goods rise properly Too hot – crust will form too quickly Too low – rises too fast and gases escape before the structure is ready Preheat: turn oven on about 10 minutes before using to the desired temp Choosing pan Use right depth – too deep or too shallow – may not rise properly Dark pans – will burn items

7 Baking tips cont. Prepare the pans
Follow the directions on each recipe Do not grease the pan when making a high-fat recipe Grease and flour – rub solid fat on pan and then dust with flour Spray with cooking spray Line with paper – foil or parchment paper Not wax paper

8 Baking tips cont. Baking Heated air circulates around the pans freely
1 inch space between pans and walls Hot spot: area of concentrated heat that can cause uneven baking and browning From over crowding the pans Conventional oven - most recipes are set for this style of oven

9 Baking tips cont. Baking cont. Convection oven
Creates a continuous current of hot air that speeds some chemical reactions in foods Product brown faster and lose less moisture Baked good rise more quickly Reduce temp by 25 to 30 degrees Reduce baking time by 1/3 Microwave oven – does not work for baking


11 Baking tips cont. Remove baked products from pans
Muffins immediately unless recipe states Prevents over baking Wire cooling rack to promote quick cooling Solid surface will hold heat and collect moister Remove cakes and breads Loosen – run a knife or spatula around the edges Flip – place wire rack on top and then sandwich flip Lift – lift pan off Flip again – setting items up right Cool – on top of rack

12 Quick Breads

13 Types of Quick breads Batter: range in consistency from thin to stiff liquids Pour Batters: thin batter Larger amount of liquid and small amount of fat Examples: Pancakes and popovers Drip Batter: stiff batter High proportion of flour Can drop them from a spoon Examples: biscuits and muffins

14 Types of Quick breads cont.
Dough: Higher proportion of flour Stiff enough to shape by hand Soft dough - shortcake and biscuits Stiff dough - rolled cookies and pastry

15 Ingredients for quick breads
Flour: gives structure to baked products All-Purpose Flour: most common Self-Rising Flour: with leavening agent and salt Leavening agents: ingredients that produce gases in batters and doughs Gases rise the product - light and porous Baking soda: a sodium bicarbonate Baking Powder: dry acid or acid salt, baking soda, starch Carbon dioxides: Chemical reaction between ingredients and baked products Steam and air

16 Ingredients for quick breads cont.
Liquids: hydrate the protein and starch in flour, moisten or dissolve ingredients, & creates steam Proteins and water will later form gluten Examples: water, milk, juice, eggs, and fats Fat: tenderizing agent Fat coats the flour and forms layers

17 Ingredients for quick breads cont.
Eggs: help incorporate air into baked products when you beat them Add color, flavor, and structure Egg proteins coagulate and give batter/dough elasticity and structure Sugar: sweetness, tenderize, & helps crust brown Salt: flavor and regulates action of yeast * Reducing all of these ingredients will result in a lower fat, lower sodium, and lower calorie diet.

18 Food Science Principles
Gluten: protein that give strength and elasticity to batters and dough and structure to baked products Mixing and stirring Quick breads light and tender, mix them for only a short time and handle them carefully 10 strokes Baking Powder: double-acting Release some carbon dioxide when moistened but most released when heated

19 Preparing Biscuits Biscuit Method: Sift dry ingredients
Cut in: to mix solid fat and flour using a pastry blender of two knives s and cutting motion Disperses fine fat particle in the dough, during baking the fat melts between layers of flour and its liquid content turns to steam, giving rise to a flaky biscuit Add liquid all at once Stir until the dough forms a ball

20 Preparing Biscuits cont.
Different styles of biscuits Rolled Biscuits: Biscuit method Roll the dough 8 to 10 times or pat into a circle Cut with a biscuit cutter Up and down motions (no twisting) Gather leftover dough and prepare for a second cutting Handle it as little as possible so it remains tender and flaky

21 Preparing Biscuits cont.
Different styles of biscuits cont. Drop Biscuits: More liquid in proportion to flour than rolled biscuit Not kneaded or rolled Oil sometimes replaces solid fat Uses the muffin method of mixing More mealy than flaky (crumbly) Drop a spoonful of the mixture onto a greased cookie sheet or muffin tins Could also drop biscuits onto casseroles as a topping

22 High Quality Rolled Biscuit
Flaky layers Level tops Straight sides

23 Problems with Biscuits
Under Mixed – low volume, rounded top, slightly rough crust Over Mixed – low volume, rounded smooth top, tough and compact

24 Preparing Muffins Muffin Method: Mix dry ingredients
Make a well in the center of dry ingredients In separate bowl combine beaten eggs with milk and oil, pour into the well Stir just until the dry ingredients are moistened Hardly no stirring = batter will still have lumps Examples: Waffles, pancakes, popovers, and some coffee cakes

25 High Quality Muffin Evenly lightly browned Rounded pebbly tops
Symmetrical or balanced shape Fine light and tender inside Tender, light crumbs Uniform texture

26 Problems with Muffins . . . Under Mixed = low volume, flat top, crumb is course Over Mixed = peaked top, slick crust, broken apart narrow open areas called tunnels

27 Popovers Hallow Center - can be filled
Pudding, cool whip, drizzle with chocolate Do not open the door because it can cause the steam to leave the popover and collapse Biggest problem with popovers is insufficient baking Popover should be crispy with a moist middle

28 Cream Puffs Hollow shell with crisp walls
Can be Filled Dough is called puff paste Éclairs - elongated cream puff filled with custard Requires a Special Mixing Method Bringing water and fat to boil, add flour, stir vigorously over low heat until the mixture forms a ball, remove from heat, stir in eggs until mixture is smooth Cook at high temp then back it down Allows the middle to finish cooking

29 Pancakes Muffin method Use a hot griddle
Ready for turning – look for dry edges and bubbles starting to break on top Cook until underside is golden Best served warm Can reheat but maybe chewy Kids – make extras and freeze them, warm them up in the microwave, add a little butter, easy for breakfast and snacks

30 Yeast Breads

31 Ingredients for Yeast Breads
Flours All-purpose Bread flour: Contains larger amounts of gliadin and glutenin Gliadin and Glutenin makes a stronger and more elastic gluten Whole Wheat or Nonwheat flour: Examples: rye, soy, corn, and oat Lower protein - produce denser loaf

32 Ingredients for Yeast Breads cont.
Liquid Warm liquids used in yeast bread Too high kills the yeast cells Too low temp can slow or stop yeast activity Salt: Regulates the action of yeast and inhibits the action of certain enzymes in the flour Helps enhance the flavor Slows down the rising No salt – Dough is sticky and hard to handle!

33 Ingredients for Yeast Breads cont.
Yeast : microscopic, single-celled plant used as leavening agent (rising agent) Gives a very distinct aroma and flavor Makes the bread light & porous Water temp – see slide before Compressed yeast - made from fresh, moist yeast cells that are pressed into cakes Must refrigerate Active dry yeast - has been dried and made into granules Fast-rising yeast - highly active yeast, smaller granules *For best results buy yeast brand new, use small amounts when needed, and place into the refrigerator when not using

34 Ingredients for Yeast Breads cont.
Sugar: browning, flavor, food for the yeast Produces carbon dioxide Helps with tenderness & texture Fat: tenderness Promotes browning Fine texture Eggs: flavor, richness, color, tenderness, strength, and structure Other ingredients Can alter and change the flavors & textures

35 Mixing Methods Traditional Method Also called conventional method
Dissolve yeast in small amount of warm water Proofing: dissolving yeast is also a method of testing yeast Add remaining liquid, sugar, fat, salt, and some flour If called for egg add at this time Add remain flour to form a soft dough Allowed to rise twice

36 Mixing Methods cont. One-rise Method Also called quick-mix method
Requires fast-rising yeast Mix yeast with some flour and all of the dry ingredients Heat liquid and fat together Add warm liquid to dry ingredients If called for egg add at this time Add remain flour to form a soft dough Knead the dough Cover and allow it to rest for 10 minutes Shape Allow to rise one last time

37 Mixing Methods cont. Mixer Method
Use a mixer instead of a spoon to mix Steps are the same as the one-rise method Why?: Shortens the kneading time

38 Mixing Methods cont. Batter Method Less flour
Also called No-Kneading Method Less flour Yeast mixture is thinner than dough Vigorous stirring, rather than kneading Requires two rising First: In Bowl Second: In Pan

39 Food Science Principles
Kneading - press the dough with the heels of the hands, fold it, and turn it Repeat until dough is smooth and elastic Avoid adding too much extra flour It will make the dough stiff Knead until the dough still feelings soft Do not want the dough to feel like a bouncy ball Too much pressure at the beginning will keep dough sticky and hard to handle Too much pressure at the end can tear or break the gluten strands Room temperature can affect how sticky the dough is Too much moisture or humidity = sticky dough

40 Food Science Principles cont.
Rising Fermentation: yeast acts on the sugars in the bread dough to form alcohol and carbon dioxide Place in a lightly grease bowl – large enough for the dough to double in size Turn dough over so grease side is up & cover with plastic wrap lightly – prevent from drying out Cover with tight plastic wrap & dry dish towel Let set in a warm place 75 to 85 degrees Should double in volume Press two fingers into the dough, if the print stays, then the dough is ready

41 Food Science Principles cont.
Punching the Dough: Punch the dough down to release carbon dioxide Firmly pushing a fist into the dough Fold edges of dough toward the center and turn the dough over so the smooth side is on top May require a second rising Shaping Use sharp knife to cut into sections - allow to rest for 10 minutes Dough should be pliable – accepts many different shapes

42 Food Science Principles cont.
Baking Score: means to make slashes about ½ inch deep across the top of the bread Prevents crust from cracking Oven Spring: First few minutes of baking, dough will rise dramatically Breads have pulled away slightly from the sides of the pan Tapping the bread it should sound hallow After baking, remove the bread from the pan and place it on cooling racks Let the bread cool before cutting! 

43 High Quality Yeast Bread
Large volume Smooth, rounded top, golden brown When sliced Fine and uniform & texture Crumbs are tender and elastic Springs back when touched

44 Problems with yeast bread
Rising too long = large over-expanded cells Overmixed = gluten over developed and too tight and will not rise

45 Timesaving techniques for yeast bread
Cool-rising Doughs: Designed to rise slowly in the refrigerator Everything is the same except you place in pan and let it rise in the refrigerator for 2 to 24 hours Refrigerator Doughs Let it rise in refrigerator and shape after, shape the dough, let rise, and bake

46 Timesaving techniques for yeast bread cont.
Freezer Doughs Mix and knead the dough Can freeze the dough before or after shaping Store up to one month Let thaw, shape, rise, and bake Bread Machines Follow recipe directions that come with the machine

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