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 Quick breads  Muffins, biscuits, pancakes, waffles, popovers  Yeast breads  Sandwich bread, pizza crust, pita bread, rolls, pretzels, pastries, doughnuts,

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Presentation on theme: " Quick breads  Muffins, biscuits, pancakes, waffles, popovers  Yeast breads  Sandwich bread, pizza crust, pita bread, rolls, pretzels, pastries, doughnuts,"— Presentation transcript:

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2  Quick breads  Muffins, biscuits, pancakes, waffles, popovers  Yeast breads  Sandwich bread, pizza crust, pita bread, rolls, pretzels, pastries, doughnuts, croissants, and bagels  Cakes  Cookie  Pastries – pies

3  Freshly baked items  Brown-and-serve baked goods  Refrigerated Doughs  Frozen doughs and baked goods

4  Air tight packaging  Room temperature  Freezer  Prevents molding  Product may dry out – bread is best for toast

5  Depends on the amount of convenience  Baking items at home = cost can vary depending upon the item  The overall taste will increase  Breads Differ In :  Size variation ▪ Watch the serving size!  Extra ingredients ▪ Add to flavoring but can increase the cost  Brand ▪ Sarah Lee vs Great Value

6  Oven temps  Correct temps help baked goods rise properly ▪ Too hot – crust will form too quickly ▪ Too low – rises too fast and gases escape before the structure is ready  Preheat: turn oven on about 10 minutes before using to the desired temp  Choosing pan  Use right depth – too deep or too shallow – may not rise properly  Dark pans – will burn items

7  Prepare the pans  Follow the directions on each recipe  Do not grease the pan when making a high-fat recipe  Grease and flour – rub solid fat on pan and then dust with flour  Spray with cooking spray  Line with paper – foil or parchment paper ▪ Not wax paper

8  Baking  Heated air circulates around the pans freely ▪ 1 inch space between pans and walls  Hot spot: area of concentrated heat that can cause uneven baking and browning ▪ From over crowding the pans  Conventional oven - most recipes are set for this style of oven

9  Baking cont.  Convection oven ▪ Creates a continuous current of hot air that speeds some chemical reactions in foods ▪ Product brown faster and lose less moisture ▪ Baked good rise more quickly ▪ Reduce temp by 25 to 30 degrees ▪ Reduce baking time by 1/3  Microwave oven – does not work for baking

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11  Remove baked products from pans  Muffins immediately unless recipe states ▪ Prevents over baking  Wire cooling rack to promote quick cooling ▪ Solid surface will hold heat and collect moister  Remove cakes and breads ▪ Loosen – run a knife or spatula around the edges ▪ Flip – place wire rack on top and then sandwich flip ▪ Lift – lift pan off ▪ Flip again – setting items up right ▪ Cool – on top of rack

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13  Batter: range in consistency from thin to stiff liquids  Pour Batters: thin batter ▪ Larger amount of liquid and small amount of fat ▪ Examples: Pancakes and popovers  Drip Batter: stiff batter ▪ High proportion of flour ▪ Can drop them from a spoon ▪ Examples: biscuits and muffins

14  Dough: Higher proportion of flour  Stiff enough to shape by hand  Soft dough - shortcake and biscuits  Stiff dough - rolled cookies and pastry

15  Flour: gives structure to baked products  All-Purpose Flour: most common  Self-Rising Flour: with leavening agent and salt  Leavening agents: ingredients that produce gases in batters and doughs  Gases rise the product - light and porous  Baking soda: a sodium bicarbonate  Baking Powder: dry acid or acid salt, baking soda, starch  Carbon dioxides: Chemical reaction between ingredients and baked products  Steam and air

16  Liquids: hydrate the protein and starch in flour, moisten or dissolve ingredients, & creates steam  Proteins and water will later form gluten  Examples: water, milk, juice, eggs, and fats  Fat: tenderizing agent  Fat coats the flour and forms layers

17  Eggs: help incorporate air into baked products when you beat them  Add color, flavor, and structure  Egg proteins coagulate and give batter/dough elasticity and structure  Sugar: sweetness, tenderize, & helps crust brown  Salt: flavor and regulates action of yeast * Reducing all of these ingredients will result in a lower fat, lower sodium, and lower calorie diet.

18  Gluten: protein that give strength and elasticity to batters and dough and structure to baked products  Mixing and stirring  Quick breads light and tender, mix them for only a short time and handle them carefully  10 strokes  Baking Powder: double-acting  Release some carbon dioxide when moistened but most released when heated

19  Biscuit Method:  Sift dry ingredients  Cut in: to mix solid fat and flour using a pastry blender of two knives s and cutting motion ▪ Disperses fine fat particle in the dough, during baking the fat melts between layers of flour and its liquid content turns to steam, giving rise to a flaky biscuit  Add liquid all at once  Stir until the dough forms a ball

20  Different styles of biscuits  Rolled Biscuits: ▪ Biscuit method ▪ Roll the dough 8 to 10 times or pat into a circle ▪ Cut with a biscuit cutter ▪ Up and down motions (no twisting) ▪ Gather leftover dough and prepare for a second cutting ▪ Handle it as little as possible so it remains tender and flaky

21  Different styles of biscuits cont.  Drop Biscuits: ▪ More liquid in proportion to flour than rolled biscuit ▪ Not kneaded or rolled ▪ Oil sometimes replaces solid fat ▪ Uses the muffin method of mixing ▪ More mealy than flaky (crumbly) ▪ Drop a spoonful of the mixture onto a greased cookie sheet or muffin tins ▪ Could also drop biscuits onto casseroles as a topping

22  Flaky layers  Level tops  Straight sides

23  Under Mixed – low volume, rounded top, slightly rough crust  Over Mixed – low volume, rounded smooth top, tough and compact

24  Muffin Method:  Mix dry ingredients  Make a well in the center of dry ingredients  In separate bowl combine beaten eggs with milk and oil, pour into the well  Stir just until the dry ingredients are moistened ▪ Hardly no stirring = batter will still have lumps  Examples: ▪ Waffles, pancakes, popovers, and some coffee cakes

25  Evenly lightly browned  Rounded pebbly tops  Symmetrical or balanced shape  Fine light and tender inside  Tender, light crumbs  Uniform texture

26  Under Mixed = low volume, flat top, crumb is course  Over Mixed = peaked top, slick crust, broken apart narrow open areas called tunnels

27  Hallow Center - can be filled  Pudding, cool whip, drizzle with chocolate  Do not open the door because it can cause the steam to leave the popover and collapse  Biggest problem with popovers is insufficient baking  Popover should be crispy with a moist middle

28  Hollow shell with crisp walls  Can be Filled  Dough is called puff paste  Éclairs - elongated cream puff filled with custard  Requires a Special Mixing Method  Bringing water and fat to boil, add flour, stir vigorously over low heat until the mixture forms a ball, remove from heat, stir in eggs until mixture is smooth  Cook at high temp then back it down  Allows the middle to finish cooking

29  Muffin method  Use a hot griddle  Ready for turning – look for dry edges and bubbles starting to break on top  Cook until underside is golden  Best served warm  Can reheat but maybe chewy  Kids – make extras and freeze them, warm them up in the microwave, add a little butter, easy for breakfast and snacks

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31  Flours  All-purpose  Bread flour: Contains larger amounts of gliadin and glutenin ▪ Gliadin and Glutenin makes a stronger and more elastic gluten  Whole Wheat or Nonwheat flour: ▪ Examples: rye, soy, corn, and oat ▪ Lower protein - produce denser loaf

32  Liquid  Warm liquids used in yeast bread ▪ Too high kills the yeast cells ▪ Too low temp can slow or stop yeast activity  Salt: Regulates the action of yeast and inhibits the action of certain enzymes in the flour  Helps enhance the flavor  Slows down the rising  No salt – Dough is sticky and hard to handle!

33  Yeast : microscopic, single-celled plant used as leavening agent (rising agent)  Gives a very distinct aroma and flavor  Makes the bread light & porous  Water temp – see slide before  Compressed yeast - made from fresh, moist yeast cells that are pressed into cakes ▪ Must refrigerate  Active dry yeast - has been dried and made into granules  Fast-rising yeast - highly active yeast, smaller granules *For best results buy yeast brand new, use small amounts when needed, and place into the refrigerator when not using

34  Sugar: browning, flavor, food for the yeast  Produces carbon dioxide  Helps with tenderness & texture  Fat: tenderness  Promotes browning  Fine texture  Eggs: flavor, richness, color, tenderness, strength, and structure  Other ingredients  Can alter and change the flavors & textures

35  Traditional Method  Also called conventional method  Dissolve yeast in small amount of warm water ▪ Proofing: dissolving yeast is also a method of testing yeast  Add remaining liquid, sugar, fat, salt, and some flour  If called for egg add at this time  Add remain flour to form a soft dough  Allowed to rise twice

36  One-rise Method  Also called quick-mix method  Requires fast-rising yeast  Mix yeast with some flour and all of the dry ingredients  Heat liquid and fat together  Add warm liquid to dry ingredients  If called for egg add at this time  Add remain flour to form a soft dough  Knead the dough  Cover and allow it to rest for 10 minutes  Shape  Allow to rise one last time

37  Mixer Method  Use a mixer instead of a spoon to mix  Steps are the same as the one-rise method ▪ Why?: Shortens the kneading time

38  Batter Method ▪ Also called No-Kneading Method  Less flour ▪ Yeast mixture is thinner than dough  Vigorous stirring, rather than kneading  Requires two rising ▪ First: In Bowl ▪ Second: In Pan

39  Kneading - press the dough with the heels of the hands, fold it, and turn it  Repeat until dough is smooth and elastic  Avoid adding too much extra flour ▪ It will make the dough stiff  Knead until the dough still feelings soft ▪ Do not want the dough to feel like a bouncy ball  Too much pressure at the beginning will keep dough sticky and hard to handle  Too much pressure at the end can tear or break the gluten strands  Room temperature can affect how sticky the dough is ▪ Too much moisture or humidity = sticky dough

40  Rising  Fermentation: yeast acts on the sugars in the bread dough to form alcohol and carbon dioxide  Place in a lightly grease bowl – large enough for the dough to double in size  Turn dough over so grease side is up & cover with plastic wrap lightly – prevent from drying out  Cover with tight plastic wrap & dry dish towel  Let set in a warm place 75 to 85 degrees  Should double in volume ▪ Press two fingers into the dough, if the print stays, then the dough is ready

41  Punching the Dough: Punch the dough down to release carbon dioxide  Firmly pushing a fist into the dough  Fold edges of dough toward the center and turn the dough over so the smooth side is on top  May require a second rising  Shaping  Use sharp knife to cut into sections - allow to rest for 10 minutes  Dough should be pliable – accepts many different shapes

42  Baking  Score: means to make slashes about ½ inch deep across the top of the bread ▪ Prevents crust from cracking  Oven Spring: First few minutes of baking, dough will rise dramatically  Breads have pulled away slightly from the sides of the pan  Tapping the bread it should sound hallow  After baking, remove the bread from the pan and place it on cooling racks  Let the bread cool before cutting!

43  Large volume  Smooth, rounded top, golden brown  When sliced  Fine and uniform & texture  Crumbs are tender and elastic  Springs back when touched

44  Rising too long = large over-expanded cells  Overmixed = gluten over developed and too tight and will not rise

45  Cool-rising Doughs: Designed to rise slowly in the refrigerator  Everything is the same except you place in pan and let it rise in the refrigerator for 2 to 24 hours  Refrigerator Doughs  Let it rise in refrigerator and shape after, shape the dough, let rise, and bake

46  Freezer Doughs  Mix and knead the dough ▪ Can freeze the dough before or after shaping  Store up to one month  Let thaw, shape, rise, and bake  Bread Machines  Follow recipe directions that come with the machine


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