Presentation on theme: "Forces Uniting Germans: language reaction against Napoleon Zollverein (except Austria) traditions, customs, literature Forces Dividing Germans:"— Presentation transcript:
Forces Uniting Germans: language reaction against Napoleon Zollverein (except Austria) traditions, customs, literature Forces Dividing Germans: Austria & France 1848 failures religion: Catholic south, Protestant north
Review What are the five elements of Nationalism that exist in ALL Nations (or Nation-States)? Language Culture History Religion Territory
Napoleon French troops conquered and occupied German States, this led to nations He encouraged princes to consolidate smaller states In 1792 there were 300-400 independent states, by 1815 only 30 remained Russia armies were going to invade Germany to get Napoleon, the Germans now had a common enemy which led to feelings of Nationalism
Zollverein Customs union which eliminated trade barriers (remove internal customs), although upholding a protectionist tariff system with foreign trade partners, this led to economic nationalism Germany was rich in resources and became industrialized during this era
Revolution of 1848 The Princes compromised on a constitution that called for an emperor and a two-house parliament. The Prussian king Frederick William IV was invited to be emperor but he refused. “He refused to take the Crown from the gutter.” The German Confederation of 1815 was reestablished.
A True Conservative... wanted to maintain Prussian power in German States to preserve the monarchy cared little for nationalism, a middle- class cause German Chancellor 1862-1890
... in Liberal Nationalist Disguise! courted the middle-class for success promoted economic development accepted trappings of a parliamentary system This is Realpolitik
Prussia’s King Wilhelm I desired military reform... which would involve a 25% tax increase. Liberals in parliament said NO, so... Wilhelm selected Bismarck as chancellor to break the deadlock. Bismarck sent Prussian bureaucrats to collect taxes without Diet approval, and the people willingly paid!
Towards Unification Schleswig & Holstein (1863) Austro-Prussian War (1866) Franco-Prussian War (1870) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= 0Puk_jLli5s&feature=fvw
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=igqTIpQOt 8Q&feature=related: Video Overview of Ems http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=igqTIpQOt 8Q&feature=related upsets the balance of power Prussian victory over Austria and Denmark upsets the balance of power in Europe “Ems Telegram.” He provokes France to war by issuing the false “Ems Telegram.” (Napoleon III wanted to go to war) propaganda Bismarck uses propaganda to fuel anti-French feelings and increase nationalism France declares War on Prussia. Prussia defeats France and reduces it to a 2 nd rate power
French defeat at the Battle of Sedan Napoleon III taken prisoner (+ 82,000 other Frenchmen)
Creation of the German Empire, Jan. 1871 Wilhelm I becomes the German Kaiser unity imposed from above; constitution seen as a gift from the princes to the German people rather than a right of the people Reichstag = universal male suffrage, but little true power Bundesrat = appointed members
Treaty of Frankfurt, Feb. 1871 surrender of Alsace- Lorraine National humiliation for France 500 million francs indemnity ceremonial entry to Paris by Prussian army
Was Bismarck a genius diplomat, architect of a long-laid plan of German unification? Was Bismarck merely a master opportunist?
Not through speeches and majority decisions will the great questions of the day be decided - that was the great mistake of 1848 and 1849 - but by iron and blood. "Laws are like sausages. It's better not to see them being made." "A generation that has taken a beating is always followed by a generation that deals one." "I am bored. The great things are done. The German Reich is made." "Some damned foolish thing in the Balkans." (Bismarck's prediction on what would trigger the next war)
Bismarck's Unification of Germany http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j3 k724JX-PY&feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j3 k724JX-PY&feature=related