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1. Introduction to CAD Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp Makine Mühendisliği Bölümü Gebze Yüksek Teknoloji.

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Presentation on theme: "1. Introduction to CAD Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp Makine Mühendisliği Bölümü Gebze Yüksek Teknoloji."— Presentation transcript:

1 1. Introduction to CAD e-mail: Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp e-mail: azsenalp@gyte.edu.trazsenalp@gyte.edu.tr Makine Mühendisliği Bölümü Gebze Yüksek Teknoloji Enstitüsü ME 521 Computer Aided Design

2 CAD: CAD: Computer Aided Design is the use of computer technology for the process of design and design- documentation. CAM: CAM: Computer Aided Manufacturing Production operations planning, management and control, directly or indirectly brought face to face with the computer systems technology CAE: CAE: Computer Aided Engineering CAD geometry is analyzed using computer systems, by giving designers the opportunity to work on product design and simulation to improve and optimize the design. Basic Definitions Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 2 GYTE-Makine Mühendisliği Bölümü 1. Introduction to CAD 1. Introduction to CAD

3 An Essential Tool for Mech. Design and Drafting – More than one million mechanical engineers and designers worldwide use advanced 3-D solid modeling technology – Another two million use 2-D mechanical drafting A Key for Improved Productivity – Entire automobiles, airplanes, and jet engines are being designed in an integrated (CAD/CAE/CAM) manner. – Internet is being used to exchange design data worldwide. – Products that previously took several years to bring to market can be developed in just months. – The products are more reliable, meet customer expectations better, and are less costly to manufacture. Basic Definitions Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 3 GYTE-Makine Mühendisliği Bölümü 1. Introduction to CAD 1. Introduction to CAD

4 Mechanical Design and Visualization – Detailed Design and Electronic Drafting – Parametric Modeling Motion Simulation/Animation Engineering Analysis and Optimization – Pre- and Post- Graphical Processors for Finite Element Analysis (Mechanics, Dynamics, Thermo-flow, etc.) – Identification of Optimal Design Parameters and Configurations – Motion Analysis (Location, Speed, Acceleration and Force) Manufacturing Planning of Simulation – Machining – Industrial Robots Broad Applications Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 4 GYTE-Makine Mühendisliği Bölümü 1. Introduction to CAD 1. Introduction to CAD

5 Technology Advance of CAD (1/2) In 1960's mechanism design satisfying several geometric constraints design parameter optimization simple 2-D graphics In 1970's wireframe modeling free-form surface modeling – mainframe computers Late 1970's solid modeling Early 1980's turn-key CAD systems CAD/CAM integration mechanical feature recognition from a CAD database Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 5 GYTE-Makine Mühendisliği Bölümü

6 1. Introduction to CAD 1. Introduction to CAD Technology Advance of CAD (2/2) Middle 1980's feature-based CAD system – mini and micro computers parametric design – PC's & Turnkey systems (Pro/ENGINEER Products) Late 1980's design for manufacturing design for automated assembly Early 1990's concurrent engineering design integrated design, analysis and optimization Present integrated design, analysis and optimization virtual-prototyping and automated design optimization Internet based design automation Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 6 GYTE-Makine Mühendisliği Bölümü

7 1. Introduction to CAD 1. Introduction to CAD Combining the precision of electronic graphics and the mathematical processing power of a digital computer Design automation and integration of analysis, animation/simulation, planning and manufacturing Optimization Unique Characteristics of A CAD System Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 7 GYTE-Makine Mühendisliği Bölümü

8 1. Introduction to CAD 1. Introduction to CAD The Primary Capability – Generating Perfect Scale Drawings – accurate scale line drawings in 2D and 3D – model of sculptured surfaces – solid model of objects This capability sets CAD apart from other uses of Computer Many Diverse Capabilities – artistic creation of shaded 3D shapes and patterns – automatic generation of design databases – facilitating engineering analysis – providing input to, monitoring, simulating and controlling manufacturing activities. Functions of CAD Systems Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 8 GYTE-Makine Mühendisliği Bölümü

9 1. Introduction to CAD 1. Introduction to CAD Specification of Design Geometry Computer-aided drafting (interactive graphics and user interface) Customizing CAD systems Geometric Modeling and Representation Computer model of part and assembly design (data structure and data base design) Visualization Architecture view of a design Computer games and education programs Generation of Manufacturing Oriented Database Feature-based design Parametric design Animation and Simulation Mechanism CNC machining Robot trajectory Automobile crash Functions of Computer-Aided Geometry Design – (a) Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 9 GYTE-Makine Mühendisliği Bölümü

10 1. Introduction to CAD 1. Introduction to CAD Tolerance Representation and Automated Tolerancing Dimension relation analysis Tolerance analysis (error stack-up) Tolerance synthesis (tolerance design, tolerance specification) Pre- and Post-interfaces to Finite Element Analysis Programs Automated mesh generation Graphical display of stress distribution Design Automation Design optimization Design for manufacturing Design for automated assembly Concurrent engineering design Virtual (or Soft) Prototyping Reverse Engineering Functions of Computer-Aided Geometry Design – (b) Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 10 GYTE-Makine Mühendisliği Bölümü

11 1. Introduction to CAD 1. Introduction to CAD Graphical Information – Part geometry – Topological and assembly relations Textual Information – Dimensions – Tolerances (dimensional & geometric) – Materials – Surface finishes Information Embedded in a CAD System Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 11 GYTE-Makine Mühendisliği Bölümü

12 1. Introduction to CAD 1. Introduction to CAD Past Approach The geographical information is represented using low level graphical elements such as points, lines, arcs, etc. The textual information is represented as texts, notes and symbols attached to a drawing. Ideal/Present Approach – feature-based modeling To represent part geometry using high-level feature primitives such as holes, slots, pockets, etc. (consistent to the engineering practice), and to represent dimensions, tolerances, surface finishes, etc. as meaningful design entities. Data Organization in CAD Systems Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 12 GYTE-Makine Mühendisliği Bölümü

13 1. Introduction to CAD 1. Introduction to CAD Representing geometric shape – Computer graphics (2D) – Geometric modeling (3D) Interactive Graphical Programming – Programming on different platforms – Graphical User Interface Manipulating and storing design data – Data structure design – Database system Generating feasible designs (automatically) – Knowledge reasoning – Knowledge-based system – Fuzzy logic – Artificial neural networks Evaluating design alternatives and identifying the optimal solution – numerical optimization – finite elements method – cost modeling and analysis Tools Commonly Used in Computer Aided Design Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 13 GYTE-Makine Mühendisliği Bölümü

14 1. Introduction to CAD 1. Introduction to CAD Applications in Mechanical Designs Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 14 GYTE-Makine Mühendisliği Bölümü

15 1. Introduction to CAD 1. Introduction to CAD Sculptured Surface Design and Modeling Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 15 GYTE-Makine Mühendisliği Bölümü

16 1. Introduction to CAD 1. Introduction to CAD Visual Reality in Architectural Design Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 16 GYTE-Makine Mühendisliği Bölümü

17 1. Introduction to CAD 1. Introduction to CAD Motion Animation and Simulation (Tractors) Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 17 GYTE-Makine Mühendisliği Bölümü

18 1. Introduction to CAD 1. Introduction to CAD Larger Assemblies CNC assembly, 4,000 components total Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 18 GYTE-Makine Mühendisliği Bölümü

19 1. Introduction to CAD 1. Introduction to CAD Applications in Stress Analysis Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 19 GYTE-Makine Mühendisliği Bölümü

20 The Evolution of CAD 2D drafting replaced manual drafting 3D wireframe modelling 3D surface modelling 3D solid modelling Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 20 GYTE-Makine Mühendisliği Bölümü 1. Introduction to CAD 1. Introduction to CAD

21 2D CAD Drawing tools Line types Hatching Dimensioning Etc. Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 21 GYTE-Makine Mühendisliği Bölümü 1. Introduction to CAD 1. Introduction to CAD

22 Limitations of 2D CAD Simply automates manual drafting Still no 3D representation of the object Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 22 GYTE-Makine Mühendisliği Bölümü 1. Introduction to CAD 1. Introduction to CAD

23 3D Modelling Geometry must be located relative to a 3D coordinate system CAD systems use a global coordinate system and local coordinate systems Various methods available for inputting geometry – work planes – direct keyboard entry – snap to existing entities – etc. Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 23 GYTE-Makine Mühendisliği Bölümü 1. Introduction to CAD 1. Introduction to CAD

24 Wireframe Modelling Geometric entities are lines and curves in 3D Volume or surfaces of object not defined Easy to store and display Hard to interpret - ambiguous Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 24 GYTE-Makine Mühendisliği Bölümü 1. Introduction to CAD 1. Introduction to CAD

25 Wireframe Modelling Hard to interpret - ambiguous Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 25 GYTE-Makine Mühendisliği Bölümü 1. Introduction to CAD 1. Introduction to CAD

26 Hidden-Line Wireframe Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 26 GYTE-Makine Mühendisliği Bölümü 1. Introduction to CAD 1. Introduction to CAD

27 Surface Modelling Models 2D surfaces in 3D space All points on surface are defined – useful for machining, visualization, etc. Surfaces have no thickness, objects have no volume or solid properties Surfaces may be open Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 27 GYTE-Makine Mühendisliği Bölümü 1. Introduction to CAD 1. Introduction to CAD

28 Surface Modelling Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 28 GYTE-Makine Mühendisliği Bölümü 1. Introduction to CAD 1. Introduction to CAD

29 Solid Modelling Complete and unambiguous Models have volume, and mass properties Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 29 GYTE-Makine Mühendisliği Bölümü 1. Introduction to CAD 1. Introduction to CAD

30 Designing in 2D 3D object is represented by 2D views The user must make sure views are consistent and valid The user must generate views from 3D object, and visualize object from views Spatial visualization has been a key skill for engineers! These skills have been taught for generations as engineering graphics Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 30 GYTE-Makine Mühendisliği Bölümü 1. Introduction to CAD 1. Introduction to CAD

31 Designing in 3D New CAD systems allow the designer to work directly in 3D The model can be viewed and manipulated easily and naturally When the design is complete, 2D drawings and views can be generated automatically Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 31 GYTE-Makine Mühendisliği Bölümü 1. Introduction to CAD 1. Introduction to CAD

32 Workspace and Sequence Simulation Ergonomics and accessibility test Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 32 GYTE-Makine Mühendisliği Bölümü

33 1. Introduction to CAD 1. Introduction to CAD Integrated CAD/CAE/CAM Systems Professional CAD/CAE/CAM Tools – CATIA (Dassault Systemes - IBM) – Unigraphics Solutions (Electronic Data Systems Corp - EDS) – I-DEAS (EDS) – Pro/ENGINEER (PTC) Other CAD and Graphics Packages – AutoCAD Mechanical Desktop – SolidWorks (CATIA) – Solid Edge (EDS) – MicroStation – Intergraph Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 33 GYTE-Makine Mühendisliği Bölümü

34 Pro/ENGINEER One of the CAD/CAM/CAE industry’s leading suppliers of software tools from Parametric Technology Corp. (PTC) A pioneer of the new feature-based, parametrically driven design paradigm in late 1980s, now industrial standard. A system used to automate the development of a mechanical product from its conceptual design through production. Offering integrated software technologies to reduce time to market, improve engineering process, and optimize product quality. One of the fastest growing companies in the mechanical design automation market Improved user’s interface in recent release. Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 34 GYTE-Makine Mühendisliği Bölümü 1. Introduction to CAD 1. Introduction to CAD

35 Pro/ENGINEER Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 35 GYTE-Makine Mühendisliği Bölümü 1. Introduction to CAD 1. Introduction to CAD

36 Pro/ENGINEER Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 36 GYTE-Makine Mühendisliği Bölümü 1. Introduction to CAD 1. Introduction to CAD

37 Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 37 GYTE-Makine Mühendisliği Bölümü 1. Introduction to CAD 1. Introduction to CAD Pro/ENGINEER

38 CATIA A process-centric CAD/CAM software solution marketed exclusively by IBM and developed by Dassault Systems A system used to design and manufacture many complex 3D products. Today, 7 out of every 10 airplanes and 4 out of every 10 cars are designed using CATIA-CADAM Solutions, making it the de facto standard for these markets. A software of choice for a wide variety of applications ranging from consumer goods and machinery to plant design and shipbuilding. 300,000 CATIA users worldwide, nearly half in English language markets Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 38 GYTE-Makine Mühendisliği Bölümü 1. Introduction to CAD 1. Introduction to CAD

39 CATIA Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 39 GYTE-Makine Mühendisliği Bölümü 1. Introduction to CAD 1. Introduction to CAD

40 I-DEAS A full spectrum design modeling, analysis, simulation, and manufacturing CAD/CAE/CAM software from Structural Dynamics Research Corporation (SDRC) One of the older and well-established CAD/CAE system, having a significant market share. Having very strong CAE capabilities A software of choice for a wide variety of applications ranging from consumer goods and machinery to automotive (Ford Motor Company) Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 40 GYTE-Makine Mühendisliği Bölümü 1. Introduction to CAD 1. Introduction to CAD

41 I-DEAS Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 41 GYTE-Makine Mühendisliği Bölümü 1. Introduction to CAD 1. Introduction to CAD

42 Unigraphics A full spectrum design modeling, analysis, simulation, and manufacturing CAD/CAE/CAM software from Unigraphics Solutions One of the older and well-established CAD/CAE system. A software of choice for a wide variety of applications, especially in automotive and aerospace product development. Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 42 GYTE-Makine Mühendisliği Bölümü 1. Introduction to CAD 1. Introduction to CAD

43 Solid Edge Powerful modeling tools Integrated design management Productivity for large assemblies Ease of adoption Model faster Eliminate errors with engineering aids Drafting tools Unmatched interoperability Design-through-manufacturing Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 43 GYTE-Makine Mühendisliği Bölümü 1. Introduction to CAD 1. Introduction to CAD

44 AutoCAD and Mechanical Desktop A world’s leading PC-based 3D mechanical design package, from AutoDesk Inc. Used to be the primary PC drafting package (dealer, PC) The world’s most popular CAD software due to its lower cost and PC platform New features (Mechanical Desktop): – ACIS 3.0 Advanced Solid Modeling Engine – NURBS Surface Modeling – Robust Assembly Modeling and Automated Associative Drafting Flexible programming tools, AutoLISP, ADS and ARX Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 44 GYTE-Makine Mühendisliği Bölümü

45 SolidWorks 3D Computer-aided Mechanical Design software from SolidWorks Corp. founded in 1993 and acquired be Dassault System in 1997. A leader of the group of new lower-priced mechanical design solution companies based upon component software. A system used for designing and engineering parts and assemblies in a completed 3D-centric process linked to automated assembly and drafting functions. The first solid modeling program to run in native Windows environments, and sells for a fraction of the cost of similar programs Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 45 GYTE-Makine Mühendisliği Bölümü 1. Introduction to CAD 1. Introduction to CAD

46 SolidWorks - COSMOS SolidWorks - a design automation software package used to produce parts, assemblies and drawings Package fully embedded within SolidWorks software COSMOSXpress - an easy-to-use stress analysis tool COSMOSWorks - stress, frequency, buckling, thermal, and 4optimization analyses COSMOSMotion - motion simulation and kinematics. COSMOSFloWorks - fluid flow analysis with robust capabilities normally found in high-end CFD programs. COSMOSEMS - 3D-field simulator for low frequency electromagnetic and electromechanical applications COSMOSDesignSTAR™ is a powerful design analysis program that works with most popular CAD programs. Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 46 GYTE-Makine Mühendisliği Bölümü 1. Introduction to CAD 1. Introduction to CAD

47 Integrated CAD/CAE Tools ANSYS (from ANSYS Inc.) – A growth leader in CAE and integrated design analysis and optimization (DAO) software – Covering solid mechanics, kinematics, dynamics, and multi-physics (CFD, EMAG, HT, Acoustics) – Interfacing with key CAD systems NASTRAN (from MacNeal-Schwendler) – A powerful structural analysis program for analyzing stress, vibration, dynamic, nonlinear and heat transfer characteristics. – PATRAN provides an open flexible MCAE environment for multidisciplinary design analysis, and simulates product performance and manufacturing processes. Pro/MECHANICA (integrated with Pro/E) A system provides an open flexible MCAE environment for multidisciplinary design analysis, and simulate product performance and manufacturing processes. Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 47 GYTE-Makine Mühendisliği Bölümü

48 1. Introduction to CAD 1. Introduction to CAD Integrated CAD/CAE Tools Mastercam (from CNC Software, Inc.) – A system for generating 2- through 5- axis milling, turning, wire EDM, lasers, mold base development and 3D design and drafting. Virtual Gibbs (from Gibbs and Associates) – A powerful, full featured CAM system for NC programming Varimetrix (from Varimetrix Corp.) – A system with design modeling, CAM (planning, resource management and CNC programming), and drafting Pro/MANUFACTURING (integrated with Pro/E) – A system for generating machine code (CNC codes for 3 axis milling, turning and wire EDM) to produce parts. Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 48 GYTE-Makine Mühendisliği Bölümü

49 1. Introduction to CAD 1. Introduction to CAD SURFCAM (from Surfware Inc. CA) – An outgrowth of the Diehl family’s machine shop – A system for generating 2~5- axis milling, turning, drilling, and wire EDM. – Toolpath verification (MachineWorks Ltd.) Rhinoceros (NURBS modeling) – Industrial, marine, and jewelry designs; cad/cam; rapid prototyping; and reverse engineering Integrated CAD/CAE Tools Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 49 GYTE-Makine Mühendisliği Bölümü

50 Pro/ENGINEER Photorealistic Rendering of Concepts or Finished Models Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 50 GYTE-Makine Mühendisliği Bölümü 1. Introduction to CAD 1. Introduction to CAD

51 Vibration Simulation Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 51 GYTE-Makine Mühendisliği Bölümü 1. Introduction to CAD 1. Introduction to CAD

52 Mechanism Simulation Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 52 GYTE-Makine Mühendisliği Bölümü 1. Introduction to CAD 1. Introduction to CAD

53 Gear train Simulation Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 53 GYTE-Makine Mühendisliği Bölümü 1. Introduction to CAD 1. Introduction to CAD

54 Crash Simulation Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 54 GYTE-Makine Mühendisliği Bölümü 1. Introduction to CAD 1. Introduction to CAD

55 Sheet Metal Forming Simulation Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 55 GYTE-Makine Mühendisliği Bölümü 1. Introduction to CAD 1. Introduction to CAD

56 Forging Simulation Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 56 GYTE-Makine Mühendisliği Bölümü 1. Introduction to CAD 1. Introduction to CAD

57 Pipe Bending Simulation Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 57 GYTE-Makine Mühendisliği Bölümü 1. Introduction to CAD 1. Introduction to CAD

58 Hydroforming Simulation Dr. Ahmet Zafer Şenalp ME 521 58 GYTE-Makine Mühendisliği Bölümü 1. Introduction to CAD 1. Introduction to CAD


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