2What was the Timeline? 1670 – The Hudson’s Bay Company is founded. 1778 – Capt. James Cookrecognizes the value ofPacific Northwest furs
31784 – The Northwest FurCompany splits from theHBCo.1786 to 1789 – John Meares(British naval officer and trader)conducts fur trade with theOrient.1804 to 1806 – Lewis & Clarkrecognize the beaver as aresource.
41810 – John Jacob Astor, founder of the Pacific Fur Company,sends two expeditions to thePacific Northwest.1813 – The Pacific Fur Companysells out to the Northwest FurCo.1821 – Northwest Fur C. and HBCo.Merge (and become onecompany again).
5Where were the Fur Markets? The three main markets for furs were:The Eastern United StatesEuropeNorthern China
6How did this effect the Pacific Northwest? From 1800 to 1840 became known as the “Great American Fur Rush”From 1780 to 1840 Beaver pelts were in great demandThe interior commerce in the Pacific Northwest thrived on the fur trade.
7Who benefited from the Fur Trade? Native AmericansFur TrappersFur TradersMerchant menOrganizersFinanciers
8What Fur Companies were there? The Pacific Fur CompanyThe Northwest Fur CompanyThe Hudson’s Bay CompanyThe Rocky Mountain Fur Company
9The Pacific Fur Company Founded by a German immigrant (John Jacob Astor)Sent two expeditions to the Pacific Northwest to open a fur trading businessThe first traveled by ship (Tonquin) under the command of Duncan McDonald to the mouth of the Columbia River
10The second traveled overland under the command of Wilson Price Hund and Donald MacKenzie They departed St. Louis in September 1810, and arrive in January 1812Both expeditions are a disaster, and Astor finally sells out to the Pacific Fur Company (late during the war of 1812)
11The Northwest Fur Company A newly formed British Company that controlled the fur trade “west” of the Canadian RockiesWas formed by merging several smaller independent fur trading groups in 1784Mainly consisted of men who had split (left) the HBCo.
12The Rocky Mountain Fur Company Formed in 1823 by Maj. Andrew Henry and Gen. William AshleyBoth Henry and Ashley sell out their interests in 1826 to Jedediah Smith, William Sublette and David JacksonThe members of this new company in 1826 consists of mountain men who are hardy and very independent
13Some of the members are: Jim BridgerBenjamin BonnevilleJeremiah JohnsonThe Sublette brothersThe mountain men were responsible for the establishment of the Oregon TrailThey also discovered and named physical features (and mountain passes) on the trails
14These men are credited with finding, exploring and mapping the future wagon and trade routes west. Their contribution, while not the most successful financial business, was priceless when you count the contributions to the development and opening of the western frontier.
15So, How did the Fur Trade work? There was an annual “rendezvous” where the fur trapper and the trader metThis event was usually moved from site to site each yearMost were held in what is today the Green River valley of Wyoming.
16Traders brought trade items like BlanketsCoffeeSugarGunsGunpowderLeadTrinketsCloth
17Trappers would bring their years’ accumulation of beaver and other animal pelts. The trapper and the trader would bargain and ultimately arrive at an agreed price for the furs.The price could be money (credit), or goods, or a combination of both
18The rendezvous was also the mountain man’s social event of the year Many trappers also brought their wives (Native American) to the rendezvousSome trappers were known to have spent their entire years earnings on clothing and trinkets for their wifeThe rendezvous was also the mountain man’s social event of the year
19There was:Horse racingDancesDrinkingFightingSome trappers survived a year in the wilderness, but did not survive the rendezvous
20The last fur trade rendezvous was held in 1840 By this time the fur trade had collapsedWhy do you think it collapsed?The fur trappers trade made have been finished, but their trails became the roads that thousands of emigrants would use to come West.