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Crucible of Freedom: Civil War, 1861-1865 Chapter 15.

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Presentation on theme: "Crucible of Freedom: Civil War, 1861-1865 Chapter 15."— Presentation transcript:

1 Crucible of Freedom: Civil War, 1861-1865 Chapter 15

2 Causes of the Civil War

3 The American Civil War (1861-1865) 1.Introduction 2.Lincoln’s Dilemma 3.Opposing Sides and Strategies 4.Early War (1861-2) 1.East and West 2.Emancipation 5.Civil War Soldiers 1.Draft and Riots 2.Life for Soldiers 6.The War Continues (1863-1865) 1.The East and West 2.The End 7.Conclusion

4 Themes 1.Compare and contrast the North and South 2.Highlight some of the important battles of the Civil War and life for soldiers

5 Secession From Nov – March 1860-61, 7 states left the Union – SC led the way, Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, Georgia and Texas – Argued the Constitution was a contract and the North broke it by not enforcing the Fugitive Slave Laws*** Cry for “States’ Rights” – complete independence of Southern states from federal government control

6 Lincoln’s Dilemma The Civil War, 1861-65

7 Confederate States of America These 7 states drafted their own Constitution and called themselves the Confederate States of America (Confederacy) – Constitution resembled the US Constitution but it “protected and recognized” slavery in new territories – Stressed that each state would be “sovereign and independent” Chose Jefferson Davis to be their President Lincoln said he wouldn’t take active measures to force the states back in the Union

8 President Lincoln 7 states had seceded; many thought he wasn’t up for the job Lincoln: morally opposed to slavery and did not support its spread but would not interfere where it was legal Affirmed authority over all US territory in states that had seceded from the Union

9 Fort Sumter (Background) Fort Sumter, in SC, was low on supplies Lincoln informed South Carolina’s Governor he was sending food and supplies in an unarmed ship

10 For Sumter (April 12, 1861) Confederates attacked Lincoln requested 75,000 volunteers to suppress the rebellion 4 more states seceded: – VA, NC, TN, and AK

11 Ft. Sumpter

12 Responses to Secession Some in VA opposed secession People from western counties in VA chose a new governor and applied for statehood in the Union Debate was also strong in TN Sides are chosen…  Lee Lee Sides with Virginia, does not agree with slavery but cannot fight against his home state!

13 Confederate States of America (1861-1865) StatesConstitutionPresidentCapital SC MS FL AL GA LA TX VA NC TN AK States’ rights and the protection of slavery Jefferson DavisRichmond, VA

14 Border States Border states = slave states that remained loyal to the Union Included: DE, MD, KT, MI, and WV

15 Secession Border states = blue

16 Lincoln and Border States Following confrontation in Baltimore, the area was occupied Lincoln suspended writ of habeas corpus – Confederates could be jailed without charges indefinitely

17 Opposing Sides and Strategies The Civil War, 1861-1865

18 Mobilizing For War Both sides unprepared… North (UNION) Army: 16,000 men, mainly in West 1/3 join Confederacy No strong president since Polk Lincoln viewed as weak No direct tax structure No draft Many industries Connected by railroads South (CONFEDERACY) No tax structure No navy Two gunpowder factories Poorly equipped Unconnected railroads

19 Northern Advantages Population Industrial Production & Transportation Farm Acreage North 23 states 22 million people 90% of industrial capacity 71”% of railroad mileage 75% of nation’s farms South 11 states 9 million people (5.5 million whites) 10% of industrial capacity 29% of RR mileage 25% of nation’s farms

20 20 Figure 15.2: Comparative Population and Economic Resources of the Union and the Confederacy, 1861

21 Anaconda Plan: Union strategy for victory in the Civil War 1.Union navy would blockade southern ports to prevent trade 2.Union would take control of the Mississippi River, cutting the CSA into 2 parts 3.Union armies would capture Confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia SIG – most difficult objective due to the leadership of Robert E. Lee Confederate commander of the Army of Northern Virginia who opposed secession but felt loyalty to his home state of Virginia

22 Union Strategies Initial Strategy: – Blockade of southern ports – Capture Mississippi River Scott’s Great Snake

23 Southern Advantages “Home Court Advantage” – Most fighting took place in the south Concrete War Aims – South fought to preserve their way of life – North fought to preserve the Union Officers – Many of the best officers fought with the confederacy “King Cotton”

24 Southern Society (1860)

25 King Cotton Southern cotton was traded to European nations – 75% of all raw cotton in GB’s factories came from the South Southerners gambled the British would intervene Why did “King Cotton” fail? – British factories had surpluses of raw cotton – Cotton was imported from Egypt and India – Emancipation Proclamation = war to free slaves

26 Financing the War 1)Federal government a.raised funds by land sales and tariffs, but need other sources 2)North and South raise taxes a.5% raised in the South b.21% raised in the North 3)Issued war bonds a.loans from citizens, repaid by future generations b.paid back in gold or silver 4)Print paper money a.Not backed by gold or silver b.$150 million in greenbacks i. public had to have confidence in the money i.Union –legal to pay most public & private debt ii.Confederates –never make legal; print too much and caused inflation 5)National Bank a.banks can get bank charter to issue national bank notes b.private banks can issue war bonds

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28 Early War, 1861- 62 The Civil War, 1861-1865

29 Bull Run Bull Run /Manassas (June 1861) Union forces (led by McDowell) against Confederates (led by Beauregard) Union forces were initially successful Confederate reinforcements arrived and routed Union troops Bull Run/Manassas (Gods and Generals) Bull Run/Manassas

30 Bull Run/Manassas (Impact) Union troops were determined never again to be humiliated Boosted confidence of Confederate forces

31 Early War (1861-62) Lincoln replaced McDowell with McClellan who created Army of the Potomac Transformed unorganized troops into disciplined army Remained cautious during fighting in the East George McClellan

32 Shiloh (April 1862) Union forces were led by Grant Confederates staged a surprise attack

33 Shiloh (April 1862) Confederate forces were successful until Union reinforcements arrived Fighting was very bloody: about 23,000 total casualties

34 The Drummer Boy of Shiloh John Clem ran away from his Newark, Ohio home in 1860. He was 9 years old. When war broke the following year he attempted to join the Union Army but was rejected. Undeterred, the determined 10-year-old tagged along with the 22nd Michigan Volunteer Infantry until he was finally adopted as its mascot and drummer. He was supplied with a scaled-down uniform and a shortened rifle. Clem distinguished himself at the Battle of Shiloh where an artillery shell destroyed his drum. Newspapers got hold of his story and he soon became known as the "Drummer Boy of Shiloh." Clem gained further renown at the Battle of Chickamauga in September of 1863. In the thickest of the fighting, three bullets passed through his cap without doing him any harm. Separated from his unit, he escaped capture when he shot and killed a Confederate soldier who ordered him to halt. Newspapers now labeled him "The Drummer Boy of Chickamauga." Little Clem's luck ran out a month later when he was captured by Confederate cavalry while he was serving as a train guard. He was freed in a prisoner exchange a short time later, but not before the Confederates held him up as evidence that the North was so desperate that it would enlist children in its fight. Clem was rewarded with advancement to the rank of Sergeant and assigned to the headquarters of the Army of the Cumberland. Clem left the Army in 1864 and rejoined it in 1871 as a 2nd Lieutenant. He rose in rank to brigadier general becoming Assistant Quartermaster General of the United States Army in 1903. He retired from the Army in 1915 and died at age 85 in 1937. He is buried in Arlington National Cemetery.

35 Battle of Antietam Battle of Antietam /Sharpsburg (September 1862) Lee’s troops invaded MD – Supplies were needed – Hoped for European recognition of the Confederacy George B. McClellan (U.S.) vs. Robert E. Lee (C.S.) in Maryland

36 Antietam/Sharpsburg (September 1862) Tactically a draw; strategically a Union victory as the invasion was halted Bloodiest single- day of fighting in the war (24,000 casualties)

37 Antietam/Sharpsburg (Impact) Antietam = diplomatic victory Lincoln reconsidered his views of the war and slavery Drafted a proclamation to free slaves, but waited for a Union victory

38 The Emancipation Proclamation The Emancipation Proclamation (Effective January 1, 1863) Freed slaves residing in states in rebellion against the Union Did not free slaves in states loyal to the Union

39 Emancipation Proclamation (Effective January 1, 1863) Lincoln maintained support of border states, yet it pushed them closer to emancipation Transformed war aims: – Union soldiers now fought to free slaves

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41 Review Questions: Where were the first shots of the civil war fired? – Fort Sumter What was the Union’s war strategy called? – “Anaconda Plan” Where was the first major bloodshed of the war? – Bull Run/First Manassas What was the bloodiest single –day battle in American history? – Antietam What did the Emancipation Proclamation do? – Freed slaves in rebelling states

42 Civil War Soldiers The Civil War, 1861-1865

43 Enrollment Act (1863) Men 20-45 were eligible for draft Draftee could hire a Substitute to serve in his place Draftee could also pay $300 to avoid service – “Rich man’s war, poor man’s fight”

44 Draft Riots: NYC (July 1863) Working class white men rioted and targeted: – Well-dressed white men, African Americans, and supporters of war Several were injured; at least 6 blacks were lynched

45 Confederate Draft (1862) Similar to North’s “Enrollment Act” Twenty Negro Law: – Provided exemption for owners of 20 or more slaves – Created resentment amount Southerners

46 46 Figure 15.1: Opposing Armies of the Civil War

47 Civil War Soldiers African American soldiers enlisted in army after 1862 African American soldiers – Over 180,000 served – Faced discrimination while serving – Represented 10% of entire Union army by end of war – Discrimination was common paid less than white troops segregated units with white officers 54 th Regiment …GLORY! (show up until 2:14) 54 th Regiment GLORY!

48 African American Slaves seized opportunity presented by the approach of Union armies to escape from slavery and achieve freedom

49 Women During the Civil War Typically managed homes and families with scarce resources Often faced poverty and hunger (especially in the South) Assumed new roles in agriculture, nursing and war industries – Clara Barton = served as a nurse, later founded the American Red Cross Women in the War

50 The War Continues, 1863- 65 The Civil War, 1861-1865

51 Soldiers Suffer on Both Sides Mainly due to high casualties in battle, poor living conditions, and disease Camp life – lonely, boring, repetitive – Lack of sanitation, poor quality food, lack of proper medical care Warfare – brutal battles fought with outdated tactics and advanced weapons led to high casualties – Many soldiers were killed, even more returned home wounded or crippled Many soldiers often kept wartime diaries and sent letters home to record the harsh realities of civil war soldier life

52 Civil War Soldiers Camp life was boring, but diseases could be deadly: Food for union troops: – beans, salted pork, pickled beef, hard-tack Food for Confederate troops: – Bacon and cornmeal Both: – Food and clothing often in short supply – Brutality of combat transformed Union and Confederate soldiers

53 Civil War Soldiers Medical care often involved amputations Possibly 30% of amputees died following surgery Sanitation Commission established

54 Civil War Soldiers POW camps had poor conditions Andersonville, GA held over 30,00 – Designed for 10,000 – About 14,000 Union POW’s died Elmira, NY held 12,100 – Only open 15 months – 25% of the Confed’s there died of disease – Point Lookout in MD was worse than this one

55 POW Camps Con’t Civil War Prisons in Confederate Capital of Richmond, VA – Libby, Castle Thunder, Belle Isle (only had tents)…and many more! Castle Thunder Courtesy of The Library of Congress April 7, 1865. "Looking up Cary Street“ Located today in what is known as Tobacco Row

56 War Continues (1863-65) Confederates defeated Union troops at Chancellorsville (start at 1:30) in May 1863 Chancellorsville – But, “Stonewall” Jackson was killed Union forces were unable to capture Vicksburg

57 Gettysburg (July 1863) Lee invaded the North in summer of 1863 Confederate forces engaged with Union troops (lead by Meade) at Gettysburg, PA

58 Gettysburg A.P. Hill led his troops and met up with Lee’s troops Both Lee and Hill continued towards the town of Gettysburg and ran into the Union Cavalry led by John Buford – Buford had established defensive positions on the hills and ridges

59 Gettysburg- Day 1 Hill’s troops approached from the west and fighting began with Buford’s troops on July 1, 1863 Reinforcements arrived with 90,000 Yankee troops and 75,000 Confederates on July 2 Union Armies under Gen. George Meade began to fall back because of the furious Rebel assault- Confeds took control of town However, Lee knew he wouldn’t be successful unless the Confederate Army forced the Yankees to yield their position on Cemetery Ridge, the high ground south of Gettysburg

60 Gettysburg Day 2 (July 2) Lee ordered Gen. James Longstreet to attack Cemetery Ridge – Longstreet advanced from Seminary Ridge through a peach orchard and wheat field that stood between them and Union troops – A Brigade from Alabama attacked the hill at Little Round Top but were defeated by Union troops led by Colonel Joshua L. Chamberlain Union forces lost 1/3 of their brigade and were running out of ammo when Chamberlain ordered them to charge the Confeds – Confederates surrendered Little Round Top – History Channel History Channel

61 Gettysburg- Day 3 (July 3) Lee ordered an attack on the middle of the Union lines – For 2 hours fire rang out and could be heard as far as Pittsburgh Longstreet thinks he has weakened the Union forces and orders men under Gen. Pickett to march across the battlefield and attack the center of the Union line (known as Pickett’s Charge) Pickett’s Charge – Union reloaded and decimated the Confeds who fled fearing counter-attack Lee sent Cavalry led by Gem. James E.B. (Jeb) Stuart to try and surprise Meade and meet up with Longstreet – Stuart stalled however because of battle with Robert Gregg Lee gave up hopes of invading the north and returned to VA – Depressed, he resigned but Davis would accept it

62 Gettysburg (overview) 3 day battle left 23,000 Union men and 28,000 Confeds. killed or wounded – Bodies everywhere! Lee continued to lead his men for the next 2 years of the war, but the Confederacy was never able to recover from the losses at Gettysburg *****BECAME THE TURNING POINT OF THE WAR!!!*****

63 Gettysburg (July 1863) Gettysburg = bloodiest engagement of the war – Over 50,000 Union and Confederate deaths

64 The Gettysburg Address Lincoln attended the dedication of the Gettysburg National Cemetery Gettysburg Address – Lincoln’s 2 minute speech – Said that the United States was one nation, not a federation of independent states After Gettysburg Address = “United States is…” – Lincoln identified the reasons for fighting the Civil War To preserve a nation that was dedicated to the proposition that “all men are created equal” To preserve a nation that was dedicated ruled by a government “of the people, by the people, and for the people.” Gettysburg Address

65 Vicksburg (May-July 1863) Vicksburg fell to Union troops following a siege Soon after Union forces controlled the Miss. River The “tide turned” in favor of the Union

66 Map 15.6: The War in the West, 1863: Vicksburg

67 War Continues (1863-65) Robert E. Lee Mexican war veteran Commanded Army of NOVA His military achievements were respected by many

68 War Continues (1863-65) Ulysses S. Grant Also a veteran of Mexican War Known as a heavy drinker and smoked cigars Named Commander of all Union armies in 1864

69 War Continues (1863-65) The final Virginia Campaign, 1864-65

70 Atlanta (September 1864) ATL fell to Union troops led by Sherman Helped Lincoln win reelection Prior to election Lincoln was criticized by democratic candidate McClellan and radicals in his own party Sherman

71 Sherman’s March (1864-65) Sherman’s troops cut a path of destruction 60 miles wide

72 Map 15.7: Sherman’s March Through the South, 1864–1865

73 Appomattox (April 1865) Lee retreated from Petersburg; low on men and supplies Lee surrendered at Appomattox Courthouse on April 9, 1865

74 Appomattox (April 1865) Terms of surrender were generous; confederates could return home (w/ their horses) Within weeks confederate forces had surrendered

75 Death of a President (April, 1865) April 14, 1865, while attending a play, Lincoln was shot by John Wilkes Booth Lincoln died the next day

76 Results of the Civil War (1861-65) Slavery ended—but how would the government address the status of newly freed slaves? ~ 620,000 Americans died Much of the South was destroyed—how would it be rebuilt?

77 77 Figure 15.3: Civil War Deaths Compared to U.S. Deaths in Other Wars

78 Review Advantages of N and S on eve of war Outlined key battles of the war

79 Review Questions #2: What was the turning point of the civil war? Gettysburg Who did Lincoln appoint as General of all the Union armies? Ulysses S. Grant Which Union general led a march of destruction through GA and SC? Sherman In which speech did Lincoln try to reunite the country “with malice towards none, with charity for all…to bind up the nation’s wounds” Gettysburg Address Where did Lee surrender to Grant? Appomattox Courthouse


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