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Crucible of Freedom: Civil War,

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1 Crucible of Freedom: Civil War, 1861-1865
Chapter 15

2 Causes of the Civil War

3 The American Civil War (1861-1865)
Introduction Lincoln’s Dilemma Opposing Sides and Strategies Early War (1861-2) East and West Emancipation Civil War Soldiers Draft and Riots Life for Soldiers The War Continues ( ) The East and West The End Conclusion

4 Themes Compare and contrast the North and South
Highlight some of the important battles of the Civil War and life for soldiers

5 Secession From Nov – March 1860-61, 7 states left the Union
SC led the way, Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, Georgia and Texas Argued the Constitution was a contract and the North broke it by not enforcing the Fugitive Slave Laws*** Cry for “States’ Rights” –complete independence of Southern states from federal government control From November- March , 7 States left the union SC led the way, Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, Georgia and Texas Argued the Constitution was a contract and the North broke it by not enforcing the Fugitive Slave Laws ***** Cry for “States’ rights”- complete independence of Southern states from federal government control

6 Lincoln’s Dilemma The Civil War,

7 Confederate States of America
These 7 states drafted their own Constitution and called themselves the Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Constitution resembled the US Constitution but it “protected and recognized” slavery in new territories Stressed that each state would be “sovereign and independent” Chose Jefferson Davis to be their President Lincoln said he wouldn’t take active measures to force the states back in the Union

8 President Lincoln 7 states had seceded; many thought he wasn’t up for the job Lincoln: morally opposed to slavery and did not support its spread but would not interfere where it was legal Affirmed authority over all US territory in states that had seceded from the Union

9 Fort Sumter (Background)
Fort Sumter, in SC, was low on supplies Lincoln informed South Carolina’s Governor he was sending food and supplies in an unarmed ship Confederate soldiers began taking over federal instillations in their states Courthouses, post offices and especially forts Only 2 southern forts remained in the Union by the time Lincoln was inaugurated- Fort Sumter was the most important The Confederacy was demanding that the Union surrender the fort or face attack Supplies were running low- only enough for 6 weeks Lincoln faced a dilemma: if he reinforced Fort Sumter he would risk war If he evacuated, he would make the Confederacy a legitimate nation Decided not to abandon it but it didn’t reinforce- just “food for hungry men” Now Davis faced a dilemma If he did nothing he would damage the Confederate image as a sovereign, independent nation If he attacked he would start a war Davis Chose war April 12, 1861-Confederates started firing on the fort Charleston citizens watched and cheers Took more that 4,000 rounds before the Union surrendered Stirred nationalism in the north and Lincoln called for volunteers

10 For Sumter (April 12, 1861) Confederates attacked
Lincoln requested 75,000 volunteers to suppress the rebellion 4 more states seceded: VA, NC, TN, and AK

11 Ft. Sumpter

12 Responses to Secession
Some in VA opposed secession People from western counties in VA chose a new governor and applied for statehood in the Union Debate was also strong in TN Sides are chosen… Lee Sides with Virginia, does not agree with slavery but cannot fight against his home state!

13 Confederate States of America (1861-1865)
Constitution President Capital SC MS FL AL GA LA TX VA NC TN AK States’ rights and the protection of slavery Jefferson Davis Richmond, VA

14 Border States Border states = slave states that remained loyal to the Union Included: DE, MD, KT, MI, and WV

15 Secession Border states = blue

16 Lincoln and Border States
Following confrontation in Baltimore, the area was occupied Lincoln suspended writ of habeas corpus Confederates could be jailed without charges indefinitely

17 Opposing Sides and Strategies
The Civil War,

18 Mobilizing For War Both sides unprepared…
North (UNION) South (CONFEDERACY) Army: 16,000 men, mainly in West 1/3 join Confederacy No strong president since Polk Lincoln viewed as weak No direct tax structure No draft Many industries Connected by railroads No tax structure No navy Two gunpowder factories Poorly equipped Unconnected railroads

19 Industrial Production & Transportation
Northern Advantages Population Industrial Production & Transportation Farm Acreage North 23 states 22 million people 90% of industrial capacity 71”% of railroad mileage 75% of nation’s farms South 11 states 9 million people (5.5 million whites) 10% of industrial capacity 29% of RR mileage 25% of nation’s farms

20 Figure 15.2: Comparative Population and Economic Resources of the Union and the Confederacy, 1861

21 Anaconda Plan: Union strategy for victory in the Civil War
Union navy would blockade southern ports to prevent trade Union would take control of the Mississippi River, cutting the CSA into 2 parts Union armies would capture Confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia SIG – most difficult objective due to the leadership of Robert E. Lee Confederate commander of the Army of Northern Virginia who opposed secession but felt loyalty to his home state of Virginia

22 Union Strategies Initial Strategy: Blockade of southern ports
Capture Mississippi River Winfield Scott and the Anaconda Plan (1861) The North devised a long-term strategy. The so-called Anaconda plan, devised by Scott, called for the Union to blockade coastlines, and then snake down the Miss. R.. Scott hoped that this would make the South recognize the futility of secession and bring southern Unionists to power. But Scott overestimated the strength of Unionist spirit in the South. Furthermore, although Lincoln quickly ordered a blockade, the North hardly had the troops and navy to seize the Mississippi. So the Anaconda Plan remained only an objective. In the early war, the North followed no blueprint. The need to secure KY and MO dictated the West. Once they did, they stormed into TN. The Appalachians tended to seal this western theater off from the eastern theater. Scott’s Great Snake

23 Southern Advantages “Home Court Advantage” Concrete War Aims Officers
Most fighting took place in the south Concrete War Aims South fought to preserve their way of life North fought to preserve the Union Officers Many of the best officers fought with the confederacy “King Cotton”

24 Southern Society (1860)

25 King Cotton Southern cotton was traded to European nations
75% of all raw cotton in GB’s factories came from the South Southerners gambled the British would intervene Why did “King Cotton” fail? British factories had surpluses of raw cotton Cotton was imported from Egypt and India Emancipation Proclamation = war to free slaves

26 Financing the War Federal government North and South raise taxes
raised funds by land sales and tariffs, but need other sources North and South raise taxes 5% raised in the South 21% raised in the North Issued war bonds loans from citizens, repaid by future generations paid back in gold or silver Print paper money Not backed by gold or silver $150 million in greenbacks public had to have confidence in the money Union –legal to pay most public & private debt Confederates –never make legal; print too much and caused inflation National Bank banks can get bank charter to issue national bank notes private banks can issue war bonds


28 Early War, The Civil War,

29 Bull Run /Manassas (June 1861)
Union forces (led by McDowell) against Confederates (led by Beauregard) Union forces were initially successful Confederate reinforcements arrived and routed Union troops Bull Run/Manassas (Gods and Generals) First Battle of Bull Run (First Manassas) Background Info: The Confederacy’s decision to move its capital north to Richmond, VA shaped Union strategy in the East. They cried, “Forward to Richmond.” July 21, was the first major bloodshed of the war Lincoln ordered 30,000 soldiers to move from DC to capture Richmond Met at Bull Run (Manassas) by Confederate troops Battle went back and forth but eventually the Confederates won General “Stonewall” Jackson led confederates- “There is Jackson standing like a stone wall” Union troops retreated to DC

30 Bull Run/Manassas (Impact)
Union troops were determined never again to be humiliated Boosted confidence of Confederate forces

31 Early War ( ) Lincoln replaced McDowell with McClellan who created Army of the Potomac Transformed unorganized troops into disciplined army Remained cautious during fighting in the East George McClellan

32 Shiloh (April 1862) Union forces were led by Grant
Confederates staged a surprise attack March 1862-Grant gathered troops near a church in Tennessee, near Mississippi border Grant’s troops surprised by Confederate attack Grant held them off , ordered reinforcements and counterattacked Confederates finally retreated ¼ of the 100,000 troops had been killed, wounded, or captured Confederates failed to hold OH-KY border- MS river plan was working for the Union

33 Shiloh (April 1862) Confederate forces were successful until Union reinforcements arrived Fighting was very bloody: about 23,000 total casualties

34 The Drummer Boy of Shiloh
  John Clem ran away from his Newark, Ohio home in He was 9 years old. When war broke the following year he attempted to join the Union Army but was rejected. Undeterred, the determined 10-year-old tagged along with the 22nd Michigan Volunteer Infantry until he was finally adopted as its mascot and drummer. He was supplied with a scaled-down uniform and a shortened rifle. Clem distinguished himself at the Battle of Shiloh where an artillery shell destroyed his drum. Newspapers got hold of his story and he soon became known as the "Drummer Boy of Shiloh." Clem gained further renown at the Battle of Chickamauga in September of In the thickest of the fighting, three bullets passed through his cap without doing him any harm. Separated from his unit, he escaped capture when he shot and killed a Confederate soldier who ordered him to halt. Newspapers now labeled him "The Drummer Boy of Chickamauga." Little Clem's luck ran out a month later when he was captured by Confederate cavalry while he was serving as a train guard. He was freed in a prisoner exchange a short time later, but not before the Confederates held him up as evidence that the North was so desperate that it would enlist children in its fight. Clem was rewarded with advancement to the rank of Sergeant and assigned to the headquarters of the Army of the Cumberland. Clem left the Army in 1864 and rejoined it in 1871 as a 2nd Lieutenant. He rose in rank to brigadier general becoming Assistant Quartermaster General of the United States Army in He retired from the Army in 1915 and died at age 85 in He is buried in Arlington National Cemetery.

35 Battle of Antietam/Sharpsburg (September 1862)
Lee’s troops invaded MD Supplies were needed Hoped for European recognition of the Confederacy George B. McClellan (U.S.) vs. Robert E. Lee (C.S.) in Maryland More deadly than Shiloh

36 Antietam/Sharpsburg (September 1862)
Tactically a draw; strategically a Union victory as the invasion was halted Bloodiest single-day of fighting in the war (24,000 casualties) Bloodiest single-day battle in American History- 26,000 casualties Lee advanced his troops towards DC and won 2nd battle of Bull Run along the way A Union corporal found a copy of Lee’s army orders McClellan engaged the Confederates in battle of Antietam (creek in MD) Union won but didn’t finish the job, or possibly win the war Lincoln fired McClellan for not moving fast enough

37 Antietam/Sharpsburg (Impact)
Antietam = diplomatic victory Lincoln reconsidered his views of the war and slavery Drafted a proclamation to free slaves, but waited for a Union victory

38 The Emancipation Proclamation (Effective January 1, 1863)
Freed slaves residing in states in rebellion against the Union Did not free slaves in states loyal to the Union

39 Emancipation Proclamation (Effective January 1, 1863)
Lincoln maintained support of border states, yet it pushed them closer to emancipation Transformed war aims: Union soldiers now fought to free slaves


41 Review Questions: Where were the first shots of the civil war fired?
Fort Sumter What was the Union’s war strategy called? “Anaconda Plan” Where was the first major bloodshed of the war? Bull Run/First Manassas What was the bloodiest single –day battle in American history? Antietam What did the Emancipation Proclamation do? Freed slaves in rebelling states

42 Civil War Soldiers The Civil War,

43 Enrollment Act (1863) Men 20-45 were eligible for draft
Draftee could hire a Substitute to serve in his place Draftee could also pay $300 to avoid service “Rich man’s war, poor man’s fight”

44 Draft Riots: NYC (July 1863)
Working class white men rioted and targeted: Well-dressed white men, African Americans, and supporters of war Several were injured; at least 6 blacks were lynched

45 Confederate Draft (1862) Similar to North’s “Enrollment Act”
Twenty Negro Law: Provided exemption for owners of 20 or more slaves Created resentment amount Southerners

46 Figure 15.1: Opposing Armies of the Civil War

47 Civil War Soldiers African American soldiers enlisted in army after 1862 Over 180,000 served Faced discrimination while serving Represented 10% of entire Union army by end of war Discrimination was common paid less than white troops segregated units with white officers 54th Regiment …GLORY! (show up until 2:14)

48 African American Slaves
seized opportunity presented by the approach of Union armies to escape from slavery and achieve freedom

49 Women During the Civil War
 Typically managed homes and families with scarce resources Often faced poverty and hunger (especially in the South) Assumed new roles in agriculture, nursing and war industries Clara Barton = served as a nurse, later founded the American Red Cross Women in the War

50 The War Continues, The Civil War,

51 Soldiers Suffer on Both Sides
Mainly due to high casualties in battle, poor living conditions, and disease Camp life – lonely, boring, repetitive Lack of sanitation, poor quality food, lack of proper medical care Warfare – brutal battles fought with outdated tactics and advanced weapons led to high casualties Many soldiers were killed, even more returned home wounded or crippled Many soldiers often kept wartime diaries and sent letters home to record the harsh realities of civil war soldier life

52 Civil War Soldiers Camp life was boring, but diseases could be deadly:
Food for union troops: beans, salted pork, pickled beef, hard-tack Food for Confederate troops: Bacon and cornmeal Both: Food and clothing often in short supply Brutality of combat transformed Union and Confederate soldiers

53 Civil War Soldiers Medical care often involved amputations
Possibly 30% of amputees died following surgery Sanitation Commission established US set up the Sanitation Commission to teach soldiers how to avoid polluting the water supply Clara Barton worked on the frontlines pulling bullets and dressing wounds “Angel of the Battlefield”- especially courageous in Antietam

54 Civil War Soldiers POW camps had poor conditions
Andersonville, GA held over 30,00 Designed for 10,000 About 14,000 Union POW’s died Elmira, NY held 12,100 Only open 15 months 25% of the Confed’s there died of disease Point Lookout in MD was worse than this one Prison conditions were terrible Andersonville, GA was the worst 33,000 prisoners to 26 acres (34 sq ft/ person) No roofs for shelter Drinking water was from a stream that also served as a sewer Northern prisons weren’t much better Had barracks, some food and more space Many southerners died b/c they weren't use to the cold Elmira Prison Camp: -Living conditions were bad from the start, with insufficient shelter-the barracks held only half the prisoners; the others were crowded into tents, even in winter-and with a serious sanitary situation presented by a stagnant pond stretching the length of the enclosure, into which sinks drained. -The 40-acre camp was below the level of the Chemung River -The prisoners' diet lacked vegetables, and by August there were 793 cases of scurvy -1 Nov wrote U.S. Army Surgeon General Joseph Kl Barnes: "Since August there have been 2,011 patients admitted to the hospital and 775 deaths Have averaged daily 451 in hospital and 601 in quarters, and aggregate of 1,052 per day sick. At this rate the entire command will be admitted to hospital in less than a year and thirty-six percent die." -Of the 12,122 soldiers imprisoned at Elmira, 2,963 died of sickness, exposure and associated causes. The camp was officially closed on July 5, All that remains today of Elmira Prison is a well kept Cemetery along the banks of the Chemung River. (

55 POW Camps Con’t Civil War Prisons in Confederate Capital of Richmond, VA Libby, Castle Thunder, Belle Isle (only had tents)…and many more! Castle Thunder Courtesy of The Library of Congress April 7, "Looking up Cary Street“ Located today in what is known as Tobacco Row

56 War Continues ( ) Confederates defeated Union troops at Chancellorsville (start at 1:30) in May 1863 But, “Stonewall” Jackson was killed Union forces were unable to capture Vicksburg

57 Gettysburg (July 1863) Lee invaded the North in summer of 1863
Confederate forces engaged with Union troops (lead by Meade) at Gettysburg, PA Dec. 13, Lee’s troops win a bloody battle at Fredericksburg VA May 1-4, 1863, Rebels defeat the Yankees at Chancellorsville, VA and the Union army retreated Stonewall Jackson was mistakenly shot by his own troops and died on May 10 After these 2 victories, the Confederates needed supplies and desperately wanted to win at Vicksburg in Northern territory They heard of shoes and supplies at Gettysburg and went in search of them

58 Gettysburg A.P. Hill led his troops and met up with Lee’s troops
Both Lee and Hill continued towards the town of Gettysburg and ran into the Union Cavalry led by John Buford Buford had established defensive positions on the hills and ridges

59 Gettysburg- Day 1 Hill’s troops approached from the west and fighting began with Buford’s troops on July 1, 1863 Reinforcements arrived with 90,000 Yankee troops and 75,000 Confederates on July 2 Union Armies under Gen. George Meade began to fall back because of the furious Rebel assault- Confeds took control of town However, Lee knew he wouldn’t be successful unless the Confederate Army forced the Yankees to yield their position on Cemetery Ridge, the high ground south of Gettysburg

60 Gettysburg Day 2 (July 2) Lee ordered Gen. James Longstreet to attack Cemetery Ridge Longstreet advanced from Seminary Ridge through a peach orchard and wheat field that stood between them and Union troops A Brigade from Alabama attacked the hill at Little Round Top but were defeated by Union troops led by Colonel Joshua L. Chamberlain Union forces lost 1/3 of their brigade and were running out of ammo when Chamberlain ordered them to charge the Confeds Confederates surrendered Little Round Top History Channel

61 Gettysburg- Day 3 (July 3)
Lee ordered an attack on the middle of the Union lines For 2 hours fire rang out and could be heard as far as Pittsburgh Longstreet thinks he has weakened the Union forces and orders men under Gen. Pickett to march across the battlefield and attack the center of the Union line (known as Pickett’s Charge) Union reloaded and decimated the Confeds who fled fearing counter-attack Lee sent Cavalry led by Gem. James E.B. (Jeb) Stuart to try and surprise Meade and meet up with Longstreet Stuart stalled however because of battle with Robert Gregg Lee gave up hopes of invading the north and returned to VA Depressed, he resigned but Davis would accept it

62 Gettysburg (overview)
3 day battle left 23,000 Union men and 28,000 Confeds. killed or wounded Bodies everywhere! Lee continued to lead his men for the next 2 years of the war, but the Confederacy was never able to recover from the losses at Gettysburg *****BECAME THE TURNING POINT OF THE WAR!!!*****

63 Gettysburg (July 1863) Gettysburg = bloodiest engagement of the war
Over 50,000 Union and Confederate deaths

64 The Gettysburg Address
Lincoln attended the dedication of the Gettysburg National Cemetery Gettysburg Address – Lincoln’s 2 minute speech Said that the United States was one nation, not a federation of independent states After Gettysburg Address = “United States is…” Lincoln identified the reasons for fighting the Civil War To preserve a nation that was dedicated to the proposition that “all men are created equal” To preserve a nation that was dedicated ruled by a government “of the people, by the people, and for the people.” Gettysburg Address

65 Vicksburg (May-July 1863) Vicksburg fell to Union troops following a siege Soon after Union forces controlled the Miss. River The “tide turned” in favor of the Union One of the 2 remaining Confed. Holdouts along the Mississippi River Spring 1863, Grant sent a cavalry to destroy rail lines in central Mississippi to draw attention away from Vicksburg 18 days later they took the MS capital, Jackson On July 3 (same day as Pickett’s Charge) the Confederates surrendered to Grant 5 days later the last Confederate holdout on the Mississippi fell and the South was split in 2

66 Map 15.6: The War in the West, 1863: Vicksburg

67 War Continues (1863-65) Robert E. Lee Mexican war veteran
Commanded Army of NOVA His military achievements were respected by many

68 War Continues (1863-65) Ulysses S. Grant Also a veteran of Mexican War
Known as a heavy drinker and smoked cigars Named Commander of all Union armies in 1864

69 War Continues ( ) The final Virginia Campaign,

70 Atlanta (September 1864) ATL fell to Union troops led by Sherman
Helped Lincoln win reelection Prior to election Lincoln was criticized by democratic candidate McClellan and radicals in his own party Background Info: Believing in coordinated attacks, Grant ordered Sherman to “get into the interior of the enemy’s country inflicting all the damage you can.” Sherman moves in on Atlanta He and his troops were able to overtake the city but were quickly surrounded by Confed. Forces Union army fled SE towards the coast leaving a path of destruction along the way Sherman

71 Sherman’s March ( ) Sherman’s troops cut a path of destruction 60 miles wide Wanted to make southerners “so sick of war that generations would pass away before they would again appeal it” They took Savannah right before Christmas and then went north to help Grant “wipe out Lee” Sherman and troops burned everything in their path on their way through SC Stopped burning in NC and gave out food and supplies

72 Map 15.7: Sherman’s March Through the South, 1864–1865

73 Appomattox (April 1865) Lee retreated from Petersburg; low on men and supplies Lee surrendered at Appomattox Courthouse on April 9, 1865 April 9, 1865 Grant was closing in on Richmond from west Defeated Lee’s army in Petersburg VA Sherman is coming to Richmond from the south Davis, feeling the pinch of the Union armies abandoned and set fire to Richmond Union troops arrived and found Richmond burning Lee and Grant met at a private home at Appomattox Court House, VA to arrange a Confed surrender Lincoln urges the Union to be generous Lee’s soldiers were paroled and sent home with personal possessions, horses and 3 days of food

74 Appomattox (April 1865) Terms of surrender were generous; confederates could return home (w/ their horses) Within weeks confederate forces had surrendered

75 Death of a President (April, 1865)
April 14, 1865, while attending a play, Lincoln was shot by John Wilkes Booth Lincoln died the next day

76 Results of the Civil War (1861-65)
Slavery ended—but how would the government address the status of newly freed slaves? ~ 620,000 Americans died Much of the South was destroyed—how would it be rebuilt?

77 Figure 15.3: Civil War Deaths Compared to U.S. Deaths in Other Wars

78 Review Advantages of N and S on eve of war
Outlined key battles of the war

79 Review Questions #2: What was the turning point of the civil war?
Gettysburg Who did Lincoln appoint as General of all the Union armies? Ulysses S. Grant Which Union general led a march of destruction through GA and SC? Sherman In which speech did Lincoln try to reunite the country “with malice towards none, with charity for all…to bind up the nation’s wounds” Gettysburg Address Where did Lee surrender to Grant? Appomattox Courthouse

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