Presentation on theme: "Social Complexity and The Need for Order. A people’s unique way of life Common Practices= work, food, clothing, tools, technology, sports, customs."— Presentation transcript:
Social Complexity and The Need for Order
A people’s unique way of life Common Practices= work, food, clothing, tools, technology, sports, customs Shared Understanding= language symbols, religion, values, art, political beliefs Social Organization= family, class and caste, Relationships, economics, government, view of authority
Nomads- mobile people who moved from place to place in search of food. Hunter-Gatherers- nomads whose food supply depended on plants Agricultural Revolution A.K.A. Neolithic revolution Shift from gathering to food-producing one of the greatest achievements in human history) grow crops (cultivation) raise animals (domestication) ******** this led to the development of civilization
Five Characteristics: Advanced Cities Specialized workers Complex Institutions Record Keeping Improved Technology
Fertile Crescent, Indus River Valley, China, and Africa
Where- Mesopotamian Region between the Tigris and Euphrates River “Fertile Crescent” World’s first EMPIRE- the bringing together of peoples from different nations and cultures under one ruler
Polytheistic King was an absolute monarch- Based on Agriculture and Trade Slavery was common
Most important ruler= Hammurabi Hammurabi’s Code= first written system of law (an eye for an eye)- Applied to everyone, but punishments were based on social class Why would Hammurabi want a written code of laws?
“…to bring about the rule of righteousness in the land, to destroy the wicked and the evil-doers; so that the strong should not harm the weak…” What does this say about the role of government?
UPPER EGYPT LOWER EGYPT Nubia down here Ancient Egypt
Pharaohs= Egyptian “god” kings Government= Theocracy Pyramids= tombs for their pharaohs Religion= polytheistic Women could own property Contributions= hieroglyphics (writing), papyrus (paper) calendar, math, medicine
Minoans, Phoenicians, and Development of Writing
Known for art and culture Influenced Ancient Greece Relatively peaceful Women seem to have held high ranks Sacrifices to gods were common Ended (probably) due to natural disasters that weakened their defenses
Powerful Mediterranean Traders- city states & colonies connected through trade routes Traded wine, weapons, metals, ivory and slaves, dye Alphabets- symbols to represent sounds
Cave paintings Earliest form of writing Primarily based on religion Recorded events of daily life
Hieroglyphics Egypt Symbols stand for words or sounds Rosetta Stone
Cuneiform Syrians and Babylonians “wedge”- shaped tool used on soft clay Few artifacts have survived
Phoenician alphabet Symbols represent sounds Easier to learn- increased literacy Adopted by the Greeks Later the Arabic (our alphabet)
Religion and Development
Poly- many Mono- one Zoroastrians- first group to practice monotheism
? = Why should so much pain and suffering exist in the world? ▪ Zoroastrianism- monotheistic religion ▪ Earth is a battle ground between good and evil ▪ People take place in the struggle ▪ Their god will judge people at the end of time ▪ Ideas of Satan and angels are found in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam ▪ Some in Iran and India still follow this faith
Monotheism- belief in one God Canaan- location of Hebrew settlement between the Jordan River and Med. Sea first settled in 1800 B.C. Torah- 1 st 5 books of the Hebrew Bible Abraham- “father” of Hebrew people- wandered between Canaan and Egypt
First= Abraham promised to obey God and God promised to protect him and his descendants Second= The Ten commandments The basis of civil and religious laws of Judaism Exodus- Hebrews fled Egypt under the direction of Moses, wandered for 40 years, then settled in Canaan into 12 tribes
United under three kings: Saul, David, and Solomon Solomon was most powerful Beautified Jerusalem Built a temple to hold the Ark of the Covenant (held the Ten commandments) Problem= high taxes and forced labor led to division after his death
Tribute- taxes paid by a weaker nation to a stronger in the hopes on ensuring that the stronger would not attack Assyria conquered Israel’s capital (Samaria) Babylonians conquered Judah’s capital (Jerusalem) Empires- Persians, Greeks and Romans
Aryan Invasion, Religion, and the Golden Age
Natural barriers for protection Largest Mountains (Himalayan Mountains ) to the north Large desert to the east River Valleys Ganges flows into the Bay of Bengal and the Indus flows into the Arabian Sea Carry water for irrigation and silt for fertilization
This is it! Ganges River Indus River Fertile River Valley
Sometimes called Harappan civilizations Very advanced cities (grid plans, raised land, plumbing system) Language= over 400 symbols- hard to decipher Trade and religion are believed to have been important Probably ended due to drought or damaged soil and Aryan invasions
Nomads from between the Black and Caspian seas- Horses, Chariots, animal herders Divided into different language groups English, Sanskrit, Persian, Spanish, German Why might they have migrated???
Migrated into and shaped modern day India Vedas- volumes of sacred literature including prayers, hymns, spells and ritual instructions Pastoral people- counted their wealth in cows
Social structure Very strict- no upward movement Three original social classes Brahmins- priests Warriors Peasants and traders Interaction with others led to more Shudras- laborers who did work the Aryans did not want to do Varna= skin color
Epic= long narrative poems Mahabharata- retell struggles Aryans encountered as they migrated southward Polytheistic
Moksha- Hindu belief in release from this world Reincarnation- rebirth of a soul or spirit until moksha is achieved Karma- good or bad deeds
Buddha- Enlightened one Enlightenment- wisdom Nirvana- release of selfishness and pain Four Noble Truths Suffering and sorrow Selfish desires cause the suffering End desires will end suffering Follow the eight fold path
Workbook page 9: Complete the chart for Hinduism and Buddhism focusing on Origin Key beliefs Societal beliefs Leader or founder (may not be available) “view” of death or “after-life” Use the text-book to complete the chart- finish for homework
You are a merchant selling cloth in a market. A customer walks into your shop and you fear he is one of the emperor’s inspectors or tax collectors. He whispers to you, “will you spy on other weavers and report if they are paying the proper taxes or selling inferior cloth?” You contemplate your options knowing that you will be paid four years’ earnings for your service. 1. What will you do? 2. Is it right for the government to spy on its own people 3. What kinds of tensions might exist in this society- where neighbor spies on neighbor? 4. Is there a time when spying is ethical?
Mauryan Ancient India- area was divided into small kingdoms Chandragupta Maurya was a great military general who seized power and began the Mauryan Empire. Chandragupta fought the Greek general Seleucus I (Alexander’s general who inherited this land) and defeated him.
Raised a great army 600,000 foot soldiers 30,000 cavalry 9,000 elephants (ancient tanks) How did he pay for this stuff… TAXES- extremely high taxes Farmers paid up to ½ the value of their crops to the king
Relied on his adviser to assist him Tough policies to hold the empire together Spying on the people Political assassination Large bureaucracy Divided the empire 4 provinces- headed by a royal prince Local districts- officials assessed taxes and enforced laws
His son ruled for 32 years and then his grandson, Ashoka, ruled. Characteristics of Ashoka’s rule First- followed grand-dad’s ideas Adopted Buddha's ideas of peace to all beings Religious toleration and nonviolence Improved communication- roads
Gupta Empire Leaders- Chandra Gupta- rose through marriage Samudra Gupta- expanded through 40 years of conquest Chandra Gupta II- spread of arts, religion and science
Most lived in small villages and were farmers Extended families worked together to grow crops Drought was common- tax on water and required 1 day work to maintain irrigation for the village Craftspeople and merchants lived in towns above their shops
Buddhism Focus in past= strive for Nirvana Buddha did not desire to be worshipped- this was after his death New focus= good works in place of Nirvan- this offered salvation to all Hinduism Focus in past= polytheism, priests had contact with the gods New focus= trend toward monotheism, which helped it have growth and more appeal
Poetry- most famous poet was Kalidasa Writing schools- famous for Tamil poetry Drama- especially in southern India Dance- still survive today
Rich in resources- spices, gems, woods, pearls, etc to trade with others Land-trade= built trading posts along the silk roads and acted as middle-men between the east and west Sea trade= traveled to the east, brought back spices and goods, met Roman traders in India AND traded African goods with the east Increased trade led to the rise of banking and charging of interest rates
Sparked by the expansion of trade Stars were used for navigation Borrowed calendar- seven day week based on the sun from the Greeks Time- divided days into hours (also from the Greeks) Believed the earth was round (eclipse showed this)
Invented modern numerals, decimal and zero Calculated pi to 4 decimal places Calculated the length of the solar year to close to accurate measure
Medical guide= descriptions of more than 1,000 diseases Medicinal guide= 500 plants used as medicines Performed surgeries Possible gave injections of medications
Unification, Culture, Dynasties and Empires
Grew along rivers Challenges= disastrous floods, lack of trade due to geographic location natural barriers (mountains, deserts, etc) offered some protection from invasions
Writing= 50,000 characters Family= center of Chinese society Society was divided into nobles and peasants Ancestor worship= ancestors could bring good fortune or disaster to the family
Mandate of Heaven= belief that a ruler had the right to rule granted by the gods (divine approval), unless he did something evil or wicked Dynastic cycle= used to justify conquests or overthrow of poor leaders when they lost the mandate Feudalism= king gives some leadership to nobles in areas as a way to control and unify the large empire
Confucius- lived during the decline of the Zhou dynasty (disorder and violence) Desired a return to peace and morality Social order, harmony and government could exist if society was organized and regulated by a code of conduct between: ▪ Ruler and subject ▪ Father and son ▪ Husband and wife ▪ Older and younger brothers ▪ Friend and friend
Filial Piety= respect for parents or ancestors- devoting self to parents for your lifetime Legalism- believed that order could be restored by a highly efficient and powerful government Believed in controlling ideas and actions Stressed rewards for obedient followers and harsh punishment for the disobedient Yin and Yang- search for harmony in nature and relationships Yin- cold, dark, soft and mysterious Yang- warm, bright, hard and clear
Emerged and used legalism to subdue warring states and control nobles Government Autocracy- government with unlimited power that uses it in an arbitrary manner forced noble families to serve in the government and seizing their land Completed the Great Wall of China- forced labor!
Beliefs Strengthen the trunk, weaken the branches under the Qin Confucian ideals were crushed, millions of their followers were murdered, books were burned Weaknesses Fell to the Han (peasants) who revolted due to the hatred they had because of the forced labor required by the dynasty on the Great Wall of China
Unrest, ineffective leaders and civil war- small kingdoms trying to get more land and power Military leader: Liu Bang came to power and restored order and began the Han Dynasty that lasted more than 400 years. The most influential dynasty in china- today some people call themselves: People of the Han.
Emperor- strong central government King- Governor State officials- noble scholars Peasants Artisans- Merchants Soldiers Slaves What is different about this when compared to other societal structures?
The emperor: semi-divine had connections to heaven Served as a link between heaven and earth (mandate of heaven) Government Policies levied BIG taxes forced labor for 1 month forced military service for 1 month
Why: 130,000 govt employees What: “ Gentlemen should practice, reverence, respect, generosity, truthfulness, diligence and kindness.” How: To apply for a job you had to pass a test about Confucius’ teachings To pass you had to study Confucius Anyone could do this- stayed in effect until 1912!
Main invention- paper around 105 AD Results of paper= improved education, more books, accurate govt records Agriculture- important b/c of population Collar harness- horse became more productive Double-bladed plow Other stuff: wheelbarrow, hydro-power mills to grind corn
Government created monopolies Salt mining, forging iron, minting coins, brewing alcohol Silk mills- most valuable commodity was SILK Silk Roads- started in China- went through Asia to India- went on to Rome. Role of Women- Devoted to families, mostly uneducated- some wealthy women did receive educations, others became nuns
The Han ruled for 200 years, had a brief interruption for 23 years then ruled for another 200 years. Reasons for the fall: Political instability- the poor were overtaxed and overworked Political instability- the people were trying to gain power Economic instability- large land owners had to pay little taxes- land was divided up among generations. The empire broke into three rival kingdoms
1. Lasted from 618-907 2. Empress Wu Zhao named herself emperor and expanded the empire into the rest of China and Korea- regained land lost after the fall of the Han Dynasty 3. She is the only woman in Chinese history to do this!
Strong Central Government Expanded Roads and the Grand Canal Promoted Trade Improvements in agriculture Revived the Confucian Civil Service examination system
1. Taxes were increased due to the large government around 700 2. Invading Muslim Armies 3. Border attacks and internal rebellions 4. China was divided into separate kingdoms ruled by warlords
1. Lasted about 3 centuries (960 – 1279) 2. Never able to reunite all of China, but set up a government in southern china 3. Accomplishments: Strong economy and large economic growth
1. Science & Technology- Block printing (Tang) then movable type (Song), gunpowder- first used to scare away evil spirits, magnetic compass- allowed for more sea trade, porcelain 2. Agriculture- rice cultivation (two crops each year) 3. Trade and Foreign Contacts- Guarded silk roads, built large port cities, and influenced other groups 4. Poetry & Art- paintings of nature 5. Acupuncture 6. Paper Currency
1. A new upper class, gentry, emerged who achieved status through education and civil service 2. Status and role of women Were always subservient to men Treatment was worse in cities Custom of foot binding- display of wealth and status
Societies, Achievements and Migration
Second largest in the world- 4,600 miles from east to west and 5,000 miles from north to south Narrow coastline, plateau, water falls, rapids, few harbors or natural ports Sahara Desert- Stretches from the Red Sea to the Atlantic Ocean- Covers an area ½ the size of the US- Unsuitable to sustain human life- Hampers movement *** This kept them isolated from Europeans.
Nomadic, hunter-gatherers (Pastoralists) Agriculture improved the way people lived: Growing food allowed permanent shelters Increased food supplies allowed settlements to form complex societies Primary family groups= parents, children, grandparents, aunts, uncles, cousins
Religion- Animist believe in one creator, spirits are present in plants, animals or natural forces Griots helped keep traditions alive and recorded history through story-telling and passing from parent to child Syncretism- blending of Christian, Muslim and Traditional beliefs.
Traditional beliefs= one god- kings were descendents of and Animists New religion= Christianity adopted by King Ezana New religion= Islam spread to the coasts through trade
Migration= permanent move of people from one country or region to another People migrate for various reasons which fit into three categories Political Economic Environmental
Causes of migration also fit into two groups Push- reasons why people leave a region- usually negative- drought, unemployment, persecution Pull- reasons why people go to a region- usually positive- abundant resources, job opportunities, religious freedoms.
May be positive: cultural blending, shared ideas or technology, improved quality of life May be negative: clashes between groups, depletion of resources, unemployment, poverty, etc.
One way experts trace migration is through language The Bantu languages (more than 900) are spoken by 1/3 of all Africans Swahili- blending of African-Bantu and Arabic languages Bantu means “the people”
Reason they migrated (probably) due to slash and burn agriculture- depletion of soil or drought Migration route- South-east from the center of Africa along the Congo River Spread the use of slash and burn agriculture and iron tools
Mesoamerica stretches from central Mexico to northern Honduras. Olmec- first civilization builders; 1200 B.C. in southern Mexico Built pyramids, statues, and monuments to worship a variety of nature gods Established trade network in Mesoamerica Olmec civilization fell by 400 B.C.
MayaIncaAztec Government Economy Religion Art Rise and Fall *Mini-Project Break- Mesoamerican Scrapbook