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Poetry The words poetry and poem apply to a vast variety of literary forms, both spoken and written. There is so much difference in so many different kinds.

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Presentation on theme: "Poetry The words poetry and poem apply to a vast variety of literary forms, both spoken and written. There is so much difference in so many different kinds."— Presentation transcript:

1 Poetry The words poetry and poem apply to a vast variety of literary forms, both spoken and written. There is so much difference in so many different kinds of work considered poetry that it is not easy to nail down a complete definition.

2 Poetry Part of the problem is that verse – which is to say, formal writing that is not the prose of novels and short stories – is among the oldest form of communication.

3 Poetry Poetry also often involves rhythm and rhyme, although neither is necessary for a work to be called poetry. Also, poetry conveys powerful images, feelings, and figurative language in fewer words than prose.

4 Poetry Often it uses only phrases, single words, figures of speech, or sensory details to provoke ideas. figure of speech: specific device or kind of figurative language, such as hyperbole, metaphor, personification, simile, or understatement. sensory details: evocative words that convey sensory experiences— seeing, hearing, tasting, touching, and smelling. Prose, which is much longer, follows standard rules of paragraph and sentence structure. Figures of speech and sensory details can also be found in this genre.

5 Common Types of Poetry Epic Poems: long, complicated story-poems. They tell of extraordinary deeds by supernatural heroes and villains. Epics include the literary devices of invocation and epithet. Invocation: asking a god or muses for help Epithet: involves naming a character’s qualities

6 Common Types of Poetry Epic Poems: The epic hero has a goal and typically is embarked on a long journey that involves struggles with gods, monsters, and other human beings. The purpose of an epic poem is to entertain, teach, and inspire the listener or reader with examples of how people can strive and succeed against great odds.

7 Common Types of Poetry Examples of Epic Poems: Homer’s The Iliad and The Odyssey Beowulf The Epic of Gilgamesh

8 Common Types of Poetry Lyric Poetry: conveys an exact mood or feeling to the reader. The poet speaks directly to the reader and asks for the reader’s sympathy. Lyric poems are usually short and musical. This broad category of poetry covers many poetic types and styles including rhymed poetry and free verse (poetry that has no fixed pattern of meter, rhyme, line length, or stanza arrangement).

9 Common Types of Poetry Example of Lyric Poetry: An important type of lyric poem is the sonnet, which is a fourteen line poem with strict formatting. William Shakespeare made the sonnet popular in the 17 th century.

10 Example of Lyric Poetry: SONNET 130 My mistress' eyes are nothing like the sun; Coral is far more red than her lips' red; If snow be white, why then her breasts are dun; If hairs be wires, black wires grow on her head. I have seen roses damask'd, red and white, But no such roses see I in her cheeks; And in some perfumes is there more delight Than in the breath that from my mistress reeks. I love to hear her speak, yet well I know That music hath a far more pleasing sound; I grant I never saw a goddess go; My mistress, when she walks, treads on the ground: And yet, by heaven, I think my love as rare As any she belied with false compare.

11 Common Types of Poetry Ballad: part of the oral tradition, ballads tell a story in song. Their subjects can be heroic, satirical, romantic, or political. Ballads focus on the actions and dialogue of a story, not on the characters. They usually end in tragedy.

12 Common Types of Poetry Ballads continued… Folk ballads typically tell of an exciting or dramatic event. They were composed by an anonymous singer or author and passed on by word of mouth for generations before being written down. Literary ballads are written in imitation of folk ballads; they are usually attributed to an author.

13 Poetic Devices Poetry has a variety of language techniques that help its effectiveness: Personification: giving human qualities to something not human. The stars stare down at us. The stars stare down at us. The stop sign jumped out at me. The stop sign jumped out at me. Summer waited just around the corner. Summer waited just around the corner. The moon winked at the young lovers. The moon winked at the young lovers.

14 Poetic Devices Poetry has a variety of language techniques that help its effectiveness: Simile: comparison of one thing to another, using the words like or as ; it is an explicit comparison. Explicit means: fully and clearly expressed The cold wind howled like a starving wolf. The cold wind howled like a starving wolf. Her skin was as soft as a rose. Her skin was as soft as a rose. She is small and sprightly, like a bantam hen. She is small and sprightly, like a bantam hen.

15 Poetic Devices Poetry has a variety of language techniques that help its effectiveness: Metaphor: comparison of one thing to another, not using the words like or as; it is an implicit comparison. Implicit means: implied, rather than expressly stated: “All the world’s a stage. And all the men and women merely players. They have their exits and their entrances.” --William Shakespeare—”As You Like It”

16 Poetic Devices “All the world’s a stage. And all the men and women merely players. They have their exits and their entrances.” --William Shakespeare—”As You Like It” Shakespeare connects life itself with a theatrical production, with birth and death akin to the comings and goings of actors in a drama. The speech goes on to list the stages of a man’s life as different parts to be played.

17 Poetic Devices Poetry has a variety of language techniques that help its effectiveness: Hyperbole: involves gross exaggeration or overstatement to make a point. He’s as big as a car. He’s as big as a car. She’s got more money than Bill Gates. She’s got more money than Bill Gates. That was pretty much the worst movie ever made. That was pretty much the worst movie ever made. Hyperbole is different from idiom, in that with idioms, the meaning of the words is not literal; hyperbole makes a literal—if exaggerated—comparison between two or more things.


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