Presentation on theme: "Ancient World Hunting and Gathering: paleolithic age, before civilization, Nomads Nomads: people wandered in search of food, no permanent settlements Neolithic."— Presentation transcript:
Ancient World Hunting and Gathering: paleolithic age, before civilization, Nomads Nomads: people wandered in search of food, no permanent settlements Neolithic Revolution: the start of civilization, farming invented, surplus of food allows for cities to be built Government is created to control people, laws are created for the first time.
Social structures divide the rulers from the workers, and there is no mobility. Africa: Ghana – Gold Salt and Slave trade located in West Africa, traded across the Sahara Desert using Camel Caravans Mali: adopted Islam, Timbuktu capital city, first universities, Mansa Musa greatest leader Songhai: started the slave trade with the Europeans, led to the fall of West Africa.
Latin America: Mayas – Central America, Yucatan peninsula, built great cities, disappeared no one knows why. Aztecs – central Mexico, built great empire by conquering tribes near them, collected tribute, conquered by the Spanish and Cortes. Inca – South America, Andes MTS., used Terrace farming, built great roads, NO WRITTEN LANGUAGE
India: Gupta – Golden Age, Hinduism, # system 0-9, cure for small pox, medical schools. Mauryan- greatest leader Ashoka, adopted Buddhism, built Stupas (Buddhist temples) spread the religion into Asia. Mughal – Mongol control of India, Muslim, Akbar the greatest leader, tolerated all religions, last Golden Age, conquered by the English in the 1700’s
China: Zhou Dynasty – Mandate of Heaven invented,(power to rule comes from God, if gov is not good people can rebel), Confucianism invented as well. Han Dynasty – started Silk Road, civil service exams for gov jobs, ended Feudalism, invented paper. T’ang / Song– Golden Age, invented printing, gunpowder, compass, porcelain.
Mesopotamia (Fertile Crescent) land between 2 rivers. Tigris and Euphrates Sumeria – first civ in the Middle East, invented writing (Cuneiform) the wheel, plow, sailboat. Babylonia – first written laws, Hammurabi’s Code. Phoenicians – invented the alphabet, sailors, called the carriers of civilization
Western Europe: Sparta – totalitarian society, great army Athens – direct democracy, sailors, philosophy, Socrates, Aristotle believed in questioning to find the truth. Rome – 12 tables first written laws Central authority – Roman gov seperated into different branches, law allowed all to be citizens. Pax Romana – golden Age, Peace of Rome
Byzantine split – Diocletian moved capital from Rome to Byzantium. Constantine renames it Constantinople. Fall of Rome – german tribes invaded western part and it began the Middle Ages
Economics Supply and Demand: same as Capitalism, gov. does not interfere in business. Scarcity: lack of or shortage of something Traditional economy: things are done the way they were in the past. Not modern! Command Economy: gov. control, same as Communism, or Central Planning. Market economy: see Supply and Demand.
Mercantilism: based on the control of colonies, import raw materials and export finished products. Colony can only trade with the mother country. Spain in the America’s Capitalism: Laissez Faire, gov. not involved, Adam Smith “Father of Capitalism” Communism: Like Soviet Union, and China under Mao Zedong. Karl Marx “Father of Communism”
Government Direct Democracy: all citizens vote for the laws, only ancient Greece (Athens) Representative: citizens vote for people to vote on the laws for them, same as Parliamentary Democracy. Totalitarian: Leader controls not only the gov’t, but culture, economy, media also. Absolute Monarchy: one King or Queen controls the nation. They have total Power
Limited Monarchy: the power of the monarch is limited. England and the Magna Carta(1215 AD) Republic: gov. without a King. Ancient Rome, modern USA. Oligarchy: ancient Greece, gov. controlled by wealthy merchants. Aristocracy: gov. controlled by wealthy landowners. Theocracy: gov. dominated by religion
Exchange and Encounter Japanese Feudalism Feudalism – economy based on farming, power held by land owners, and the military. Shogun – in charge of the Samurai, generals Daimyo – land owners Samurai – soldiers Peasants – Farmers Merchants – lowest in social structure,(like in China)
Kami – spirits worshipped Shintoism Code of Bushido – military code of honor followed by Shogun and Samurai.
Middle Ages The Church – replaces central gov after the fall of Rome. Most powerful during the middle ages. Church controlled all people in Europe. Charlemagne – leader of the Franks, German tribe, conquers Gaul, renamed France, named Holy Roman Emperor, spread Christianity into northern Europe
Feudalism – started due to Viking invasions 900’s, serfs got protection from Lords in return for labor to Lord, No mobility. Manors – the village including the farm land people lived in. Lords – owned the land, in charge of the Manor. Knights – protected the Manor, soldiers. Chivalry – code followed by the Knights
Vassals – relatives of the Lord, managed the Manor for the Lord. Justinian’s Code – preserved all of the Roman laws by writing them down, helped pass down these laws to Europe after the Middle Ages ended. Orthodox Christian Church – The Great Schism of 1054 separated the Christian Church into 2 separate religions. The Pope no longer in charge of the Eastern orthodox Church.
Ottoman Empire – conquers Constantinople in Muslims now in control of what was the Byzantine Empire.
Global Interactions Crusades ad begun by Pope Urban II Holy wars fought over control of the Holy Land (Jerusalem). Successful failure – although the Christians lost the wars, they brought back to Europe new products and ideas that led to the end of the Middle Ages and Feudalism. Growth of towns and trade were a result of the Crusades
Guilds – early Unions to protect 2 types of businesses craftsmen, and merchants. They limited competition and created the apprenticeship system of education. Hanseatic league – northern European towns formed a trade union to compete against the Italians in trade.
Commercial Revolution Means changes in business. Mercantilism – an economy Capitalism – an economy
The Renaissance Started in Europe 1350, as a result of the Black Death, people lost faith in the Church, and they turn to other things. Humanism – a philosophy that placed a value on Human feelings and emotions, believed that people were capable of good things. Realism – a style of painting, showed emotion and beauty in life
Secularism – life no longer totally concerned with religion. Individualism – a philosophy that taught people to develop their own talents and interests. Machiavelli – wrote a book The Prince it called for the creation of an absolute monarchy. He believed a leader should any thing it took to succeed, even lie and kill. “The end Justifies the means”
Scientific Revolution – based on questioning (Skepticism) looking for Natural Laws to explain the universe. Protestant Reformation – led to new Christian Churches, and religious Diversity. 95 Theses – Luthers complaints against the Church. John Calvin – second man to braek from the Church, started Calvinism. Predestination – God selects Heaven before death
Henry VIII – broke from the Church, wanted a divorce, started the Anglican church. Counter Reformation – The Catholic church tried to make changes to stop more Catholics from leaving the Church.
The First Global Age Divine Right – the belief that a Kings power to rule comes from God. (like the Mandate of Heaven) Age of Exploration – caused by the desire of Europeans to find an all water route to India/China. Started by the Spanish and Portuguese. Causes are the Crusades, and travels of Marco Polo.
Prince Henry the Navigator – started a school to teach sailors how to navigate using the stars, (Astrolabe, Sextant.) Marco Polo – Italian that traveled the Silk Road and went all the way to China? Dias/da Gama – found the all water route to Asia (India) around Africa Columbus – the America’s (West Indies)
Magellan – first to circumnavigate the Globe. Encomienda System – native Americans were forced to work for the Spanish in the mines and on the farms. Mercantilism – Peninsulares – people born in Spain and sent to the New World to rule. Creoles – born in Americas, children of Peninsulares
Triangle Trade – also known as the Columbian Exchange. Major products to Europe were the potato, corn, and beans. Sugar brought to Indies and Brazil, then brought to Europe. Slaves from Africa to Americas, and finished goods to Americas from Europe.
Enlightenment – started as a result of the Glorious Revolution in England. It was the start of Limited Monarchy and Democracy. John Locke – wrote the Two Treatises of Government. He said gov was to protect the Natural Rights of Life, Liberty, and Property. If gov didn’t, people had the right to rebel.
Montesquieu – wrote about separation of powers and checks and balances. Hobbes – wrote the Leviathon, called for Absolute Monarchy. Magna Carta – 1215 A.D., limited the power of the King, created Parliament. Parliament – legislative branch of gov. Glorious Revolution – 1689 King James II kicked out of England. No more Absolute Monarchs in England.
English Bill of Rights – signed by the new monarchs of England (William & Mary) protect the rights of English citizens.
Revolutions Scientific Revolution – started in the 1500’s, started questioning to discover Natural Laws that governed the universe. Went against the teaching of the Bible and the book of Genesis. Copernicus – 1 st to come up with the Heliocentric (sun centered) theory of the solar system. People were taught that the Earth was the center (geocentric)
Kepler – elliptical orbits, not circular. Newton – laws of Motion (Physics) French Revolution – Louis XVI – killed during the Revolution Estates General – the old branch of gov. before the revolution Bourgeoisie – middle class, business class.
1 st Estate – Clergy 2 nd Estate – Nobles (land owners) 3 rd Estate – Bourgeoisie, city workers, and peasants. 97% of the population. The Bastille – the prison in Paris torn down in The symbol of the end of Absolute Monarchy. Robespierre – the leader of the Reign of Terror.
Napoleon – took over France in 1799, ended the revolution. Napoleonic Code – laws that gave the citizens of France social, legal, and economic equality. Simon Bolivar – the great liberator, ended imperialism in most of South America in the early 1800’s. Toussaint L’overture – the first rebellion in Latin America against Imperialism, Haiti
Caudillos – military leaders (dictators) that took over in Latin America after Imperialism ended. Agrarian Revolution – Agricultural Revolution it was responsible for the start of the industrial revolution. The most important crop was the potato. Cottage Industries – the beginning of the ind. Rev. work at home with simple machines.
Domestic System - same as cottage system. Factory System – work in factories, complex machines. Why England? Coal, iron, island (good harbors), rivers, surplus of food, capitalism, colonies (resources and markets) Working conditions – child labor, low wages, poor conditions first 100 yrs.
Socialism – gov. did away with Laissez Faire, workers protected by gov. Karl Marx – father of Communism (Marxism), believed workers (proletariat) would rebel against owners. Social Darwinism – belief that some people naturally superior to others. Used to explain racism, and poverty.
INC – Indian National Congress – purpose was to fight for independence from England. Gandhi was leader. White Mans Burden – poem written to justify Imperialism against non-European people. Apartheid – the separation of the races in South Africa. Nelson Mandela was jailed for 26 years fighting this.
Opium War – ended 1842, as a result of China losing they are forced to open up ports to foreign nations. Spheres of Influence – many European Nations carve up China into colonies. Treaty of Nanjing – also called the “Unequal Treaties” divided China into Spheres of Influences, England took Hong Kong.
Boxer Rebellion – 1900 Chinese revolted against foreigners, tried to end Imperialism, they failed. Absolutism – Russia ruled by Czars Peter the Great – westernized Russia, built St. Petersburg his “Window to the West” Catherine – continued the policies of Peter, took over part of Poland and the Black Sea.
Commodore Matthew Perry – forced the Japanese to trade with the United States ending their isolation. Meiji Restoration – began in 1869, Emperor takes power from the Shogun and begins to Westernize the nation. Started to modernize military and began policy of Imperialism to get resources.
Crisis & Achievement Militarism – build up of armies to prepare for war. Alliances – Triple Entente – Russia, England, France Triple Alliance – Germany, Austria- Hungary, Italy Imperialism – the greatest cause of WW I
Nationalism – people thinking they were better than others, led to war as a result of Ethnic prejudices. Powder Keg of Europe – the name for the Balkan peninsula because of the problems that led to the start of WW I. Assassination – Franz Ferdinand was killed by a Nationalist group called the Black Hand in the Balkan peninsula. This was the immediate cause of WW I.
WW I – Total War – all people involved in the war, civilians killed, factories major part of the war. Treaty of Versailles – Germany was punished by this treaty, lost land, paid for damages, and blamed for the start of the war. This was the cause of WW II
League of Nations – the first attempt at a United Nations, it failed the US never joined. Balfour Declaration – signed in 1917, the English promised Jewish ZIONISTS (people who wanted the creation of Israel) land in Palestine.
Russian Revolution Bloody Sunday – a rebellion in Moscow, people wanted a limited monarchy The Duma – a parliament created in Russia to limit the power of the Czar. November Revolution – the Communist Revolution led by Lenin, Stalin, and Trotsky in 1917.
Bolsheviks – also called the Reds, Lenins party. Mensheviks – also called the Whites, wanted Limited Monarchy not Communism. Peace, Land, Bread – the promise to the Russian people by Lenin if they supported his party. The people wanted to quit WW I, because the Germans were destroying the Russians.
Communism – see economies Lenin – leader of the Russian Revolution Nov Trotsky – worked with Lenin Stalin – also worked with Lenin, took over Russia (Soviet Union) after Lenin died. Five Year Plan – a policy of collectivization begun by Stalin after he took over power. An attempt to industrialize the nation
The NEP – policy begun by Lenin, realized Communism wasn’t working. Allowed small businesses and farmers to sell crops on the open market. Stalin ended it when he took over. WW II – , started with the Invasion of Poland. Fascism – society started by Mussolini in the 1920’s. A totalitarian state Nazism – same as Italy, started by Hitler
Totalitarianism – see gov. Mein Kampf – book written by Hitler while he was in prison, means My Struggle. Treaty of Versailles – major cause of WW II Appeasement – Hitler was allowed to keep the Sudetenland (part of Czechoslovakia) by the British and the French. Seen by Hitler as a sign of weakness.
The Munich Pact – the act of Appeasement, see above. Nazi-Soviet Pact – Hitler and Stalin signed a treaty of neutrality just before the start of WW II. Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis – the three countries that started WW II. Blitzkrieg – means “lightening warfare” Hitler used this tatic to invade Poland and France.
Pearl Harbor – the Japanese invasion that got America into WW II, Dec. 7 th D-Day – June 6 th 1944, the invasion of Normandy the allies landed in France to begin driving the German’s out of the country. Hiroshima /Nagasaki – the 2 Japanese cities that had Atomic bombs dropped on them. This ended WW II.
Nuremburg Laws – passed by Hitler to begin the discrimination of German Jews. Citizenship, businesses, and other rights taken away. Also had to wear the Star of David in public. The Holocaust – the slaughter of over 9 mil people during WW II in Camps by the Nazi’s. Over 6 mil were Jewish. Nuremburg Trials – Nazi’s were held responsible for the Genocide committed during the War.
Colonies/Nationalism (self- determination) – after WW II imperialism ended, too costly to maintain the Empires due to the cost of rebuilding Europe after WW II. Shift in Global Power – no longer Western Europe, it is now the Soviet Union and the United States. Cold War – – the problems between the USA and the USSR after WW II.
Changes in Japan – Japan no longer ruled by Emperor, Democracy was begun. Imperialism was ended, shifted economy by stressing education and the production of consumer goods for export.
20 th Century since 1945 Satellite States – the countries in Eastern Europe taken over by the Soviet Union after WW II. Truman Doctrine - $ promised to Greece and Turkey if they did not become allies of the USSR. Marshall Plan - $ promised to any country in Europe to resist the USSR.
NATO – military alliance of Western Europe and the USA, promised to all go to war against the USSR if any of them were attacked. Warsaw Pact – Soviet alliance, like NATO. Iron Curtain – the name given to the Satellite States by Churchill. Same as Communist Bloc. Berlin Wall – a wall separating Berlin into 2 separate parts, Democratic and Communist, built as a result of the American Bay of Pigs Invasion against Cuba