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Reading Quiz DSM IV Rosenhan’s Findings Life time prevalence Compulsion Why might data underestimate the number of males with a phobic disorder? Diathesis-stress.

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Presentation on theme: "Reading Quiz DSM IV Rosenhan’s Findings Life time prevalence Compulsion Why might data underestimate the number of males with a phobic disorder? Diathesis-stress."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Reading Quiz DSM IV Rosenhan’s Findings Life time prevalence Compulsion Why might data underestimate the number of males with a phobic disorder? Diathesis-stress model

3 Background and Themes of Psychopathology

4 Introduction to Abnormal Psychology 3 Defining Abnormal Psychology Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior

5 Defining Abnormal Psychology –Describing abnormal behavior –Explaining abnormal behavior –Predicting abnormal behavior –Modifying abnormal behavior

6 Historical perspectives on abnormal behavior Prehistoric Greco-Roman Middle Ages Humanist Reform Modern

7 Prehistoric and Ancient Beliefs Trephining: chipping away portions of the skull Exorcism: prayers, drugs, starvation Trephination today

8 Naturalistic explanations (Greeks and Romans) Hippocrates: brain pathology –Classification: mania, melancholia, and phrenitis Galen: role of brain and nervous system, codification of knowledge of anatomy

9 Four Humors The Humors of HippocratesThe Humors of Hippocrates

10 Reversion to Superstition (The Middle Ages) “Dark Ages” sinfulness Mass madness (thirteenth century): –Tarantism –lycanthropy

11 Witchcraft ( fifteenth through seventeenth centuries) Related to church under attack Pope Innocent VIII’s papal decree (1484) –Malleus Maleficarum to identify and exterminate witches –Although some of those persecuted may have been mentally ill, most were not

12 Rise of Humanism (the Renaissance) Emphasizes human welfare Johann Weyer challenges notion of witchcraft (1563) n&lr=&ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF-8

13 12 Reform Movements (eighteenth and nineteenth centuries) –Moral treatment movements Pinel in France –Reformed conditions in French asylums Tuke (Quaker) in England –Retreat for mentally ill Rush, Dix, Beers in America –Humanitarian view of patients –Separate mentally ill from prison system –Reform treatment of mentally ill Zebulon R. Brockway –Elmira Penal System

14 Themes and Challenges in Psychopathology Biological and Psychological –Bottom up and Top down Science and Practice –Empirical approach and Human approach Developmental Changes –Mental health and mental disorder change over the lifetime Treatment of Choice –Level of treatment question –Symptoms or causes

15 Defining Abnormal Behavior Abnormal behavior from a conceptual perspective Abnormal behavior from a practical perspective Abnormal behavior from an integrated perspective Abnormal behavior from a clinical perspective Hazards of Defining Abnormality

16 Conceptual Definitions Statistical deviation –Based on frequency but no distinction of desirable and undesirable Deviation from ideal mental health –Self-actualization, balance, resistance to stress Multicultural perspectives –Cultural universality v. cultural relativism

17 Practical Definitions Discomfort: physical or psychological Deviance: hallucination, delusions Dysfunction: potential v. performance

18 Integrated Definitions Factors in determining abnormality come from multiple perspectives –Society? (Szasz) –Individual –Mental health professional Harmful dysfunction (Wakefield, 1992) –Social norm defines harmful –Biological sciences define dysfunction

19 Surgeon General and DSM-IV-TR “a clinically significant behavioral or psychological syndrome or pattern that occurs in an individual and that is associated with present distress or disability or with a significantly increased risk of suffering” –Allows room for the various criteria and perspectives on behavior –No precise line delineates normal from abnormal –Requires some recognizable pattern of abnormal behavior

20 The Elements of Abnormality Suffering Maladaptiveness Irrationality Unpredictability and loss of control Rareness and unconventionality Observer discomfort Violation of standards

21 Hazards of Defining Abnormality Observers Disagree Observers and Actors Disagree –Actors have much more information about their behavior –Recognize that their behaviors can be inconsistent –Tend to see selves in more favorable light Self diagnosis

22 Frequency and Burden of Mental Disorders 29-38% of the population has at least one DSM disorder29-38% of the population has at least one DSM disorder Some gender differences exist Age differences are evident (developmental) Mental illness is more debilitating than malignant diseases (lost years of healthy life)

23 Stereotypes and Myths about the Mentally Disturbed Fundamental attribution error –Easily recognized as deviant –Disorder due to inheritance –Incurable –Weak willed –Never contribute to society –Dangerous –Stress of working is likely to cause relapses

24 Current Trends Psycho-pharmaceuticals –Neutriceuticals –Deinstitutionalization Script v. No ScriptScriptNo Script –New MexicoNew Mexico –Impact on psychologists –Impact on mentally ill Managed health care Status of research –Biotherapy v. psychotherapy Multicultural perspective Bias in diagnosis


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