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Presentation on theme: "- 0- Objectives Business needs Application architecture Technology perspective Implications Review questions Enterprise Systems Foundations."— Presentation transcript:

1 - 0- Objectives Business needs Application architecture Technology perspective Implications Review questions Enterprise Systems Foundations

2 - 1- What is Business Intelligence (BI)? According to Wiki (2013) –BI is a set of theories, methodologies, processes, architectures, and technologies that transform raw data into meaningful and useful information for business purposes. –BI can handle large amounts of information to help identify and develop new opportunities. –Making use of new opportunities and implementing an effective strategy can provide a competitive market advantage and long-term stability. However Internet / Smart Phone age has changed the BI landscape….

3 - 2- BI landscape in the age of Smart Phones Crowd Data Open Data DB ES Social Network Vehicle Sensors etc. Time Tables Road Displays etc. Crowd Systems & Users Smart Phones Web Sites Etc. Management & Analysts DW Extraction Manufacturing Data, Financial Data etc.

4 - 3- BI solutions are offered by all main vendors The BI share is 5-10% of the ES market BI solutions are offered by –Large ES vendors SAP: SAP Netweaver Business Warehouse (SAP NetWeaver BW) alias "SAP BI" Oracle : Oracle Business Intelligence Enterprise Edition Plus (OBI EE Plus) MS: SQL server series –Specialized vendors SAS: integrated system of software products Microstrategy Open source platforms :e.g. Pentaho Etc.

5 - 4- The BI architect What is BI course for? –It intends to provide foundations for BI architects BI projects require an architect –BI integrates a variety of software modules –The main BI project activity is to customize modules to user requirements What is BI architect ? –He/she is able to model the needs of users and follows a framework –He/she is able to transform needs in a language understood by software developers –He/she is able to understand the software platforms to implement BI –He/she is NOT a pure software developer

6 - 5- Our approach to BI Plan Exec Mon Dash Rep DSS Ctl Info ES taxonomy BI Architecture BI systems modelling Enterprise Information Modeling SIRE KPI Identification / mapping HIGO Aggregate Strategic Level (ASL) GUI Modeling GOA Analytic Information Modeling DFM Rich Semantic Level (RSL) Software Engineering Interface (SEI) Implementation Level

7 - 6- Objectives Business perspective Application perspective Technology perspective Implications Review questions Enterprise Systems Foundations

8 - 7- The business perspective: Enterprise Crowd Data Open Data DB ES Social Network Vehicle Sensors etc. Time Tables Road Displays etc. Crowd Systems & Users Smart Phones Web Sites Etc. Management & Analysts Extraction Manufacturing Data, Financial Data etc. DW

9 - 8- BI: scope of Enterprise BI BI was born for sales analysis: «what we sold, where, to whom» Enterprise has been and still is the primary target of BI BI is a primary technology in Enterprise Systems (ES), specifically in Management Information Systems (MIS) We here give an overview of ES

10 - 9- ES targets Strategic Planning Management Control Operations Planning Operations Execution Operations Monitoring Operations Control Information Management Enterprise governance (Strategic decisions & budget governance) Operation life cycle of the enterprise Management of enterprise related information (Execution life cycle)

11 - 10- ES for Management Governance includes –Strategic planning, where managers decide products, markets, geography and structure of the organization –Management Control, where managers define budgets and analyze results and set appropriate corrective actions Strategic Planning Management Control Operations Planning Operations Execution Operations Monitoring Operations Control Information Management

12 - 11- Define objectives & goals (plan) Define corrective actions (action) Appraise results monthly (analysis) Operations (Execution) ES for Management: Management Cycle Each governance level runs a three-phase control cycle (see right) Information systems support management: –DSS (Decision Support Systems) help managers to define budget and plans –Data Warehouse store aggregate data for management analysis –Reporting Systems provide information for analysis of results Strategic Planning Management Control Operations Planning Operations Execution Opereatiions Monitoring Opereations Control Information Management

13 - 12- Indicators Figures: actual, goals Aggregate and computed information Time period EFFBDGTACTBDGTPROD 1PROD 2 P&L STATEMENT Sales2.100 2.000 4.300 4.000 1.955 2.345 Purchase720 1.400 1.500 800 600 HR 850 800 1.600 1.650 900 700 EBITDA1530 480 1.300 850 255 1.045 Depreciation200 420 191 229 Miscellaneous costs200 225 400 450 182 218 Allowances 20 41 40 19 22 EBIT110 35 231 74 154 77 Physical indicators Cars shipped 1.200 1.100 2.400 2.200 1.200 Cars sold1.100 2.200 1.100 Semeser 2 Annual values ES for Management: Reporting (example)

14 - 13- ES for Management: Reporting (example) Reporting systems aggregate time series of elementary information –E.g. the information «Sales» of semester 2 rolls up all the invoices of the cars sold Reporting systems enable to compare goals against actual results (e.g. budget and actual sales) where: –Actual results are extracted from operational records generated by execution activities –Goals are calculated in the planning phase of the management control cycle Time series can be segmented by multiple views e.g.: –Product (in the example sales are segmented by Product 1 and Product 2) –Market (e.g. Sales in China, France, Italy etc.) –Customer (e.g. Sales for returning customers, for new customers etc.) –Plant (Cars produced by Shanghai plant, by Milan plant etc.)

15 - 14- ES for Management: Reporting / dashboard

16 - 15- ES for Management: DSS Decision Support Systems –Support semi-structured decisions where the main decision variables are known and can be processed e.g.: Budgeting systems Financial planning Investment analysis Loan management Etc. Strategic Planning Management Control Operations Planning Operations Execution Operations Monitoring Operations Control Information Management

17 - 16- ES for Management: DSS

18 - 17- ES for Operations Nowadays ES support the whole operations cycle –Operations Planning e.g. Define the production plan of a plant –Execution: e.g. Record a car delivered, reserve a seat on a plane etc. –Monitoring: e.g. Track the position and status of a shipment –Control: e.g. Analyze the service level to the dealers Strategic Planning Management Control Operations Planning Operations Execution Operations Monitoring Operations Control Information Management

19 - 18- ES for Operations: Planning (SAP) Planning implies –To define the objectives of an action (e.g. cars to be produced) –To identify resources needed (e.g. materials to be used) –To balance the set of resources (e.g. materials, manpower, machinery) Planning systems improve performance of operations because –They define feasible execution –They can assure punctuality and optimal resource usage

20 - 19- ES for Operations: Planning (SAP)

21 - 20- ES for Operations: Execution (hotel booking) Execution implies –To collect the data of the transaction to be executed –To update database accordingly Execution systems simplify and shorten operations: –By reducing / eliminating paperwork –By coordinating interdependent tasks and activities Strategic Planning Management Control Operations Planning Operations Execution Operations Monitoring Operations Control Information Management

22 - 21- ES for Operations: Execution (hotel booking)

23 - 22- ES for Operations: Monitoring (shipping) Monitoring implies –To track the status of a certain object or service –To undertake immediate actions in front of alarms Monitoring systems assure the promise in the business processes e.g. –To receive on time the freight the customer ordered –To receive the car the customer ordered

24 - 23- ES for Operations: Monitoring (shipping)

25 - 24- ES for Operations: Control (Project) Control implies –To know the status of a certain activity at a given time –To appraise results against Information Systems for Operations: Control (Project case study) Control systems check the promise e.g. –Measure the deviance from expected results –Can identify the reasons why –Can help to find correction

26 - 25- ES for Operations: Control (Project)

27 - 26- ES for Operations: Information Management (BOM) Information management implies to define data (typically master data) and parameters used in operations execution e.g.: –To define the data of raw materials –To define the layout of a warehouse Information management improves the accuracy of execution systems e.g. –To provide more information to a patient –To provide more information on a material Strategic Planning Management Control Operations Planning Operations Execution Operations Monitoring Operations Control Information Management

28 - 27- ES for Operations: Information Management (BOM)

29 - 28- ES for operations: a real life example Plan Weekly Supply Planning Daily Expediting Procurement Parameters Management Procurement Monitoring Receive & Inspect EU Shipments Receiving Extra-EU shipment Receiving Quantity Check Quality Check Quality Test Receiving Layout Mngt Inspection Parameters Management Arrival Monitoring Store, Pick & Deliver Cart Storage Automatic Storage Cart Delivery AGV Delivery Automatic Warehouse Picking Physical Count Inventory Accounting Picking / storage monitoring Warehouse Layout Mngt Warehouse Parameters Management Manage WIP WIP loading /unloading Scrap handling WIP tracking WIP parameters management Reports & Analyze Store & Pick statistics Stock Dynamics Analysis Out of stock statistics Service Level Analysis (KPI) Physical Inventory Report Supplier Analysis Reporting Parameters Mngt Strategic Planning Management Control Operations Planning Operations Execution Operations Monitoring Operations Control Information Management The whole range of Planning, Execution, Monitoring, Control activities is (and has to be) found in operations support systems as in the Materials Management example here below

30 - 29- Objectives Business perspective Application perspective Technology perspective Implications Review questions Enterprise Systems Foundations

31 - 30- Introduction In the functional perspective –We consider what ES do –We do not consider how ES is implemented Specifically we target : –The ES functional structure (= architecture) –The taxonomy of ES processing functions –The ES information structure –The taxonomy of ES information –The approach by which ES functional characteristics are defined

32 - 31- ES: structure An ES is a collection of functions that access databases / data warehouse to read, change, insert or delete records –Function: A self-contained action on database that can be started independently e.g. Book a flight It contains a number of tasks e.g. Log-in Select the flight Input personal data Input payment data Confirm payment –Database (DB): Stores permanent information structured according to a predefined format (e.g. tables or cubes) Contains a set of records, i.e. tuples e.g. a row in a relational table Function 1 Function …. Function N Database

33 - 32- ES: Function Classes ES Functions Installation Configuration Installation Misc. Administration Database loading / unloading Database cleaning Backup Misc. An ES includes various function classes i.e. –Installation that are used by IT professionals to install the software application –User functions that execute the activities performed by users –Administration functions that are used by professionals who are in charge of running and maintaining the application User

34 - 33- ES: information classes CUSTOMER PRODUCT CALENDAR CUSTOMER ORDER ORDERS BY PRODUCT, CUSTOMER, TIME Master Information Event Information Analysis Information An ES includes a wide range of information that be classified according to its dynamic properties into the levels: Master, Event, Analysis

35 - 34- Taxonomy of information: information levels –Master information Describes structural properties of an object Typically has one key –Event information Describes properties of an event or transaction Typically has multiple keys –Analysis information Describes time dependent values Typically has multiple keys

36 - 35- Taxonomy of information: information levels Customer Product Calendar Customer# Product # Date# Customer Order Customer# Product # Order# Orders by Product, Customer, Time Customer# Product # Order# Date# Records the attributes of ecah event (i.e order) One record for each event (i.e. order) Records the facts concerning a time series (eg. Quantity, Value etc.) The time series is identified by multiple domain keys (i.e. customer, order, product) Record structural prioperties (e.g. customer address) Exah key identifes an individual in a given domain

37 - 36- Taxonomy of information : examples in different sectors Information systemMaster informationEvent InformationAnalysis Information Warehouse Materials Master Location Master Picking / Storage transactions Operations volumes Inventory turnover Checking account Customer Master Account Master Balance Transactions Operations volumes Balance trend Energy billing Customer Master Price list Consumption Bills Consumption trends Customer loyalty Order processing Customer Master Product Master Price List Orders Invoices Orders analysis Customer loyalty Services to citizens Citizen Master Service Master Service request Services invoices Service levels Citizen profile

38 - 37- ES cross-systems architecture Infobus (EAI) Transacti on 1 Transacti on …. Transacti on N Database Transacti on 1 Transacti on …. Transacti on N Database Transacti on 1 Transacti on …. Transacti on N Database In a very ideal world an enterprise should store all its information in one database. However: Over time enterprises independently implement interdependent databases Synchronization of information becomes a critical problem EAI (Enterprise Application Integration) enables synchronization across databases

39 - 38- Objectives Business perspective Application perspective Technology perspective Implications Review questions Enterprise Systems Foundations

40 - 39- Introduction The business perspective addresses WHAT enterprise domains systems should support –Business and Management Processes –Decisions –Information The application perspective addresses WHAT systems should in terms of –Information to be stored –Processing functions to be run and related business rules –Human computer interface The technology perspective considers HOW systems are implemented. Specifically we target : –The processing tiers –The executive architecture

41 - 40- Processing tiers : Gartners taxonomy From 1992-93 systems are implemented on a client-server schema Clients may be more or less fat –Fat clients are frequent in smart phone applications (see case study) –Slim clients are typical of large enterprise information systems e.g. CRM

42 - 41- Processing tiers : three-tier architecture The logic tier may be implemented on multiple Application Servers Typically Data Server is implemente on one set of machines and therefore may be the critical ring of the processing chain

43 - 42- The cross-systems architecture Infobus (EAI) Transacti on 1 Transacti on …. Transacti on N Database Transacti on 1 Transacti on …. Transacti on N Database Transacti on 1 Transacti on …. Transacti on N Database Over time multiple interdependent databases have been implemented in enterprises Synchronization of information is becoming a problem EAI (Enterprise Application Integration) enables synchronization across databases

44 - 43- The cross-systems architecture : Services Oriented Architecture Service Platforms SiebelCICS… Orchestration layer Services Servers Applications Storage Executable image of a Business Process Business Process

45 - 44- Objectives Business perspective Application perspective Technology perspective Implications Review questions Enterprise Systems Foundations

46 - 45- Business perspective : implications for the ES architect The architect –Understands enterprise business, organization & business processes –Analyzes business process / organization and elicits ES requirements –Has to use appropriate frameworks

47 - 46- Objectives Business perspective Application perspective Technology perspective Implications Review questions Enterprise Systems Foundations

48 - 47- Review questions: technology perspective The business perspective what the systems are for, i.e. what is the kind the support they can give to the enterprise –Illustrate the five levels of ES (strategic planning, management control, operations planning, execution, operations monitoring, operations control, information management) –Exemplify the five levels on a simple case, e.g. a car maker as VW or public body as University The application perspective illustrates what systems do regardless their implementation. –What is the functional structure of information systems? –Information systems contain functions for users (i.e. user transactions) and functions for administration and installation. Please comment. –Illustrate the threefold taxonomy of information (Master, Event, Analysis) and list information on familiar domains e.g. University, Health Care, Bank

49 - 48- INCIDENT: Warehouse ES The ware-house Software The company Architecture (deployment)

50 - 49- Appendix 1 Railways case study Enterprise Systems Foundations

51 - 50- The railways case study Mr Motta lives in Pavia, a small city in Northern Italy, and wants to go to Florence, where his relatives live in a small village not served by public transportation. Now, there are no direct connections from Pavia to Florence. Thus, Motta shall take the bus to the train station, then a local train to Milan, and, finally, a fast train from Milan to Florence. Motta books the fast train and alerts relatives. However, things do not happen as planned. Because of traffic jam, the bus is late, but the local train to Milan is late too. Motta is happy, but when the local train arrives to Milan the fast train has already left. Motta has to go to the ticket counter and change his ticket. Relatives in Florence pick up Motta one hour late and have to pay additional parking.

52 - 51- To-be: the stakeholder oriented system Tr.2184 PV Arrival: 9.27 Platform: 3 Tr.2184 MI Arrival: 10.13 Platform:18 Tr.9431 MI Departure: 10.16 Platform: 16 If you want to select later schedules please answer yes to this sms Contract n°72673 Planned delivery 10.30 Rescheduled delivery 12.35 Mr. Motta will arrive at 13.25 instead of 13.05 Car Rental

53 - 52- The architecture: overall concept PASS runs as an App on a smart phone Business logic and information on the business process run on a server (IRMA) Service systems are accessed via web services Android platform (I-Phone as a potential extension)

54 - 53- The architecture: data

55 - 54- Deployment diagram

56 - 55- Appendix 2 Modeling layers Enterprise Systems Foundations

57 - 56- ES modelling levels LayerTargetNotationsExplanation ASL Aggregate Strategic Layer Aggregate needs List / GridNeeds are aggregate and expressed by simple notations, as grids or lists RSL Rich Semantic Layer Detailed needs Diagrams & Specification languages Needs are detailed and expressed by diagrams RSL is conceptual and independent from implementation SEI Software Engineering Interface SoftwareDiagrams Specification & programming languages Transforms RSL into a notation targeting software engineers In most cases such notation is executable.

58 - 57- ES modeling grid Analysis LayerAnalysis Domain InformationBusiness functionsUser Interface Aggregate Strategic Layer (ASL) Business Information Models Business models (e.g. financial mathematical models; KPI) Stakeholder / Goal Oriented Conceptual Models Rich Semantic Layer (RSL) Conceptual Information Models UML & BPMN (flow intensive systems) Software Engineering Interface (SEI) Implementation Frameworks / Platforms GUI Implementation Frameworks/ Platforms


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