Presentation on theme: "Cognitivism. mid-20th Century Was it possible to learn with no outward signs of changed behavior? The cognitivist goes inside the learners head to see."— Presentation transcript:
mid-20th Century Was it possible to learn with no outward signs of changed behavior? The cognitivist goes inside the learners head to see what mental processes were activated and changed during learning
Cognitivism Knowledge is viewed as symbolic mental constructs; learning involves how those constructs are committed to memory Behavior may change, but only as an indication to what is going on in the learner's head
How does learning occur? Learning is measured by what learners know, not necessarily what they do The learner processes symbols and grasps the meaning of symbols There may or may not be an external behavioral change due to learning
Which factors influence learning? Active participation Demonstrations Illustrative examples Corrective feedback
What is the role of memory? As long as the learner has the ability to organize, categorize and retrieve information, learning is accomplished
How does transfer occur? Information is memorized in an organized manner Induction/deduction
What types of learning are best explained by this theory? Reasoning Philosophizing Problem solving Information processing
Strengths of Cognitivism The context of a learner - their history, culture, thoughts, beliefs and values - are influential in the learning process
Criticisms of Cognitivism The learner knows a certain way to do things, but that way may not be the best, most efficient or safest way to do something in a different culture or environment
Zone of Proximal Development Vygotsky (1978) maintained the child follows the adult's example and gradually develops the ability to do certain tasks without assistance. He called the difference between what a child can do with help and what he or she can do without guidance the "zone of proximal development" (ZPD).
ZPD What a child can do without help. Zone of Proximal Development What a teacher can teach.