Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

CSE 413: Computer Networks Md. Kamrul Hasan Assistant Professor and Chairman Dept. of Computer and Communication Engineering Patuakhali Science and Technology.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "CSE 413: Computer Networks Md. Kamrul Hasan Assistant Professor and Chairman Dept. of Computer and Communication Engineering Patuakhali Science and Technology."— Presentation transcript:

1 CSE 413: Computer Networks Md. Kamrul Hasan Assistant Professor and Chairman Dept. of Computer and Communication Engineering Patuakhali Science and Technology University Homepage: www.mkhasan.info Chapter 10 – Circuit Switching and Packet Switching

2 Switched Network

3 Nodes a collection of nodes and connections is a communications network a collection of nodes and connections is a communications network nodes may connect to other nodes only, or to stations and other nodes nodes may connect to other nodes only, or to stations and other nodes network is usually partially connected network is usually partially connected some redundant connections are desirable some redundant connections are desirable have two different switching technologies have two different switching technologies circuit switching circuit switching packet switching packet switching

4 Circuit Switching uses a dedicated path between two stations uses a dedicated path between two stations has three phases has three phases establish establish transfer transfer disconnect disconnect inefficient inefficient channel capacity dedicated for duration of connection channel capacity dedicated for duration of connection if no data, capacity wasted if no data, capacity wasted set up (connection) takes time set up (connection) takes time once connected, transfer is transparent once connected, transfer is transparent

5 Public Circuit Switched Network

6 Packet Switching circuit switching was designed for voice circuit switching was designed for voice packet switching was designed for data packet switching was designed for data transmitted in small packets transmitted in small packets packets contains user data and control info packets contains user data and control info user data may be part of a larger message user data may be part of a larger message control info includes routing (addressing) info control info includes routing (addressing) info packets are received, stored briefly (buffered) and past on to the next node packets are received, stored briefly (buffered) and past on to the next node

7 Packet Switching

8 Advantages line efficiency line efficiency single link shared by many packets over time single link shared by many packets over time packets queued and transmitted as fast as possible packets queued and transmitted as fast as possible data rate conversion data rate conversion stations connects to local node at own speed stations connects to local node at own speed nodes buffer data if required to equalize rates nodes buffer data if required to equalize rates packets accepted even when network is busy packets accepted even when network is busy priorities can be used priorities can be used

9 Switching Techniques station breaks long message into packets station breaks long message into packets packets sent one at a time to the network packets sent one at a time to the network packets can be handled in two ways packets can be handled in two ways datagram datagram virtual circuit virtual circuit

10 Datagram Diagram

11 Virtual Circuit Diagram

12 Virtual Circuits vs. Datagram virtual circuits virtual circuits network can provide sequencing and error control network can provide sequencing and error control packets are forwarded more quickly packets are forwarded more quickly less reliable less reliable datagram datagram no call setup phase no call setup phase more flexible more flexible more reliable more reliable

13 Packet Size

14 Circuit vs. Packet Switching Table 10.1 Table 10.1 performance depends on various delays performance depends on various delays propagation delay propagation delay transmission time transmission time node delay node delay range of other characteristics, including: range of other characteristics, including: transparency transparency amount of overhead amount of overhead

15 Event Timing

16 X.25 One technical aspect of packet-switching: the interface between attached devices and the network. One technical aspect of packet-switching: the interface between attached devices and the network. We have seen that a circuit-switching network provides a transparent communications path for attached devices that makes it appear that the two communicating stations have a direct link. We have seen that a circuit-switching network provides a transparent communications path for attached devices that makes it appear that the two communicating stations have a direct link.

17 X.25 In the case of packet-switching networks, the attached stations must organize their data into packets for transmission. In the case of packet-switching networks, the attached stations must organize their data into packets for transmission. This cooperation is embodied in an interface standard. The standard used for traditional packet-switching networks is X.25, which is an ITU-T standard This cooperation is embodied in an interface standard. The standard used for traditional packet-switching networks is X.25, which is an ITU-T standard ITU-T specifies an interface between a host system and a packet-switching network. ITU-T specifies an interface between a host system and a packet-switching network. The functionality of X.25 is specified on three levels: Physical level, Link level, and Packet level. The functionality of X.25 is specified on three levels: Physical level, Link level, and Packet level.

18 X.25 - Physical The physical level deals with the physical interface between an attached station (computer, terminal) and the link that attaches that station to the packet-switching node. The physical level deals with the physical interface between an attached station (computer, terminal) and the link that attaches that station to the packet-switching node. It makes use of the physical-level specification in a standard known as X.21, but in many cases other standards, such as EIA-232, are substituted. It makes use of the physical-level specification in a standard known as X.21, but in many cases other standards, such as EIA-232, are substituted.

19 X.25 - Link Defined as Link Access Protocol-Balanced (LAPB) Defined as Link Access Protocol-Balanced (LAPB) Subset of HDLC Subset of HDLC see chapter 7 see chapter 7 provides reliable transfer of data over link by sending as a sequence of frames provides reliable transfer of data over link by sending as a sequence of frames

20 X.25 - Packet The packet level provides a virtual circuit service. The packet level provides a virtual circuit service. This service enables any subscriber to the network to set up logical connections, called virtual circuits, to other subscribers. This service enables any subscriber to the network to set up logical connections, called virtual circuits, to other subscribers. In this context, the term virtual circuit refers to the logical connection between two stations through the network; In this context, the term virtual circuit refers to the logical connection between two stations through the network; What is important for an external virtual circuit is that there is a logical relationship, or logical channel, established between two stations, and all of the data associated with that logical channel are considered as part of a single stream of data between the two stations. What is important for an external virtual circuit is that there is a logical relationship, or logical channel, established between two stations, and all of the data associated with that logical channel are considered as part of a single stream of data between the two stations.

21 X.25 Use of Virtual Circuits An example of X.25 virtual circuits is shown in Figure. In this example, station A has a virtual circuit connection to C; station B has two virtual circuits established, one to C and one to D; and stations E and F each have a virtual circuit connection to D. As an example of how these external virtual circuits are used, station D keeps track of data packets arriving from three different workstations (B, E, F) on the basis of the virtual circuit number associated with each incoming packet.

22 Frame Relay Today's networks employ reliable digital transmission technology over high-quality, reliable transmission links, many of which are optical fiber. Today's networks employ reliable digital transmission technology over high-quality, reliable transmission links, many of which are optical fiber. In addition, with the use of optical fiber and digital transmission, high data rates can be achieved. In addition, with the use of optical fiber and digital transmission, high data rates can be achieved. In this environment, the overhead of X.25 is not only unnecessary but degrades the effective utilization of the available high data rates. In this environment, the overhead of X.25 is not only unnecessary but degrades the effective utilization of the available high data rates. Frame relay is designed to eliminate much of the overhead that X.25 imposes on end user systems and on the packet-switching network Frame relay is designed to eliminate much of the overhead that X.25 imposes on end user systems and on the packet-switching network

23 Frame Relay The key differences between frame relay and a conventional X.25 packet- switching service are: The key differences between frame relay and a conventional X.25 packet- switching service are: Call control signaling, which is information needed to set up and manage a connection, is carried on a separate logical connection from user data. Thus, intermediate nodes need not maintain state tables or process messages relating to call control on an individual per-connection basis. Call control signaling, which is information needed to set up and manage a connection, is carried on a separate logical connection from user data. Thus, intermediate nodes need not maintain state tables or process messages relating to call control on an individual per-connection basis. Multiplexing and switching of logical connections takes place at layer 2 instead of layer 3, eliminating one entire layer of processing. Multiplexing and switching of logical connections takes place at layer 2 instead of layer 3, eliminating one entire layer of processing. There is no hop-by-hop flow control and error control. End-to-end flow control and error control are the responsibility of a higher layer, if they are employed at all. There is no hop-by-hop flow control and error control. End-to-end flow control and error control are the responsibility of a higher layer, if they are employed at all. Thus, with frame relay, a single user data frame is sent from source to destination, and an acknowledgment, generated at a higher layer, may be carried back in a frame. There are no hop-by-hop exchanges of data frames and acknowledgments.

24 Advantages and Disadvantages The principal potential disadvantage of frame relay, compared to X.25, is that we have lost the ability to do link-by-link flow and error control. Although frame relay does not provide end- to-end flow and error control, this is easily provided at a higher layer. With the increasing reliability of transmission and switching facilities, this is not a major disadvantage. The principal potential disadvantage of frame relay, compared to X.25, is that we have lost the ability to do link-by-link flow and error control. Although frame relay does not provide end- to-end flow and error control, this is easily provided at a higher layer. With the increasing reliability of transmission and switching facilities, this is not a major disadvantage. The advantage of frame relay is that we have streamlined the communications process. The protocol functionality required at the user-network interface is reduced, as is the internal network processing. As a result, lower delay and higher throughput can be expected. The advantage of frame relay is that we have streamlined the communications process. The protocol functionality required at the user-network interface is reduced, as is the internal network processing. As a result, lower delay and higher throughput can be expected.

25 Thank You


Download ppt "CSE 413: Computer Networks Md. Kamrul Hasan Assistant Professor and Chairman Dept. of Computer and Communication Engineering Patuakhali Science and Technology."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google