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DINAMIKA KALIUM DALAM TANAH SUMBER: myspace.aamu.edu/users/monday.mbila/soils/SPS251Lecture15.ppt‎

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Presentation on theme: "DINAMIKA KALIUM DALAM TANAH SUMBER: myspace.aamu.edu/users/monday.mbila/soils/SPS251Lecture15.ppt‎"— Presentation transcript:

1 DINAMIKA KALIUM DALAM TANAH SUMBER: myspace.aamu.edu/users/monday.mbila/soils/SPS251Lecture15.ppt‎

2 Dinamika K dalam Tanah  Introduction  The Potassium Cycle  Forms of Potassium in soil  Ketersediaan K dalam tanah  Manajemen K tanah SUMBER: myspace.aamu.edu/users/monday.mbila/soils/SPS251Lecture15.ppt‎

3 Pendahuluan K is the third most likely element after nitrogen and phosphorus to limit plant productivity. Biasanya diaplikasikan sebagai pupuk K ada dalam larutan tanah sebagai kation K + K tidak membentuk gas yang hilang ke udara SUMBER: myspace.aamu.edu/users/monday.mbila/soils/SPS251Lecture15.ppt‎

4 Its behavior in soil is influenced more by cation exchange reactions than by microbiological processes K tidak menyebabkan pencemaran lingkungan eksternal K tidak toksik dan tidak menyebabkan problematik eutrofikasi SUMBER: myspace.aamu.edu/users/monday.mbila/soils/SPS251Lecture15.ppt‎ Pendahuluan

5 K dalam nutrisi tanaman dan hewan Potassium activates many enzymes in plants and animals that are responsible for energy metabolism, photosynthesis and other processes As a component of the cytoplasm of plant cells, it helps to lower cellular osmotic water potential thereby increasing the ability of root cells to take up water. SUMBER: myspace.aamu.edu/users/monday.mbila/soils/SPS251Lecture15.ppt‎

6 K sangat penting untuk fiksasi nitrogen pada legume Kecukupan K telah terbukti membantu tanaman beradaptasi terhadap cekaman lingkungan In animals including humans, K is important in regulating the nervous system and maintenance of good blood vessels. SUMBER: myspace.aamu.edu/users/monday.mbila/soils/SPS251Lecture15.ppt‎ K dalam nutrisi tanaman dan hewan

7 Gejala Defisiensi K Mengurangi kemampuan tanaman untuk beradaptasi terhadap cekamam lingkungan mis. Kekeringan, Genangan banjir, dll. Pucuk dan tepian daun menguning (chlorosis) dan kemudian mati (nekrosis). In some crops, K deficiency produces white necrotic spots that looks like insect damage. SUMBER: myspace.aamu.edu/users/monday.mbila/soils/SPS251Lecture15.ppt‎

8 Siklus K SUMBER: myspace.aamu.edu/users/monday.mbila/soils/SPS251Lecture15.ppt‎

9 Sumber Original K adalah mineral primer  Mineral Mica (biotite dan muscuvite)  Potassium feldspar (orthoclase dan microcline) Potassium is released from the minerals during the weathering process When available for plant uptake, it is taken up by plants in large quantities SUMBER: myspace.aamu.edu/users/monday.mbila/soils/SPS251Lecture15.ppt‎ Siklus K

10 Dalam ekosistem alamiah, K is returned to the soil by rainwater leaching of foliage and by plant residue or as waste from animals that feed on plant Potassium is lost by soil erosion and runoff, and leaching to the groundwater Most potassium in agricultural ecosystems are lost through removal of crops and crop residues from soil SUMBER: myspace.aamu.edu/users/monday.mbila/soils/SPS251Lecture15.ppt‎ Siklus K

11 Bentuk-bentuk K dalam tanah Empat bentuk K dalam tanah adalah: – K dalam struktur mineral primer – K dalam posisi tidak dapat ditukar dalam mineral sekunder – K in exchangeable form on soil colloid surfaces – K ions larut dalam air Total K in soil and its distribution as shown in the K-cycle is a function of the clay minerals present in soil SUMBER: myspace.aamu.edu/users/monday.mbila/soils/SPS251Lecture15.ppt‎

12 K dalam struktur mineral primer Unavailable (90-98% of all soil K) K dalam posisi tidak dapat ditukar pada mineral sekunder Slowly available - fixed K is not easily exchangeable - In equilibrium with more available forms K dalam bentuk dapat ditukar pada permukaan koloid tanah Readily available (1-2% of all soil K) -90% of readily available Ion K+ larut dalam air Readily available - Subject to leaching - Equilibrium with exchangeable form Ketersediaan bentuk-bentuk K SUMBER: myspace.aamu.edu/users/monday.mbila/soils/SPS251Lecture15.ppt‎

13 Fiksasi K oleh Koloid Tanah Nonexchangeable-K  Exchangeable-K  Soil Solution-K SUMBER: myspace.aamu.edu/users/monday.mbila/soils/SPS251Lecture15.ppt‎

14 Faktor Ketersediaan K dalam tanah 1.Tipe Koloid Tanah Ability of various colloids to fix K varies (2:1) 2.Pembasahan & Pengeringan Tanah Physically affects the structure of colloids 3.Pembekuan & Pencairan Tanah Physically affects the structure of colloids 4.Kemasaman tanah (pH) High pH increases the fixation of K because of less H + and Al 3+ at exchange sites. SUMBER: myspace.aamu.edu/users/monday.mbila/soils/SPS251Lecture15.ppt‎

15 Problem K dalam Kesuburan Tanah SUMBER: myspace.aamu.edu/users/monday.mbila/soils/SPS251Lecture15.ppt‎

16 The main problem with managing soil K is that of converting the unavailable forms of the element to available forms  Available K is usually supplemented by fertilization Another problem is removing a lot of crops from the soil without returning the crop residues  Attempts should be made to return as much residue as possible for the natural plant-soil cycling of K to continue SUMBER: myspace.aamu.edu/users/monday.mbila/soils/SPS251Lecture15.ppt‎ Pengelolaan Kalium

17 Growing high K content plants places demand on the soil supply of potassium  To have high yields of such crops, e.g., alfalfa, it needs to planned in advance to supply soil with enough K to last the cropping season – fertilization Pemupukan dengan dosis ringan dan sering ternyata lebih baik daripada dosis tinggi sekali aplikasi, hal ini dapat mengurangi konsumsi mewah K Pengapuran tanah ternyata meningkatkan retensi K dalam atanah. SUMBER: myspace.aamu.edu/users/monday.mbila/soils/SPS251Lecture15.ppt‎

18 SUMBER: ‎ Kalium Tanah Efek status K-tanah thd hasil tanaman dan efisiensi pupuk N (JOHNSTON et al., 2001)

19 SUMBER: ‎ Kalium Tanah Respon tanaman thd K dalam percobaan jangka panjang ( ) (MERBACH et al., 1999)

20 SUMBER: ‎ Kalium Tanah Siklus kalium dalam sistem tanah-tanaman-ternak (SYERS, 1998)

21 SUMBER: dairy-pastures/what-nutrients-do-plants-require ‎ Kalium Tanah Bentuk-bentuk K-tanah dan ketersediaannya bagi tanaman.

22 SUMBER: ‎ Siklus Kalium dalam Tanah Status K-tanah mempengaruhi penyerapan K oleh akar tanaman. Jumlah K dalam tanah tergantung pada tipe-tanah, produksi tanaman, retensi atau panen biomasa residu tanaman, pemupukan K dan irigasi.

23 SUMBER: Ben Zioni et al., 1971; Physiolgia Plantarum 24: Kalium Tanah Penyerapan NO 3 - oleh akar tanaman dikendalikan oleh hasil reduksi NO 3 - dalam tanaman dan siklus K + dalam tanaman.

24 SUMBER: assessment/potassium-in-soils-of-glacial-origin ‎ Kalium Tanah Model mineral liat tipe 1:2 (illite) yang menunjukkan posisi penjerapan K +

25 Kalium Tanah SUMBER: assessment/potassium-in-soils-of-glacial-origin ‎ Model pelepasan K dalam proses pelapukan mineral primer tanah

26 SUMBER: ‎ Kalium Tanah Kesetimbangan bentuk-bentuk K dalam tanah.

27 SUMBER: ‎ Siklus Kalium Tanah Sekitar % total K dalam tanah dalam bentuk ineral primer tidak-larut, mineral ini thaan terhadap pelpaukan kimiawi. Pelepasan K dari mineral primer ini sangat lambat, dan jumlahnya sangat kecil dibandingkan dnegan kebutuhan tanaman.

28 SUMBER: ‎ Kalium Tanah K dalam larutan tanah mudah diserap oleh akar tanaman. K-larutan tanah ini jumlahnya sangat kecil. Uji K untuk larutan tanah tidak mencerminkan total K yang tersedia bagi tanaman.

29 Kalium Tanah Faktor penyerapan K oleh tanaman: 1.Kandungan Oksigen Tanah – oxygen is necessary for proper root function, including uptake of potassium 2.Air tanah - the more moisture found in the soil, the easier it is for plants to absorb potassium. 3.Olah-tanah – research has shown that regularly tilled soil allows for better potassium uptake. 4.Suhu Tanah – degrees Fahrenheit is the ideal soil temperature range for root activity and most of the physiological processes in plants. The lower the temperature, the slower absorption becomes. SUMBER: ‎

30 SUMBER: ‎ Siklus Kalium Tanah

31 SUMBER: ‎ Fiksasi Kalium oleh mineral liat Tanah


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