Presentation on theme: " The word “design” is often used as a generic term that refers to anything that was made by a conscious human effort. Design is also a process that."— Presentation transcript:
The word “design” is often used as a generic term that refers to anything that was made by a conscious human effort. Design is also a process that is used to solve problems.
A design process is a systematic problem- solving strategy, with criteria and constraints, used to develop many possible solutions to solve or satisfy human needs or wants and to narrow down the possible solutions to one final choice. – ITEA Standards for Technological Literacy
A design process is a strategy used to develop solutions to solve human needs or wants.
1. Identify problem(s) 2. Investigate and research options 3. Generate alternative solutions 4. Choose a solution 5. Developmental work 6. Model and/or prototype 7. Test and evaluate 8. Redesign and improve
Individual parts of products Simple ▪Wire Complicated ▪Engine parts
When assembly operations begin, all of the necessary parts must be available in the right quantities. Sometimes assembly work is completed by hand. Sometimes automatic assembly machines are used.
Computers are used to control processing. These computer-controlled methods for processing materials are referred to as automatic processing.
In the past all machines were controlled by operators. Now CNC is commonly used. The numerical directions are contained in a computer program. Not only can the computer give directions to machines, it can also receive feedback. ▪For example, it a cutting tool is broken, the computer is sent this information. The machine will then stop.
For many years, cutting had to be done using a saw, knife blade, or cutter. Thanks to new technology, new processes are being developed. Waterjet Cutting is the process of using a highly pressurized jet of water to cut a material. ▪Squirting water at a rate of 50,000 PSI turns the water into a knife blade. ▪The waterjet follows a path guided by a computer program.
Laser Cutting is the process of using a concentrated, high energy beam of light to cut materials. ▪Laser cutting is used to engrave the molds used to make CDs. ▪Like Waterjet Cutting, laser cutting is computer- controlled.
Production control is controlling what is made and when it is made. How do workers know when to start on a certain product? How many parts should be made at one time? When will products be ready to ship to the customer? A plan for controlling production provides answers to these questions.
Production Schedule-time chart that lists parts and shows how many of each the company plans to make in a certain period of time Work in Process(WIP)-all material that is being worked on Shop Floor Control-used to keep track of work that has been completed
Inventory is the quantity of items on hand. Keeping Inventory means keeping track of Raw materials-any material before it enters processing Purchased parts-ready-made parts that the company buys Supplies-items needed to keep the plant running smoothly Finished goods-completed products not yet sold
Prevention involves doing everything possible to prevent variation in materials or processes before parts are made. Detection means inspecting to find variations in parts or products after they have been produced.
Quality Assurance means making sure the product is produced according to plans and meets all specifications. QUALITY ASSURANCE PREVENTION DETECTION Reworking Inspection Control Charting Statistical Process Control
To inspect something means to look at it and compare it to a standard. Specifications are the detailed descriptions of the design standards for a part or product. Materials Size Shape Function Performance
Why do we change products? Who impacts these changes? Consumer Designer Manufacturer
When do changes take place? Where do these changes come from? What advantages and disadvantages are associated with these changes? Room Key
MIT Invention Index at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, asked which of five inventions Americans could not live without. “The toothbrush emerged as the undisputed champ, beating out the car, the personal computer, the cell phone, and the microwave, in that order, as the most prized innovation.”
Some records indicate a version of the toothbrush dates back as far as 5000 years ago. Babylonians rubbed a “chew stick” on their teeth and mouth to keep them clean.
Companies in the U.S. started mass producing the toothbrush around 1885. Most Americans did not brush their teeth until Army soldiers in World War II were taught the habit of tooth brushing and brought their enforced habit back home after the War.
Natural bristles were used in toothbrushes until nylon was discovered. In 1938, nylon, invented by Dupont, replaced the natural bristle. One of the first nylon toothbrushes to commercialize the industry was called Doctor West’s Miracle toothbrush.
In 1960 the first commercialized electric toothbrush was marketed in the United States. The technology was developed in Switzerland in 1939.