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Workbook pages Standards & 7-3.5

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1 Workbook pages 113-127 Standards 7-3.4 & 7-3.5
UNIT VI: The Industrial Revolution Workbook pages Standards & 7-3.5

2 The Rise Of Industry While political revolutions swept through Europe and the Americas, an economic revolution shook the world WHAT IS INDUSTRIALISM??? Industrialism; a system based on the use of machines rather than on animal or human power Industrialism started in Great Britain during the 1700’s Over a period of 200 hundred years it began to spread to other parts of the world

3 Seeds For Industry Agricultural Revolution; A sweeping change in farming This revolution helped industry take root or start in Great Britain It started with the enclosure movement; Parliament allowed large owners to fence off common lands Used land in 2 ways; Planted single crops that produced bigger profits Turned land into pastures to graze sheep


5 Changes In Farming Knowledge of crop rotation; the process of rotating crops on three fields instead of two. Rotation kept soil fertile and more crops could be grown Invention of seed drill by Jethro Tull. The drill allowed farmers to plant rows of seeds rather than scattering them over the fields Breeding of stronger horses for farm work and fatter sheep and cattle for meat

6 Capital And Labor Changes in farming created conditions favorable to industry The use of raw materials to manufacture, or create, goods Landowners now had more capital, or money to invest This increased the capital already earned by colonial merchants through trade Many landowners and merchants invested their money in manufacturing or other businesses Improved methods of farming and breeding produced more food, which helped people live longer, healthier lives

7 Natural Resources &Markets
In addition to capital and labor, Great Britain was rich in natural resources It possessed rivers that flowed year-round These rivers powered the earliest machines They also provided a transportation network that connected inland areas to coastal harbors Britain also had huge supplies of coal and iron In the years ahead, coal would replace wood as a source of fuel for running machines Iron would be used to build machines and to make steel

8 Causes Of Industrial Revolution
Large number of people available to work in industry Enclosure movement forced many people off the land They had moved to the cities to find work in factories More and better food meant that people were healthier and living longer and having larger families The increase in population also provided workers for the new factories Britain’s natural resources and geography also helped in the rise of industry They had large coal/iron

9 Guided Note-Taking Must complete in your notes
Read the following sections; Rise of the Factory System (6 facts) Spread of Industrialism (5 facts) Impact of Industrialism (10 facts) Must complete in your notes Read each section and list the specific number of facts required Participation grade Finish for HW Will go over Monday

10 Rise Of the Factory System
Machines first showed up in the production of textiles Workers in the past produced cloth under the “domestic system” or “cottage industry” Went “cottage to cottage” bringing supplies needed Merchants returned later to pick up the finished textiles Developed ways to spin faster and run machines with waterpower Textile merchants now build factories near rivers/streams Factory system; method of production that brought machines and workers together in one place Urbanization; or movement of people from rural areas to cities Britain was 1st country to become urbanized, meaning more people lived in cities than on farms

11 Spread Of Industrialism
Parliament pass laws banning the export of machines and the movement of skilled workers to other countries Laws failed, skilled British workers saw the opportunity to make more money elsewhere They left Britain and took their industrial know-how with them By 1800’s Great Britain had given up efforts to create a monopoly; or total control of industry British investors saw a chance to earn even more money by funding industries elsewhere They set up factories and built railroads in other parts of the world

12 Impact Of Industrialism
Growth of Cities- Rise of Industrial Capitalism- New Methods Of Organizing Business- Rise of An Industrial Working Class- Rise Of Trade Unions- Development Of Socialism-

13 Early Gas Tractor Spinning Jenny Steam Tractor


15 Industrialism Assignment
TOPICS Compare/Contrast; Inventions & New Ideas (PAST & PRESENT) Describe Factory Life; As a manager and as a worker Compare/Contrast; Factory Conditions (PAST & PRESENT) Describe your life as a child factory worker MUST INCLUDE: 1. Pictures/Scene; That represents your topic 2. Timeline of events; Daily life events 3. Writing/Summary *Each section must be numbered & should include the above 3 items (pictures, timeline, writing) *Must have title (center & large) *Must have all groups names underneath title *Must have color and look neat and well planned

16 Machine-Made Cloth The switch from handmade to machine-made cloth triggered the start of the Industrial Revolution John Kay began the revolution when he invented a machine called “Flying shuttle” This sped up the weaving process It progressed into new ways of running machines and new ways of processing cotton

17 Coal The use of machines and the rise of factories increased the demand for iron and coal In 1753, Henry Cort developed a process called “puddling” This processed burned away impurities in iron ore The result was a pure, high, quality iron Iron production soared and prices dropped By 1850’s Britain turned out more iron than the rest of the world combined

18 Iron William Kelly and Henry Bessemer of Britain worked on ways to turn iron into steel Both learned that a blast of air through molten iron burned out most of the impurities Kelly received a patent or exclusive ownership of an invention for the process from the US Patent Office Bessemer kept working to improve it and the process became known by this name; Bessemer Process

19 Bessemer Process; STEEL
This process lowered steel making costs from $200 a ton to $4.00 a ton Great Britain found a way to lower the cost even more They invented the open-hearth process This method used a special furnace to make many kinds of steel

20 Steamboats & Railroads
Industry needed ways to transport or carry raw materials to factories and finished goods to the markets Inventors provided a solution by combining steam powered locomotives This invention of steel helped make the RR’s stronger and more powerful American inventor Robert Fulton designed the first practical steamboat, the Clemont The steamboat ended the need for wind and sails, opening a new era in transportation on rivers and oceans

21 Rise Of Mass Production
While machines increased the output of goods, 2 concepts paved the way for another change; Mass production This is the manufacture of huge quantities of identical goods at cheap prices Interchangeable parts; Use of machine made parts that are made exactly alike Division of Labor; Assembly line

22 Electricity & Industry
Electricity converts easily into heat, light or motion As a result, it can be sent through wires; something Ben Franklin learned during the colonial times Samuel Morse; used electricity to invent the telegraph, using an electrical code The “Morse Code” traveled at high speeds over long distances Eventually electric generations were invented to power machines more efficiently

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