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UNIT VI: The Industrial Revolution. The Rise Of Industry  While political revolutions swept through Europe and the Americas, an economic revolution shook.

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Presentation on theme: "UNIT VI: The Industrial Revolution. The Rise Of Industry  While political revolutions swept through Europe and the Americas, an economic revolution shook."— Presentation transcript:

1 UNIT VI: The Industrial Revolution

2 The Rise Of Industry  While political revolutions swept through Europe and the Americas, an economic revolution shook the world WHAT IS INDUSTRIALISM???  Industrialism; a system based on the use of machines rather than on animal or human power  Industrialism started in Great Britain during the 1700’s  Over a period of 200 hundred years it began to spread to other parts of the world

3 Seeds For Industry  Agricultural Revolution; A sweeping change in farming  This revolution helped industry take root or start in Great Britain  It started with the enclosure movement; Parliament allowed large owners to fence off common lands  Used land in 2 ways; Planted single crops that produced bigger profits Turned land into pastures to graze sheep


5 Changes In Farming  Knowledge of crop rotation; the process of rotating crops on three fields instead of two. Rotation kept soil fertile and more crops could be grown  Invention of seed drill by Jethro Tull. The drill allowed farmers to plant rows of seeds rather than scattering them over the fields  Breeding of stronger horses for farm work and fatter sheep and cattle for meat

6 Capital And Labor  Changes in farming created conditions favorable to industry  The use of raw materials to manufacture, or create, goods  Landowners now had more capital, or money to invest  This increased the capital already earned by colonial merchants through trade  Many landowners and merchants invested their money in manufacturing or other businesses  Improved methods of farming and breeding produced more food, which helped people live longer, healthier lives

7 Natural Resources &Markets  In addition to capital and labor, Great Britain was rich in natural resources  It possessed rivers that flowed year-round  These rivers powered the earliest machines  They also provided a transportation network that connected inland areas to coastal harbors  Britain also had huge supplies of coal and iron  In the years ahead, coal would replace wood as a source of fuel for running machines  Iron would be used to build machines and to make steel

8 Causes Of Industrial Revolution  Large number of people available to work in industry Enclosure movement forced many people off the land They had moved to the cities to find work in factories  More and better food meant that people were healthier and living longer and having larger families  The increase in population also provided workers for the new factories  Britain’s natural resources and geography also helped in the rise of industry  They had large coal/iron

9 Guided Note-Taking  Read the following sections; Rise of the Factory System (6 facts) Spread of Industrialism (5 facts) Impact of Industrialism (10 facts)  Must complete in your notes  Read each section and list the specific number of facts required  Participation grade  Finish for HW  Will go over Monday

10 Rise Of the Factory System  Machines first showed up in the production of textiles  Workers in the past produced cloth under the “domestic system” or “cottage industry”  Went “cottage to cottage” bringing supplies needed  Merchants returned later to pick up the finished textiles  Developed ways to spin faster and run machines with waterpower  Textile merchants now build factories near rivers/streams  Factory system; method of production that brought machines and workers together in one place  Urbanization; or movement of people from rural areas to cities  Britain was 1 st country to become urbanized, meaning more people lived in cities than on farms

11 Spread Of Industrialism  Parliament pass laws banning the export of machines and the movement of skilled workers to other countries  Laws failed, skilled British workers saw the opportunity to make more money elsewhere  They left Britain and took their industrial know-how with them  By 1800’s Great Britain had given up efforts to create a monopoly; or total control of industry  British investors saw a chance to earn even more money by funding industries elsewhere  They set up factories and built railroads in other parts of the world

12 Impact Of Industrialism  Growth of Cities-  Rise of Industrial Capitalism-  New Methods Of Organizing Business-  Rise of An Industrial Working Class-  Rise Of Trade Unions-  Development Of Socialism-

13 Spinning Jenny Steam Tractor Early Gas Tractor


15 Industrialism Assignment  TOPICS Compare/Contr ast; Inventions & New Ideas (PAST & PRESENT) Describe Factory Life; As a manager and as a worker Compare/Contr ast; Factory Conditions (PAST & PRESENT) Describe your life as a child factory worker  MUST INCLUDE: 1. Pictures/Scene; That represents your topic 2. Timeline of events; Daily life events 3. Writing/Summary *Each section must be numbered & should include the above 3 items (pictures, timeline, writing) *Must have title (center & large) *Must have all groups names underneath title *Must have color and look neat and well planned

16 Machine-Made Cloth  The switch from handmade to machine-made cloth triggered the start of the Industrial Revolution  John Kay began the revolution when he invented a machine called “Flying shuttle”  This sped up the weaving process  It progressed into new ways of running machines and new ways of processing cotton

17 Coal  The use of machines and the rise of factories increased the demand for iron and coal  In 1753, Henry Cort developed a process called “puddling”  This processed burned away impurities in iron ore  The result was a pure, high, quality iron  Iron production soared and prices dropped  By 1850’s Britain turned out more iron than the rest of the world combined

18 Iron  William Kelly and Henry Bessemer of Britain worked on ways to turn iron into steel  Both learned that a blast of air through molten iron burned out most of the impurities  Kelly received a patent or exclusive ownership of an invention for the process from the US Patent Office  Bessemer kept working to improve it and the process became known by this name; Bessemer Process

19 Bessemer Process; STEEL  This process lowered steel making costs from $200 a ton to $4.00 a ton  Great Britain found a way to lower the cost even more  They invented the open-hearth process  This method used a special furnace to make many kinds of steel

20 Steamboats & Railroads  Industry needed ways to transport or carry raw materials to factories and finished goods to the markets  Inventors provided a solution by combining steam powered locomotives  This invention of steel helped make the RR’s stronger and more powerful  American inventor Robert Fulton designed the first practical steamboat, the Clemont  The steamboat ended the need for wind and sails, opening a new era in transportation on rivers and oceans

21 Rise Of Mass Production  While machines increased the output of goods, 2 concepts paved the way for another change; Mass production  This is the manufacture of huge quantities of identical goods at cheap prices Interchangeable parts; Use of machine made parts that are made exactly alike Division of Labor; Assembly line

22 Electricity & Industry  Electricity converts easily into heat, light or motion  As a result, it can be sent through wires; something Ben Franklin learned during the colonial times  Samuel Morse; used electricity to invent the telegraph, using an electrical code  The “Morse Code” traveled at high speeds over long distances  Eventually electric generations were invented to power machines more efficiently

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