4Origins Early Arabs were polytheistic, but Allah was the supreme God Bedouins= nomadic Arabs who lived in the desert rather than in townsJihad= “struggle in the way of God”Hijrah= journey of Muhammad and his followers to MadinahCaliph= chief Islamic religious authoritySultan=holder of powerMuezzin= Muslim crier who calls the faithful to prayer five times a dayShari’ah= Islamic moral code of law (no gambling, eating pork, drinking alcoholic beverages, or engage in dishonest behavior.Vizier= prime minister of the council that advised the caliph during the Abbasid dynasty
5Muhammad Muhammad was accepted as a prophet to the people of Arabia. B. Muhammad was dissatisfied with the ways of his town leaders andwent into the hills to pray. There he was visited by an angel who toldhim to preach Islam.
7Muhammad returned to Makkah and told people to worship one God, Allah. Muhammad also preached that all people are equal andthat the rich should share their wealth with the poor.D. Many poor people began accepting Muhammad’s message andbecame Muslims, or followers of Islam. Wealthy people did not likeMuhammad’s message and they made life difficult for Muhammadand his followers.
8Muhammad and his followers left Makkah for Yathrib. This journey is known as the Hijrah.F. Yathrib welcomed the Muslims and renamed their city Madinah.G. Muhammad used the laws he believed he had received fromGod to rule the people of Madinah, creating an Islamic state, ora government that uses its political power to uphold Islam.
9Muhammad built an army to defend his new government. The army conquered Makkah and Muhammad returned to the holy city.I. Muhammad died two years after his return.WhyProphet of AllahBorn in Makkah (Mecca)Meditated in the hills because he became troubled with the gap between the honesty of most Makkans and the greediness of trading elites in the citiesMuhammad believed the message given to him by Gabriel was the final revelations of Allah.The Quran contains the ethical guidelines and laws by which Muslims are to liveWhy no representations of Muhammad in mosques (Islamic houses of worship)?The Hadith warns against any attempt to imitate God by creating pictures of living things
11Daily Life and Society Women According to Islam, all people are created equal in the eyes of Allah (god); HOWEVER, men in actuality were dominant in Islamic society. Women had to have a male guardian. Women were required to be secluded in their homes and kept away from males…and cover virtually all parts of their bodyPolygamy accepted
13Accomplishments/Advances Islamic scholars made contributions to math and the natural sciences that were passed on to the WestMuslims adopted and passed on the numerical system of India, including the use of zeroAlgebra
14Astrolabe= an instrument used for ship navigation Developed medicine as a field of scientific studyIbn Sina (philosopher and scientist)stressed the contagious nature of certain diseasesOmar Khayyam= writer (Rubaiyat)
16Islamic Split: Sunni and Shiite After Muhammad’s death, the Muslims split into two groups: theSunnis and the Shiites.B. Shiites believed that Muhammad’s son-in-law, Ali, should succeedMuhammad and that all future caliphs should be descendants of Ali.Sunnis believe that the Umayyad caliphs were rightful leaders. Overtime, these two groups developed their own customs.C. The Umayyad dynasty lost power and was replaced with a newdynasty called the Abbasids.
18The Abbasids built a new capital, Baghdad. Baghdad prospered as a center of trade because of its central location.E. The Abbasids lost control as Muslims in other parts of the worldwanted their own caliphs.F. The Seljuk Turks was nomads and warriors. They gradually tookcontrol of the Abbasid dynasty. The Seljuk ruler was called a sultan.G. The Arab Empire ended when the Mongols invaded Baghdad andburned it to the ground.
19Resentment against the Umayyad grew because non-Arab Muslims did not like the way local administrators favored ArabsMongols1. Many of the Mongols converted to Islam.2. They intermarried with the local people.3. Over time, the Mongols rebuilt the cities they destroyed during the invasion.
20Facts About Islam1. Islam is monotheistic.2. Allah is all powerful.3. Those that practice Islam are called Muslims.4. Muhammad is a prophet, but he is also just a man.5. Offers hope of an afterlife.