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Published byLaney Edlin Modified over 2 years ago

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My, how you have changed! Acceleration

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Opening questions 1.Was the motion of your MPV constant throughout its run? 2.Suppose you walked at 3 miles/hour around a circular path at school. Is your rate of motion changing? Explain your response

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What do the main subjects in the following pictures have in common about their motion?

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They are accelerating

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DEFINITION AND UNITS Acceleration’s

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Acceleration Anytime the velocity of an object changes, the object accelerates –Get Faster –Get Slower –If the motion of object changes direction, but stays at a constant rate

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Velocity changes if… Speeding upSlowing down

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Velocity changes if… The direction of the motion changes, but the speed does not This type of acceleration is call centripetal acceleration

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Units for acceleration m/s 2 (m/s) / s because the velocity (m/s) changes over time (s)

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Derivation of units The proof of why it is like it is

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How we get m/s 2 for units of acceleration

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Units How do you simplify (¾) / 9

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answer

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TYPES OF ACCELERATION

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AVERAGE OR OVERALL ACCELERATION

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Average or overall acceleration Acceleration of an object determined over a certain time period

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Calculating average/overall acceleration Acceleration = change in velocity / time a = ∆v / t

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∆v The ∆ means the change in… So ∆v means change in velocity You find the change in a value by subtracting it initial value from its final value ∆v = final velocity – initial velocity ∆v = v f - v i

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Final Equation for average/overall acceleration a = (v f - v i ) / t v f = final velocity v i = initial velocity t = elapsed time a = acceleration

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Ex #1 A flowerpot falls off a second story windowsill. The flowerpot start from rest and hits the sidewalk 1.5 s later with a velocity of 14.7m/s. Find the average acceleration.

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What information is given? Identify the information. 1.5s Is the time 14.7 m/s is the final velocity Starts from rest Means that the initial velocity is zero (0) “at rest” always means that vi = o

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Answer #1 a = (14.7 – 0) / 1.5 = 9.8 What are the units? (14.7 m/s – 0 m/s) 1.5 s = (m/s) / s m / s 2

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UNIFORM OR CONSTANT ACCELERATION

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Constant acceleration Occurs when rate of change in the velocity of an object is constant. This means the velocity values change at the same rate each second An object that accelerates at 3 m/s 2, goes from rest (0 m/s) to: 3 m/s after 1 second, 6 m/s after 2 sec, 9 m/s after 3 sec…

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Constant acceleration and the graphs Constant acceleration is indicated by a smooth curve on a P-t graph, and a straight line on a V-t graph. Slope of the line on a V-t graph = value of constant acceleration

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Ex What is the acceleration of the object at 5 min? What is the acceleration of the object at any time between 15 min and 40 min?

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Constant Acceleration An object moving at a constant velocity has a constant acceleration of zero As evidenced in a graph by a straight horizontal line

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Positive acceleration Positive slope of V-t graph, graph gets higher moving left to right Getting faster in the positive direction Getting slower in the negative direction

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Negative acceleration Graph gets lower moving left to right Slowing down in the positive direction Speeding up in the negative direction

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Question What is the difference between constant velocity and constant acceleration?

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Answer Constant velocity means the object does not change its velocity over time Constant acceleration means that the object does not change its acceleration over time

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REAL LIFE EXAMPLES OF CON A

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Almost all movement in life can be divided up into segments with constant acceleration

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Instantaneous acceleration Acceleration at a certain moment in time

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