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The Animal Kingdom. Characteristics of Animals Multicellular eukaryotes Heterotrophic Gametic Life Cycle (dipoid/meiosis/gametes/fertilization/zygote/

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Presentation on theme: "The Animal Kingdom. Characteristics of Animals Multicellular eukaryotes Heterotrophic Gametic Life Cycle (dipoid/meiosis/gametes/fertilization/zygote/"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Animal Kingdom

2 Characteristics of Animals Multicellular eukaryotes Heterotrophic Gametic Life Cycle (dipoid/meiosis/gametes/fertilization/zygote/ embryo with 3 cell layers (not in all) Are motile at some stage of development Have no cell walls Symmetry (body form) radial or bilateral Cephalization in some (head end w/nerve tissue) Type of gut – sac-like with only mouth; complete digestive tract X

3 Animal Kingdom – Phylogenetic Tree

4 Phylum Phoronida Phoronida - one of the smallest and least familiar phyla; there are about twelve living species. Phoronids -- or "horseshoe worms," as they are sometimes called -- abundant in shallow marine sediments at certain localities. Phoronids are elongated and worm- shaped, but the gut loops and ends close to the mouth, instead of passing straight through the body as in annelids and many other wormlike organisms. The mouth is surrounded by the ciliated feeding structure known as a lophophore. Live in tubes created by worm – tube worms

5 Classification Criteria Embryology – development Biochemistry – metabolic “pathways” similarity Genetics – DNA analysis

6 Subkingdoms Parazoa – lacking tissues -not microscopic Sponges (Porifera) Mesozoa – no tissues/organs…primitive parasites (small, worm-like, cells, parasitize cephalopods, echinoderms, mollusks) Eumetazoa – true tissues in germ layers and organs (ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm) All other animal phyla

7 Possible Ancestors of Animals?? Codosiga – a protozoan – called a choanofagellate – has a structure similar to choanocytes in sponges

8 Proterospongia This colonial protozoan is studied by zoologists because of intercellular signaling and adhesion

9 Sponges – Phylum Porifera Means pore-bearing No true tissues – specialized cells Asymmetrical Adults sessile; larvae motile “Zoophytes” Types: Simple – Ascon Corrugated – Sycon Complex - Leucon x

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11 Ascon (simple sac type) Osculum Water flow

12 Cell Types of Sponges (no tissues) Epidermal – flattened -cover sponge surface - protection Choanocytes – collar cells – flagellated -trap food/engulf – line spongocoel Porocytes – cells on either side of incurrent pores Amoebocytes – amoeba like – digest food & distribute – in mesoglea layer Amoebocytes – also make silica based spicules and spongin (structural protein), and function in reproduction

13 Sponge “Support” Body of sponge stiffened by: 1. Spicules (CaCO 3, silica) 2. Tough protein fibers - spongin

14 Spicules

15 Other Significant Structures Osculum – large opening – at top – water flows out of sponge Ostia – aka incurrent pores

16 Reproductive Modes Sexual Reproduction 1. Hermaphroditic – eggs/sperm produced on same animal 2. Gametes produced in mesenchyme layer – special amoebocytes 3. Some species x-fertilize; some self 4. Zygote grows by mitosis – larvae flagellated – swims then sessile Asexual Reproduction Budding on parent; Gemmae internally

17 Sycon Sponges

18 Leucon Sponges - solitary

19 Leucon Sponges - Encrusting

20 Gemmules - Asexual Cluster of amoebocytes w/ spicules

21 Radial vs. Bilateral Symmetry

22 Eumetazoa (true tissues) Phylum Cnidaria ( Coelenterates) “Stinging celled animals” Class: Hydrozoa – Hydroids Class: Scyphozoa - Jellyfish Class: Anthozoa – Corals, Sea Anemone, Sea Fans

23 Polyp and Medusa Forms

24 Cnidaria - Body Forms

25 Hydra

26 Structure of Hydra

27 Tissues – 2 true layers Ectoderm Epidermis –outer layer -protection (special cells – form ovary, testes- zygote forms flagellated larva –planula) Asexual by budding Cnidoblasts – stinging cells - Nematocysts are stingers Mesoglea – gelatinous layer- not cellular; has Nerve cells – form nerve network; in contact w/ epidermis, gastrodermis Contractile fibers – movement

28 Cnidoblast/Nematocyst

29 Endoderm Gastrodermis – for nutrition; lines the gastrovascular cavity – mouth at center of tentacles

30 Colonial Hydroid - Obelia

31 Obelia – Life Cycle (Hydroid Colony)

32 Colonial Hydroid - Portuguese Man-O-War Individual animals live above tentalces

33 Scyphozoa – Jelly Fish

34 Jellyfish Life Cycle Planula Sperm Eggs

35 Aurelia

36

37 Anthozoans - Anemones

38 Anatomy of Anemones (“flower animals”) Threads loaded with nematocysts

39 Anthozoa - Corals

40 Coral Reef

41 Zooxanthellae/Zoochlorellae Symbiotic relationship –algae reside in animals' gastrodermal cells- sea anemone benefits from algae's photosynthesis (oxygen, food) -algae in turn are assured a reliable exposure to sunlight and protection from micro-feeders, Sea anemone tentacles

42 Phylum Ctenophora Comb jellies (aka - sea gooseberries) are one of the most beautiful animals to inhabit the ocean – 90 species 2 nd phylum of radially symmetrical animals Named for rows of comb-like cilia in bands on body Use tentacles to trap prey- do not sting prey

43 Protostome or Deuterostome?

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45 Coelom Evolution

46 Cleavage Comparison

47 Protostome Worms

48 Phylum Platyhelminthes (Flatworms) Flattened dorsoventrally Acoelomate 3 distinct tissue layers Turbellaria – Free living flatworms – Planaria Trematoda – Liver flukes and Blood Flukes Cestoda - Tapeworms

49 Class: Turbellaria - Planaria Sac-like gut Bilateral symmetry Cephalization with eyespots, ganglia, nerve cords Acoelomate 3 tissue layers (ecto,meso,endo) Cell to cell diffusion Primitive kidney – protonephridia with flame cells Hermaphroditic – cross fertilize Regeneration studies Systems: Digestive Nervous Reproductive Excretory

50 Organ Systems of Planaria

51 Other Turbellarians

52 Class: Trematoda Liver Flukes

53 Human Liver Fluke – Life Cycle

54 Trematodes – Blood Fluke (Schistosoma) Causes “Swimmers itch” Requires 2 hosts – one for reproduction, one for development

55 Cestoda - Tapeworm

56 Tapeworm Anatomy Proglottid Scolex

57 ROSTRUM SUCKERS

58

59

60 Beef Tape Worm – Life Cycle (measley beef – encysted larvae)) gravid proglottids

61 Phylum Nemertea – Ribbon Worms proboscis

62 Ribbon Worms Aquatic,sandy areas One way gut- mouth,anus Proboscis – fires out – lined with nail shaped spines –wrap around prey Can be 3 x body length Separate sexes Eat small invertebrates or scavenge

63 Ribbon Worm Anatomy

64 Protostome Worms Phyla

65 Phylum Nematoda (roundworms) 25,000 species Parasitic & some free living Habitats – aquatic, terrestrial, parasitic Cuticle covers body (note striations)-protects Digestive tract with mouth,anus Pseudocoel – hydrostatic skeleton Nervous system – nerve ring, dorsal & ventral nerve cords Respiration - diffusion Dioecious –separate sexes 200,000 eggs/day

66 Nematode Anatomy

67 Ascaris Infestation Can cause intestinal blockage

68 Dirofilaria immitis (dog heartworm) Filiaria worm in bloodstream

69 Heartworm Life Cycle

70 Worms, Worms, and More Worms… Guinea Worm – Dracunculus mediensis Africa – adult female 3 feet long – comes through skin; Water flea has larvae – man drinks water w/fleas; Natives wind on a stick until it comes out

71 And more…. Filaria worms – Wuchereria sp. Elephantiasis Hosts – mosquito, man Worms – 1/1000 of an inch block lymphatic system causing severe edema (swelling) Tropical areas

72 And more … Loa loa worm Worm migrates through subdermal tissue – can go across eye West Africa

73 Ancylostoma duodenale or Necator americanus Buccal cavity with hooks Hook to intestinal wall – causes anemia, bleeding

74 Trichina (pork worm) – “Trichinosis” Worm encysted in muscle tissue – undercooked pork products

75 Acanthocephala – Spiny Headed Worms Retractable proboscis armed w/curved hooks Parasites in vertebrates (1000 in seal’s gut) No digestive tract-diffusion through cuticle Dioecious

76 Phylum Rotifera “wheel animals” Cilia beating around mouth –looks like wheel rotating Tail-like foot - attaches Dioecious Digestive tract with mouth and cloaca (important !) Excretory system-flame cells – bladder/water balance organ also Important food chain members

77 COELOMATES Highly developed invertebrates & vertebrates have a internal body cavity outside intestinal tract.

78 Allows organs to develop & work more freely - not pushing against muscles Can provide hydrostatic skeleton (fluid –filled coelom works with muscles to change body shape) Provides protected space for production of sperm and ova Coelom Advantages

79 Protostomes vs Deuterostomes Coelomate Protostomes: Annelids (segmented worms) Mollusks (soft bodied animals) Arthropods (jointed appendages)

80 Coelomate Deuterostomes Echinoderms (spiny skin) Chordates (vertebrates & notochord animals) Protostomes vs Deuterostomes

81 Phylum Mollusca (Latin – molluscus -soft- bodied) 2 nd largest phylum Bilateral symmetry Type of shell & foot used to classify Torsion in Gastropods – 180 ° Mantle- makes shell Mantle cavity – encloses gills or lungs Visceral mass – digestive, excretory, reproductive Foot – muscular for movement; can be modified into tentacles Radula – rasping tongue with microscope teeth – tears, shreds, bores holes in mollusk shells Trochophore and Veliger larval stages in some

82 Classes of Mollusca Aplacophora – Chaetoderma Monoplacophora - Neopilina Polyplacophora – Chitons Scaphopoda – Tooth shells Gastropoda – Snails, slugs, whelks Bivalvia – Clams, mussels, oysters, scallops Cephalopoda – Squid, octopus, nautilus

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84 Gastropoda Respiration Aquatic snails – gills Terrestrial snails – mantle cavity Snail “Tongue”

85 Radula – Snail Tongue

86 Gastropoda

87 Bivalvia

88 Muscular Foot Used for movement May be modified into tentacles

89 Larval Forms of Mollusks Trochophore Veliger

90 Aplacophora No shell Reduced foot Move w/cilia Benthic(bottom) Deep water 5cm–30 cm Epidermis secretes calcareous spicules

91 Monoplacophora Neopilina “single-plate bearer” 1952 rediscovered Costa Rica 3,590 meters

92 Polyplacophora Chitons Ancient class Notable – 8 dorsal plates Herbivores

93 Scaphopoda – Tooth Shells (Tusk Shell) Elongated shell Sticky tentacles – catch prey Marine – sandy bottom

94 Gastropoda

95 Featuring - Gastropoda Snails, conchs, abalones, slugs, nudibranches (poisonous), limpet, etc. Stomach-footed Univalve – most Respiration – gills or mantle cavity Snails – eyes on tentacles (light, touch) Radula (food shredding tongue) Only mollusk to invade land

96 Bivalvia Cockles Giant clam Oyster Mussel Scallop

97 Here-s-s-s….Bivalvia Formerly called Pelecypoda (hatchet-foot) 2 shells Marine & freshwater Filter feeders (incurrent siphon, labial palps funnel to mouth) Gills Shells – CaC0 3 – mother of pearl buttons Open circulatory system Dioecious Mussels, oysters are sessile as adults Scallops swim by “clapping action” of shells

98 Cephalopoda

99 BADSQUIDBADSQUID

100 Cephalopoda Talk About a Big Head… Squid, octopus, cuttlefish, chambered Nautilus Predators Can swim, crawl, jet propulsion (siphons) Tentacles (modified foot) – suckers Well developed eyes, nervous system Defense – “inky spray” – foul tasting Chromatophores –change color to match environment Shells – octopus (none), squid – internal pen, cuttlefish – coiled, flat, plate-like… Pet bird cuttlebone

101

102 Mollusk “Claim to Fame” Important food sources – man Research – snails – cancer free Pollution indicators Snails/slugs – crop damage Shipworms – damage docks, boats Filter feeders – can concentrate toxins – human consume – sick/die Octopus – beak; also learning & memory

103 Segmented Worms

104 Phylum Annelida ~ Characteristics True coelom - coelomate Hydrostatic skeleton Segmentation (metameres) Closed blood vascular system

105 Oligochaeta - Earthworms Nephridia – tubules remove liquid wastes Digestive system –mouth-pharynx-crop- gizzard- intestine- anus Circulatory system – closed – 1 st distribution tissue Respiration – moist skin – diffusion Nervous system – cerebral ganglia, nerve cord Reproduction – hermaphrodite – cross fertilize; clitellum Muscular system – circular & longitudinal Environmental benefit – castings fertilize soil, aeration of soil Segmented body Metameres – adaptation for burrowing Setae for movement

106 Earthworm Anatomy

107 Polychaetes - Marine – Sand & Tube Worms

108 Hirudinea - Leeches

109 I Am Stuck on YOU !!! Ectoparasites –sanguivorus – blood sucker Sacculated intestine – stores blood – several months between feedings Hirudin – anticoagulant Anterior/posterior suckers Sense light/temperature changes, vibrations Sensory cells – smell; may have eyes

110 Phylum Onychophora – Velvet Worms Phylum means “claw-bearers” Terrestrial, tropical, moist habitats Antennae & clawed legs Carnivores Papillae on surface give velvety appearance May be “missing link” between annelids and arthropods

111 Trilobites Extinct ancient arthropods Mass Extinction 250 mya

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113 Phylum Arthropoda Most successful group of animals…species diversity, distribution, vast numbers Segmentation in body Hard exoskeleton (chitin and protein) – molt to grow – muscles attach; prevents desiccation Jointed appendages (feeding, movement, mating, defense, mating) Extensive cephalization & sensory organs Open circulatory system – hemolymph Gas exchange – varies from gills/tracheal tubes/book lungs

114 Phylum Arthropoda Subphylum Chelicerata Class Meristomata Horseshoe Crab

115 Phylum Arthropoda Subphylum Chelicerata Class Arachnida Have chelicerae – claw like appendage for feeding – fangs in spiders

116 Phylum Arthropoda Subphylum Crustacea Class Malacostraca

117 Crayfish External Anatomy

118 Crayfish – Internal Anatomy

119 Phylum Arthropoda Subphylum Crustacea Class Maxillopoda

120 Phylum Arthropoda Subphylum Uniramia Class Chilopoda Centipedes – 1 pr legs/segment; carnivores; poison claws

121 Phylum Arthropoda Subphylum Uniramia Class Diplopoda Millipedes – 2 prs legs/segment; vegetarians

122 More known species than all other groups Body regions – head, thorax, abdomen Mouthparts very diverse – biting, sucking, chewing, piercing,etc. 1 pr antennae; pr of compound eyes Complete digestive tract Nervous system – cerebral ganglia with nerve cords Malpighian tubules – excretion of liquid wastes Tracheal tubes from spiracles for respiration Ovipositor for laying eggs Wings/flight –major adaptation for success of insects Incomplete metamorphosis; complete metamorphosis Phylum Arthropoda Subphylum Uniramia Class Insecta – 32 orders

123 Insect Anatomy

124 Compound Eye Especially good for detecting motion…

125 x Metamorphosis Incomplete – young are smaller versions of adult Complete – egg to larvae – eats/grows – pupates -adult

126 Thysanura - silverfish

127 Odonata – Dragonfly and Damselfly

128 Orthoptera – Grasshopper and Cricket

129 Blattaria - Cockroach

130 Isoptera - Termite

131 Anoplura - Louse

132 Hemiptera – true bugs

133 Homoptera – Aphid, Leafhopper, Cicada, Scale Insect

134 Lepidoptera – Moths, Butterflies

135 Diptera – Flies and Mosquitoes

136 Siphonaptera - Flea

137 Coleoptera - Beetles

138 Hymenoptera – Ants, Bees, and Wasps

139 Deuterostomes

140 X Phylum - Echinodermata Asteroidea – Sea Stars Crinoidea – Sea Lilies Echinoidea – Sand Dollars and Sea Urchins Ophiuroidea – Brittle Stars Holothuroidea – Sea Cucumbers

141 Echinoderm Characteristics Bilateral bipinnaria larval stage to pentaradial adults Spiny skin – subcutaneous calcareous plates (endoskeleton) Water vascular system –hydraulic canals control tube feet Stomach everts through mouth to feed in starfish Dermal Branchia for respiration

142 Bipinnaria Larva Mouth Esophagus Stomach

143 Asteriodea - Sea Stars (Star Fish)

144

145 Water Vascular System

146 Dermal Branchiae

147 Pedicellariae

148 Crinoidea Crinoidea – Sea Lily

149 Echinoidea – sand dollars, sea biscuits, sea urchins

150 Ophiuroidea

151 Holothuroidea

152 Phylum - Hemichordata Enteropneusta (acorn worms) Graptolithina (graptolites) extinct Pterobranchia (pterobranchs) 20 sp.

153 Acorn Worms - to 8 ft

154 Tornaria Larva

155 Pterobranchs – Rhabdopleura – 1 mm

156 Phylum Chordata 3 subphyla Cephalochordata - Amphioxus Urochordata – Sea squirts Vertebrata – Animals with vertebrae here

157 Chordate Characteristics Notochord -cartilage rod (endoskeleton) Dorsal Hollow Nerve Cord Myotomes – segmented muscle bundles Pharyngeal gill slits – gill basket Post-anal tail

158 Cephalochordates – Amphioxus

159 Urochordates – Tunicates (sea squirts)

160 Ostracoderms

161 Phylum - Chordata Subphylum - Vertebrata Class - Agnatha

162 Hagfish

163 Evolution of Jaws

164 Placoderms

165 Class Chondrichthyes

166 Lobe-finned Lung Fish

167 Class Osteichthyes – boney fishes

168 Class Amphibia

169 Class Reptilia

170 Class Aves

171 Class Mammalia 3 subclasses Monotremata – Platypus and Echidna Marsupiales – Marsupials Placentals – Mammals that have placenta

172 Monotremes

173 Peleomaps

174 Marsupials

175 Placental Mammals – 19 Orders

176 Insectivora

177 Chiroptera

178 Carnivora

179 Xenarthra

180 Rodentia

181 Lagomorpha Pika

182 Perissodactyla

183 Artiodactyla

184 Proboscidea

185 Sirenia

186 Cetacea

187 Pinnipedia

188 Primates Tarsier


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