7 Main sequence stars on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram tend to Increase in magnitude as size decreasesIncrease in magnitude as surface temperature increasesIncrease in surface temperature as size decreasesRemain unchanged as surface temperature increasesA 2
8 B. Increase in magnitude as surface temperature increases
9 hotter and less luminous b. hotter and more luminous Compared to the surface temperature and luminosity of massive stars in the Main Sequence, the smaller stars in the Main Sequence are?hotter and less luminousb. hotter and more luminousc. cooler and less luminousd. cooler and more luminous.A 3
11 According to the diagram , what is the relationship of temperature to luminosity for main sequence stars?a.Higher temperature indicates higher luminosity.b.Lower temperature indicates higher luminosity.c.Lower temperature indicates lower luminosity.d.There is no relationship.A 4
12 a. Higher temperature indicates higher luminosity.
13 According to the diagram, what is the relationship between temperature and mass? The greater the mass the lower the luminosityWhite dwarfs have high luminosityThe greater the mass the greater the luminosityThere is no relationship.A 5
21 What is the relationship between the mass of a star and its lifetime? a. There is no relationship between mass and lifetimeb. As mass increases, lifetime increasesc. As mass increases, lifetime decreasesd. As mass increases, lifetime remains constantB4
25 a. The Moon has a smaller mass than the Earth. The gravitational constant on the Moon is smaller than on the Earth becausea. The Moon has a smaller mass than the Earth.b. The Moon is farther from the Sun.c. The Earth less dense than the Moon.d. The Moon’s radius is greater than that of Earth’s.C1
26 a. The Moon has a smaller mass than the Earth C1
27 When the mass of an object is doubled, the force of gravity will... a. decrease by a factor of 2b. increase by a factor of 2c. Remain unchangedd. Cannot be determined.C2
28 increase by a factor of 2(could you answer a question about increasing or decreasing the distance?)C2
29 Why doesn’t a satellite in orbit strike the Earth?a.It’s beyond the reach of Earth’s gravity.b.In space, objects don’t weigh anything.c.The effect of the moon’s gravity pulls it away.d.Earth’s gravity is balanced by the satellite’s outward motion.C3
30 d. Earth’s gravity is balanced by the satellite’s outward motion
31 a. The gravitational force would remain the same. What would happen to the gravitational force if the Earth were not spinning?a. The gravitational force would remain the same.b. The gravitational force would be significantly less.c. Objects on Earth would float away.d. The gravitational force would be larger.C4
32 a. The gravitational force would remain the same.
33 What factors affect the gravitational force? A. rotation and revolution.B. density and volume.C. rotation and mass.D. mass and distance.C5
39 a. The star is moving toward the earth The light from a distant star appears to be shifted toward the red end of the spectrum(a red shift). Which of the following can you conclude?a. The star is moving toward the earthb. The star is moving away from the earthc. The star is neither moving toward or away from the earthd. The star is a red giantD3
41 The Nebula Theory states The solar system was formed ̴ 15 billion years ago in a cloud of gas and dustThe universe was formed ̴ 15 billion years ago in a cloud of gas and dustThe solar system was formed ̴ 4.5 billion years ago in a cloud of gas and dustThe universe was formed ̴ 4.5 billion years ago in a cloud of gas and dustD4
42 c. The solar system was formed ̴ 4 c. The solar system was formed ̴ 4.5 billion years ago in a cloud of gas and dustD4
43 Which of the following list from smallest to largest? Universe →solar system → galaxyGalaxy universe → solar systemSolar system → universe → galaxySolar system → galaxy → universeD5
47 In the diagram , if we call gravitational force exerted on the apple action, what is the reaction force according to Newton’s 3rd law?a. It is the apple gravitationally pulling on the Earth.b. It is the apple pressing on the table.c. The apple exerts no reaction force.d. It is the table supporting the apple.E2
48 A. It is the apple gravitationally pulling on the Earth.
49 Keeping Kepler’s 2nd law in mind, which diagram below best represents the positions of the planet in its orbit that would produce the gravitational forces shown in the data table?a.1.b.2 .c.3.d.4.E3
51 a. The gravitational force would remain constant. What would happen to the gravitational force if the Earth had no atmosphere?a. The gravitational force would remain constant.b. The gravitational force would be smaller.c. Objects on Earth would float away.d. The gravitational force would be larger.E4
52 a. The gravitational force would remain constant.
53 a. NaCl → Na+ + Cl- + energy b. H2SO4 + 2NaOH → Na2SO4 + 2H2O + energy Which of the following equations represent a fusion reaction within a star?a. NaCl → Na+ + Cl- + energyb. H2SO4 + 2NaOH → Na2SO4 + 2H2O + energyc. He + He + He → Carbon + energyd. NaOH → Na+ + OH- + energyE5
55 B. They changed their diets. C. They hid in marine sediments. Index fossils help scientists estimate the age of a rock because index fossil species only existed for a relatively short time. What happened to the species that are now used as index fossils?A. They became extinct. B. They changed their diets. C. They hid in marine sediments. D. They migrated to new environments. F1
57 The number of animal species increased. Evidence suggests that 3.5 billion years ago the atmosphere of Earth had almost no oxygen gas. Approximately 1.8 billion years ago, the oxygen concentration is thought to have increased to 15%. Today the oxygen concentration is 20%. What most likely happened between 3.5 and 1.8 billion years ago to increase the amount of oxygen?The number of animal species increased.The amount of water on Earth increased.The number of photosynthetic plant species increased.The amount of solar radiation reaching Earth increased.F2
58 C. The number of photosynthetic plant species increased.
59 b. Can be dated using carbon-14. c. Lacks fossils. A volcanic ash layer is considered a good time marker for correlating rocks because a volcanic ash layera. Has a darker color.b. Can be dated using carbon-14.c. Lacks fossils.d. Was rapidly deposited over a wide area.F3
61 Principle of Uniformitarianism Law of Superposition Which geological idea allows scientists to estimate the age of fossils based on their positions in rock layers?Principle of UniformitarianismLaw of SuperpositionContinental Drift HypothesisTheory of plate tectonicsF4
63 The half life of thorium-234 is 24 days The half life of thorium-234 is 24 days. If a piece of wood contained 16 grams of thorium -234 at the time it was cut, how many grams of thorium-234 will be present in the wood 96 days later?8421F5