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THIS IS 11111 22222 33333 44444 5 5 555 HR diagram Life Cycle of Stars Geological time General Science universe 1 2 3 4 5 gravity.

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Presentation on theme: "THIS IS 11111 22222 33333 44444 5 5 555 HR diagram Life Cycle of Stars Geological time General Science universe 1 2 3 4 5 gravity."— Presentation transcript:

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5 HR diagram Life Cycle of Stars Geological time General Science universe gravity

6 This determines not only the life cycle of the star but also it’s temperature and luminosity A 1 A.Composition B.Initial mass C.Energy output D.Density and gravity

7 b. Initial mass A 1

8 Main sequence stars on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram tend to A 2 A.Increase in magnitude as size decreases B.Increase in magnitude as surface temperature increasesin C.Increase in surface temperature as size decreases D.Remain unchanged as surface temperature increases temperature

9 B. Increase in magnitude as surface temperature increases A 2

10 A 3 Compared to the surface temperature and luminosity of massive stars in the Main Sequence, the smaller stars in the Main Sequence are? a.hotter and less luminous b. hotter and more luminous c. cooler and less luminous d. cooler and more luminous.

11 A 3 c. cooler and less luminous

12 A 4 a.Higher temperature indicates higher luminosity. b.Lower temperature indicates higher luminosity. c.Lower temperature indicates lower luminosity. d.There is no relationship. According to the diagram, what is the relationship of temperature to luminosity for main sequence stars?

13 a. Higher temperature indicates higher luminosity. A 4

14 A 5 According to the diagram, what is the relationship between temperature and mass? A.The greater the mass the lower the luminosity B.White dwarfs have high luminosity C.The greater the mass the greater the luminosity D.There is no relationship.

15 A 5 D. There is no relationship

16 B1 The production of heavy elements above the mass of Fe occurs in a. Main sequence stars. b. Black holes. c. Supernovas. d. Red giants.

17 B1 C. Supernovas.

18 A massive star supernova could leave behind a. a planetary nebula. b. a neutron star. c. a white dwarf. d. a magnesium core. B2

19 B. a neutron star. B2

20 The first stage of a star is called a a. Protostar b. White dwarf c. Red giant d. Neutron star B3

21 A. Protostar B3

22 B4 What is the relationship between the mass of a star and its lifetime? a. There is no relationship between mass and lifetime b. As mass increases, lifetime increases c. As mass increases, lifetime decreases d. As mass increases, lifetime remains constant

23 C. As mass increases, lifetime decreases B4

24 B5 What element is formed in the core of a massive star just before the star explodes in a supernova? a. Iron b. Silicon c. Carbon d. Helium

25 B5 a. iron

26 C1 The gravitational constant on the Moon is smaller than on the Earth because a. The Moon has a smaller mass than the Earth. b. The Moon is farther from the Sun. c. The Earth less dense than the Moon. d. The Moon’s radius is greater than that of Earth’s.

27 C1 a. The Moon has a smaller mass than the Earth

28 When the mass of an object is doubled, the force of gravity will... a. decrease by a factor of 2 b. increase by a factor of 2 c. Remain unchanged d. Cannot be determined. C2

29 B.increase by a factor of 2 (could you answer a question about increasing or decreasing the distance?) C2

30 C3 a.It’s beyond the reach of Earth’s gravity. b.In space, objects don’t weigh anything. c.The effect of the moon’s gravity pulls it away. d.Earth’s gravity is balanced by the satellite’s outward motion. Why doesn ’ t a satellite in orbit strike the Earth?

31 d. Earth’s gravity is balanced by the satellite’s outward motion C3

32 C4 What would happen to the gravitational force if the Earth were not spinning? a. The gravitational force would remain the same. b. The gravitational force would be significantly less. c. Objects on Earth would float away. d. The gravitational force would be larger.

33 a. The gravitational force would remain the same. C4

34 C5 What factors affect the gravitational force? A. rotation and revolution. B. density and volume. C. rotation and mass. D. mass and distance.

35 C5 D. Mass and distance

36 D1 Scientist believe that the sun formed about 5 billion years ago from a. A black hole b. A nuclear fusion reaction c. A nebular cloud of dust and gas d. A supernova

37 D1 C. A nebular cloud of dust and gas

38 The Big Bang Theory is used to explain the a. Formation of stars b. Movement of continental plates c. Moon's movement around the sun d. Formation of the universe. D2

39 d. Formation of the universe D2

40 The light from a distant star appears to be shifted toward the red end of the spectrum(a red shift). Which of the following can you conclude? a. The star is moving toward the earth b. The star is moving away from the earth c. The star is neither moving toward or away from the earth d. The star is a red giant D3

41 b. The star is moving away from the earth D3

42 D4 The Nebula Theory states A.The solar system was formed ̴ 15 billion years ago in a cloud of gas and dust B.The universe was formed ̴ 15 billion years ago in a cloud of gas and dust C.The solar system was formed ̴ 4.5 billion years ago in a cloud of gas and dust D.The universe was formed ̴ 4.5 billion years ago in a cloud of gas and dust

43 c. The solar system was formed ̴ 4.5 billion years ago in a cloud of gas and dust D4

44 D5 Which of the following list from smallest to largest? A.Universe →solar system → galaxy B.Galaxy universe → solar system C.Solar system → universe → galaxy D.Solar system → galaxy → universe

45 D5 D. Solar system → galaxy → universe

46 E1 Which process takes place in a fusion reaction? a.Protons become neutrons. b.Heavier nuclei form lighter nuclei. c.Light nuclei form heavy nuclei. d.Neutrons become protons.

47 E1 c. Lighter nuclei form heavier nuclei.

48 In the diagram, if we call gravitational force exerted on the apple action, what is the reaction force according to Newton’s 3 rd law? a. It is the apple gravitationally pulling on the Earth. b. It is the apple pressing on the table. c. The apple exerts no reaction force. d. It is the table supporting the apple. E2

49 A. It is the apple gravitationally pulling on the Earth. E2

50 E3 a.1. b.2. c.3. d.4. Keeping Kepler ’ s 2 nd law in mind, which diagram below best represents the positions of the planet in its orbit that would produce the gravitational forces shown in the data table?

51 b. 2 E3

52 E4 What would happen to the gravitational force if the Earth had no atmosphere? a. The gravitational force would remain constant. b. The gravitational force would be smaller. c. Objects on Earth would float away. d. The gravitational force would be larger.

53 a. The gravitational force would remain constant. E4

54 E5 Which of the following equations represent a fusion reaction within a star? a. NaCl → Na + + Cl - + energy b. H 2 SO 4 + 2NaOH → Na 2 SO 4 + 2H 2 O + energy c. He + He + He → Carbon + energy d. NaOH → Na + + OH - + energy

55 E5 c. He + He + He → Carbon + energy

56 F1 Index fossils help scientists estimate the age of a rock because index fossil species only existed for a relatively short time. What happened to the species that are now used as index fossils? A. They became extinct. B. They changed their diets. C. They hid in marine sediments. D. They migrated to new environments.

57 F1 A. They became extinct.

58 Evidence suggests that 3.5 billion years ago the atmosphere of Earth had almost no oxygen gas. Approximately 1.8 billion years ago, the oxygen concentration is thought to have increased to 15%. Today the oxygen concentration is 20%. What most likely happened between 3.5 and 1.8 billion years ago to increase the amount of oxygen? A.The number of animal species increased. B.The amount of water on Earth increased. C.The number of photosynthetic plant species increased. D.The amount of solar radiation reaching Earth increased. F2

59 C. The number of photosynthetic plant species increased. F2

60 A volcanic ash layer is considered a good time marker for correlating rocks because a volcanic ash layer a. Has a darker color. b. Can be dated using carbon-14. c. Lacks fossils. d. Was rapidly deposited over a wide area. F3

61 D. Was rapidly deposited over a wide area. F3

62 F4 Which geological idea allows scientists to estimate the age of fossils based on their positions in rock layers? A.Principle of Uniformitarianism B.Law of Superposition C.Continental Drift Hypothesis D.Theory of plate tectonics

63 B. Law of Superposition F4

64 F5 The half life of thorium-234 is 24 days. If a piece of wood contained 16 grams of thorium -234 at the time it was cut, how many grams of thorium-234 will be present in the wood 96 days later? A.8 B.4 C.2 D.1

65 F5 d. 1


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