Presentation on theme: "Ch Solids, Liquids, & Gases"— Presentation transcript:
1 Ch. 16 - Solids, Liquids, & Gases MATTERCh Solids, Liquids, & GasesI. States of MatterKinetic Molecular TheoryFour States of MatterThermal Expansion
2 A. Kinetic Molecular Theory KMTTiny, constantly moving particles make up all matter.The kinetic energy (motion) of these particles increases as temperature increases.Temperature = AVERAGE kinetic energy of the particles in a system.Heat = TOTAL kinetic energy of the particles.
3 B. Four States of Matter Solids low KE - particles vibrate but can’t move arounddefinite shape & volumecrystalline - repeating geometric pattern (MOST solids)amorphous - no pattern (e.g. glass, wax, obsidian) – it was frozen too fast to organize into crystals
4 B. Four States of Matter Liquids higher KE - particles can move around but are still close togetherindefinite shapedefinite volumeViscosity – resistance to flow.Motor oil, syrup have high viscosity; water, gasoline lower viscosityHeating the liquid reduces viscocity (warming syrup makes it flow easier)
5 B. Four States of Matter Gases high KE (moving very fast) - particles can separate and move throughout container (99% empty space)indefinite shape & volume
6 B. Four States of Matter Plasma very high KE - particles collide with enough energy to break into charged particles (+/-)gas-like, indefinite shape & volumeStars (Sun), fluorescent light bulbs, TV tubes,lightningMost common state in theuniverse
7 C. Thermal ExpansionMost matter expands when heated & contracts when cooled. Temp causes KE. Particles collide with more force & spread out.EX: thermostats (bimetallic strip) – two different metals, one contracts/expands more than the other.
8 Solid expansion, cont.Expansion joints in bridges, concrete,etc.
9 Expansion of liquidsAlcohol or mercury in a (old style) thermometer expands with an increase in temperature.
10 Gas expansion Gases expand/contract the most of the states of matter. EX. Hot-air balloons. Air expands, becomes less dense, rises.
16 B. Heating Curves Kinetic Energy Potential Energy motion of particles related to temperaturePotential Energyspace between particlesrelated to phase changes
17 B. Heating Curves Gas - KE Boiling - PE Liquid - KE Melting - PE Solid - KE
18 B. Heating Curves Heat of Fusion energy required to change from solid to liquidsome attractive forces are broken
19 B. Heating Curves Heat of Vaporization energy required to change from liquid to gasall attractive forces are brokenEX: steam burns, sweating, and… the drinking birdHEATING CURVE
20 Ch. 16 - Solids, Liquids, & Gases MATTERCh Solids, Liquids, & GasesIII. Behavior of GasesPressureBoyle’s LawCharles’ Law
21 A. PressureWhich shoes create the most pressure?
22 A. Pressure Key Units at Sea Level 101.3 kPa (kilopascal) 1 atm 760 mm Hg14.7 psi
23 A. Pressure Barometer Manometer Atmospheric Pressure Contained Pressure
24 A. Pressure Effect on Boiling Point When atmospheric pressure decreases, the boiling point of a liquid decreases.EX: high altitude cookingDenver is 1 mile above sea level & water boils at 95o C;on Mt. Everest (5.5 miles high) 71o C
25 Converting temperature units K = 0C C = K – 273What is the kelvin temperature of 20oC?20 oC ___________ =What is 20 K in celcius?20 K _________ =
26 Boyle’s Law (temp constant) Pressure and volume are inversely proportional. i.e. if one goes up the other goes down.A decrease in the volume of gas will result in an increase in pressureAn increase in the volume of gas will result in a decrease in pressureV1P1 = V2P2
39 Boyles (temperature constant) Charles (pressure constant) Relating to LifePrinciple – UseBoyles (temperature constant)Squeezing a balloonCharles (pressure constant)Why balloons decrease in size when kept in a cold roomReason for statement on hair spray: “keep away from heat, contents under pressure”