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CHAPTER 10 Probation, Parole, and Community Corrections.

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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 10 Probation, Parole, and Community Corrections."— Presentation transcript:

1 CHAPTER 10 Probation, Parole, and Community Corrections

2 Community Corrections
Also known as community-based corrections, community corrections: Refers to a wide range of sentences that depend on correctional resources available in the community. Permit convicted offenders to remain in the community under conditional supervision as an alternative to an active prison sentence.

3 Community Corrections
Examples include the following: Probation Parole Home confinement Electronic monitoring

4 Probation A sentence of imprisonment that is
suspended; instead, the sentence is served while under supervision in the community. This is conditional freedom granted by a judicial officer to a convicted offender, as long as the person meets certain conditions of behavior.

5 The Extent of Probation
Probation is the most commonly used form of sentencing. In 2004, there were over 4 million people on probation. Even violent offenders may receive probation.

6 Offenders Under Correctional Supervision in the U. S
Offenders Under Correctional Supervision in the U.S. by Type of Supervision Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Correctional Surveys

7 Probation Conditions Probationers must abide by court-mandated conditions or risk probation revocation. There are two types of conditions: general and specific.

8 Probation Conditions General Conditions
Apply to all probationers within the jurisdiction. Examples: Obey laws Maintain employment Remain within jurisdiction Allow probation officer to visit home or work place Pay court ordered fines Specific Conditions Judge-mandated for the specific probationer. Examples: Surrender driver’s license Pass GED test Do community service Curfew Complete a treatment plan

9 The Federal Probation System
There are about 151,000 offenders on probation. (2004)

10 Federal Probation Officers
There are approximately 7,750 federal probation officers, also called community corrections officers. They have the statutory authority to arrest probationers for a violation, but are encouraged to get an arrest warrant and have it executed by the U.S. Marshals. Some carry weapons.

11 Parole Parole—a prisoner re-entry strategy in which inmates receive supervised conditional early release from correctional confinement.

12 Parole vs. Probation Parole Probation Offenders spend time
incarcerated before release. Parole is an administrative decision made by paroling authority. Parolees must abide by conditions or risk revocation. Probation Probationers generally avoid prison time. (May serve some jail time.) Probation is a sentencing decision made by a judge. Probationers must abide by conditions or risk revocation.

13 Parole Decision-Making Mechanisms: Two Approaches
Parole Boards Grant discretionary parole based on judgment and assessment by parole board. Statutory Decrees Produce mandatory release, with release date set near sentence end, minus good time. More common

14 Extent of Parole Of all parolees: 45% successfully complete parole.
26% return to prison for parole violations. 12% return to prison for new

15 Advantages and Disadvantages of Probation and Parole
Low cost Increased employment Restitution Community support Reduced risk of criminal sanctions Increased use of community services Better rehabilitation opportunities Disadvantages Relative lack of punishment Increased risk to community Higher social costs

16 The Legal Environment

17 Griffin v. Wisconsin (1987) The Supreme Court ruled that probation officers may conduct searches of a probationer’s residence without a search warrant or probable cause. Though the Fourth Amendment normally provides for privacy, probation “presents special needs beyond normal law enforcement that may justify departures.”

18 Pennsylvania Board of Probation and Parole v. Scott (1998)
The Supreme Court declined to extend the exclusionary rule to searches done by parole officers.

19 U.S. v. Knights (2001) Expanded the search authority normally reserved for probation and parole officers to police officers under certain circumstances.

20 Sampson v. California (2006)
The U.S. Supreme Court found that the Fourth Amendment does not prohibit police officers from conducting a warrantless search of a person who is subject to a parole search condition, even when there is no suspicion of criminal wrongdoing and the sole reason for the search is because the person is on parole.

21 Revocation Hearings Revocation hearing—a hearing held before a legally constituted hearing body (such as a parole board) to determine whether a parolee or probationer has violated the conditions and requirements of his or her parole or probation. Most revocations stem from these violations: Failure to report to probation or parole officer Failure to participate in a stipulated treatment program Alcohol or drug abuse while under supervision

22 Mempa v. Rhay (1967) The U.S. Supreme Court held that in
probation revocation decisions both notice and a fair hearing are required and the probationer must have the opportunity to be represented by counsel.

23 Morrissey v. Brewer (1972) The U.S. Supreme Court held that parole revocation proceedings require the following: Written notice of specific alleged violation Disclosure of evidence of violation An impartial hearing body Opportunity to offer a defense A right to cross examine witnesses A written statement of the outcome

24 Gagnon v. Scarpelli (1973) The U.S. Supreme Court held that probationers are entitled to two hearings: A preliminary hearing to determine whether or not probable cause exists. A more comprehensive hearing prior to the final decision about revocation. Those hearings were to be done under the conditions specified in Morrissey.

25 Greenholtz v. Nebraska Penal Inmates (1979)
Parole boards do not have to specify the evidence used in deciding to deny parole.

26 Bearden v. Georgia (1983) Probation cannot be revoked for failure to pay a fine and make restitution if it could not be shown that the defendant was responsible for the failure…alternative forms of punishment must be considered before imposing a prison sentence.

27 Minnesota v. Murphy (1984) A probationer’s incriminating statements to a probation officer may be used as evidence if the probationer does not specifically claim a right against self-incrimination.

28 The Job of Probation and Parole Officers
Job Functions 1. Presentence investigations 2. Intake procedures 3. Needs assessment/diagnosis 4. Supervision of clients Job Challenges 1. Balancing conflicting roles 2. Caseload 3. Frequent lack of opportunities for upward mobility

29 Intermediate Sanctions

30 Intermediate Sanctions
The use of non-traditional sentences in lieu of imprisonment and fines. These sentences offer alternatives that fall somewhere between simple probation and outright incarceration. Also called alternative sentencing strategies.

31 Types of Intermediate Sanctions
Examples include: Split sentences Shock incarceration Mixed sentences and community service Intensive supervision Home confinement and electronic monitoring

32 Advantages of Intermediate Sanctions
There are three distinct advantages: Less expensive, per offender, than prison They are “socially cost effective” Provide flexibility in terms of resources, time, and place

33 Split Sentencing Split sentencing involves a combination of brief incarceration followed by probation. Frequently used for minor drug offenders.

34 Shock Incarceration Shock incarceration programs use “boot
camps” to demonstrate reality of prison life. Mainly used for first-time offenders. Involves strict discipline and physical training Programs typically last from 90–180 days “Failures” return to general prison population Appear “tough on crime,” but research shows negligible impact on recidivism rates

35 Mixed Sentencing and Community Service
Mixed sentencing—a sentence that required that a convicted offender serve weekends in a confinement facilities while undergoing probationary supervision in the community. Other types of mixed sentences involve participating in treatment of community service. Community service—requires offenders to spend time working for a community agency. Services can include washing of police cars, cleaning graffiti, and refurbishing public facilities.

36 Intensive Supervision
Intensive probation supervision (IPS) is the strictest form of probation. Frequent face-to-face contacts with probation officer Mandatory curfew Employment required Frequent check of local arrest records Unannounced drug testing

37 Home Confinement and Electronic Monitoring
Home confinement—“house arrest.” Individuals ordered confined to their homes. Sometimes electronically monitored using remote location monitoring. Often, people are allowed to leave during work hours, and may also leave during an emergency. Frequently used with some pregnant women, geriatric offenders with special needs, the terminally ill, and other special offender categories. Use of electronic monitoring is increasing.

38 Reinventing Re-entry Most inmates will be released back into
society. Barriers to successful re-entry need to be addressed, including: Substance abuse Lack of education Poverty Diminished opportunities for employment Physical or mental disabilities

39 Reinventing Re-entry Successful re-entry requires a multi-faceted,
collaborative approach involving people and groups throughout the community, including: Corrections Public health workers State legislators Housing providers Workforce development staff

40 Reinventing Probation
The “get tough” attitude of the 1990s increased funding for prisons but neglected to do the same for probation. So, what do we need to do?

41 Should We? Sentence violent offenders / sexual offenders to probation?
Why / Why not?

42 Should We? Eliminate Parole? Why / Why Not?

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