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© Prentice Hall 2008 Pearson Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 7E by Frank Schmalleger 1 Probation, Parole,

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Presentation on theme: "© Prentice Hall 2008 Pearson Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 7E by Frank Schmalleger 1 Probation, Parole,"— Presentation transcript:

1 © Prentice Hall 2008 Pearson Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, NJ Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 7E by Frank Schmalleger 1 Probation, Parole, and Community Corrections CHAPTER 10

2 © Prentice Hall 2008 Pearson Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, NJ Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 7E by Frank Schmalleger 2 Community Corrections Also known as community-based corrections, community corrections:  Refers to a wide range of sentences that depend on correctional resources available in the community.  Permit convicted offenders to remain in the community under conditional supervision as an alternative to an active prison sentence.

3 © Prentice Hall 2008 Pearson Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, NJ Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 7E by Frank Schmalleger 3 Community Corrections Examples include the following:  Probation  Parole  Home confinement  Electronic monitoring

4 © Prentice Hall 2008 Pearson Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, NJ Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 7E by Frank Schmalleger 4 Probation  A sentence of imprisonment that is suspended; instead, the sentence is served while under supervision in the community.  This is conditional freedom granted by a judicial officer to a convicted offender, as long as the person meets certain conditions of behavior.

5 © Prentice Hall 2008 Pearson Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, NJ Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 7E by Frank Schmalleger 5 The Extent of Probation  Probation is the most commonly used form of sentencing.  In 2004, there were over 4 million people on probation.  Even violent offenders may receive probation.

6 © Prentice Hall 2008 Pearson Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, NJ Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 7E by Frank Schmalleger 6 Offenders Under Correctional Supervision in the U.S. by Type of Supervision Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Correctional Surveys

7 © Prentice Hall 2008 Pearson Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, NJ Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 7E by Frank Schmalleger 7  Probationers must abide by court- mandated conditions or risk probation revocation.  There are two types of conditions: general and specific. Probation Conditions

8 © Prentice Hall 2008 Pearson Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, NJ Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 7E by Frank Schmalleger 8 Probation Conditions General Conditions Apply to all probationers within the jurisdiction. Examples:  Obey laws  Maintain employment  Remain within jurisdiction  Allow probation officer to visit home or work place  Pay court ordered fines Specific Conditions Judge-mandated for the specific probationer. Examples:  Surrender driver’s license  Pass GED test  Do community service  Curfew  Complete a treatment plan

9 © Prentice Hall 2008 Pearson Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, NJ Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 7E by Frank Schmalleger 9  There are about 151,000 offenders on probation. (2004) The Federal Probation System

10 © Prentice Hall 2008 Pearson Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, NJ Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 7E by Frank Schmalleger 10 There are approximately 7,750 federal probation officers, also called community corrections officers.  They have the statutory authority to arrest probationers for a violation, but are encouraged to get an arrest warrant and have it executed by the U.S. Marshals.  Some carry weapons. Federal Probation Officers

11 © Prentice Hall 2008 Pearson Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, NJ Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 7E by Frank Schmalleger 11 Parole Parole—a prisoner re-entry strategy in which inmates receive supervised conditional early release from correctional confinement.

12 © Prentice Hall 2008 Pearson Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, NJ Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 7E by Frank Schmalleger 12 Parole vs. Probation Parole  Offenders spend time incarcerated before release.  Parole is an administrative decision made by paroling authority.  Parolees must abide by conditions or risk revocation. Probation  Probationers generally avoid prison time. (May serve some jail time.)  Probation is a sentencing decision made by a judge.  Probationers must abide by conditions or risk revocation.

13 © Prentice Hall 2008 Pearson Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, NJ Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 7E by Frank Schmalleger 13 Parole Decision-Making Mechanisms: Two Approaches Parole Boards Grant discretionary parole based on judgment and assessment by parole board. Statutory Decrees Produce mandatory release, with release date set near sentence end, minus good time. More common

14 © Prentice Hall 2008 Pearson Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, NJ Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 7E by Frank Schmalleger 14 Extent of Parole Of all parolees:  45% successfully complete parole.  26% return to prison for parole violations.  12% return to prison for new violations.

15 © Prentice Hall 2008 Pearson Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, NJ Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 7E by Frank Schmalleger 15 Advantages and Disadvantages of Probation and Parole Advantages  Low cost  Increased employment  Restitution  Community support  Reduced risk of criminal sanctions  Increased use of community services  Better rehabilitation opportunities Disadvantages  Relative lack of punishment  Increased risk to community  Higher social costs

16 © Prentice Hall 2008 Pearson Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, NJ Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 7E by Frank Schmalleger 16 The Legal Environment

17 © Prentice Hall 2008 Pearson Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, NJ Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 7E by Frank Schmalleger 17  The Supreme Court ruled that probation officers may conduct searches of a probationer’s residence without a search warrant or probable cause.  Though the Fourth Amendment normally provides for privacy, probation “presents special needs beyond normal law enforcement that may justify departures.” Griffin v. Wisconsin (1987)

18 © Prentice Hall 2008 Pearson Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, NJ Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 7E by Frank Schmalleger 18  The Supreme Court declined to extend the exclusionary rule to searches done by parole officers. Pennsylvania Board of Probation and Parole v. Scott (1998)

19 © Prentice Hall 2008 Pearson Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, NJ Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 7E by Frank Schmalleger 19  Expanded the search authority normally reserved for probation and parole officers to police officers under certain circumstances. U.S. v. Knights (2001)

20 © Prentice Hall 2008 Pearson Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, NJ Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 7E by Frank Schmalleger 20  The U.S. Supreme Court found that the Fourth Amendment does not prohibit police officers from conducting a warrantless search of a person who is subject to a parole search condition, even when there is no suspicion of criminal wrongdoing and the sole reason for the search is because the person is on parole. Sampson v. California (2006)

21 © Prentice Hall 2008 Pearson Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, NJ Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 7E by Frank Schmalleger 21  Revocation hearing—a hearing held before a legally constituted hearing body (such as a parole board) to determine whether a parolee or probationer has violated the conditions and requirements of his or her parole or probation.  Most revocations stem from these violations:  Failure to report to probation or parole officer  Failure to participate in a stipulated treatment program  Alcohol or drug abuse while under supervision Revocation Hearings

22 © Prentice Hall 2008 Pearson Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, NJ Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 7E by Frank Schmalleger 22 The U.S. Supreme Court held that in probation revocation decisions both notice and a fair hearing are required and the probationer must have the opportunity to be represented by counsel. Mempa v. Rhay (1967)

23 © Prentice Hall 2008 Pearson Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, NJ Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 7E by Frank Schmalleger 23 The U.S. Supreme Court held that parole revocation proceedings require the following: 1.Written notice of specific alleged violation 2.Disclosure of evidence of violation 3.An impartial hearing body 4.Opportunity to offer a defense 5.A right to cross examine witnesses 6.A written statement of the outcome Morrissey v. Brewer (1972)

24 © Prentice Hall 2008 Pearson Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, NJ Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 7E by Frank Schmalleger 24 The U.S. Supreme Court held that probationers are entitled to two hearings: 1.A preliminary hearing to determine whether or not probable cause exists. 2.A more comprehensive hearing prior to the final decision about revocation. Those hearings were to be done under the conditions specified in Morrissey. Gagnon v. Scarpelli (1973)

25 © Prentice Hall 2008 Pearson Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, NJ Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 7E by Frank Schmalleger 25 Parole boards do not have to specify the evidence used in deciding to deny parole. Greenholtz v. Nebraska Penal Inmates (1979)

26 © Prentice Hall 2008 Pearson Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, NJ Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 7E by Frank Schmalleger 26 Probation cannot be revoked for failure to pay a fine and make restitution if it could not be shown that the defendant was responsible for the failure…alternative forms of punishment must be considered before imposing a prison sentence. Bearden v. Georgia (1983)

27 © Prentice Hall 2008 Pearson Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, NJ Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 7E by Frank Schmalleger 27 A probationer’s incriminating statements to a probation officer may be used as evidence if the probationer does not specifically claim a right against self-incrimination. Minnesota v. Murphy (1984)

28 © Prentice Hall 2008 Pearson Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, NJ Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 7E by Frank Schmalleger 28 The Job of Probation and Parole Officers Job Functions 1. Presentence investigations 2. Intake procedures 3. Needs assessment/diagnosis 4. Supervision of clients Job Challenges 1. Balancing conflicting roles 2. Caseload 3. Frequent lack of opportunities for upward mobility

29 © Prentice Hall 2008 Pearson Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, NJ Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 7E by Frank Schmalleger 29 Intermediate Sanctions

30 © Prentice Hall 2008 Pearson Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, NJ Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 7E by Frank Schmalleger 30  The use of non-traditional sentences in lieu of imprisonment and fines.  These sentences offer alternatives that fall somewhere between simple probation and outright incarceration.  Also called alternative sentencing strategies. Intermediate Sanctions

31 © Prentice Hall 2008 Pearson Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, NJ Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 7E by Frank Schmalleger 31 Examples include:  Split sentences  Shock incarceration  Mixed sentences and community service  Intensive supervision  Home confinement and electronic monitoring Types of Intermediate Sanctions

32 © Prentice Hall 2008 Pearson Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, NJ Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 7E by Frank Schmalleger 32 There are three distinct advantages:  Less expensive, per offender, than prison  They are “socially cost effective”  Provide flexibility in terms of resources, time, and place Advantages of Intermediate Sanctions

33 © Prentice Hall 2008 Pearson Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, NJ Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 7E by Frank Schmalleger 33 Split Sentencing Split sentencing involves a combination of brief incarceration followed by probation. Frequently used for minor drug offenders.

34 © Prentice Hall 2008 Pearson Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, NJ Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 7E by Frank Schmalleger 34 Shock Incarceration Shock incarceration programs use “boot camps” to demonstrate reality of prison life.  Mainly used for first-time offenders.  Involves strict discipline and physical training  Programs typically last from 90–180 days  “Failures” return to general prison population  Appear “tough on crime,” but research shows negligible impact on recidivism rates

35 © Prentice Hall 2008 Pearson Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, NJ Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 7E by Frank Schmalleger 35  Mixed sentencing—a sentence that required that a convicted offender serve weekends in a confinement facilities while undergoing probationary supervision in the community.  Other types of mixed sentences involve participating in treatment of community service.  Community service—requires offenders to spend time working for a community agency. Services can include washing of police cars, cleaning graffiti, and refurbishing public facilities. Mixed Sentencing and Community Service

36 © Prentice Hall 2008 Pearson Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, NJ Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 7E by Frank Schmalleger 36 Intensive probation supervision (IPS) is the strictest form of probation.  Frequent face-to-face contacts with probation officer  Mandatory curfew  Employment required  Frequent check of local arrest records  Unannounced drug testing Intensive Supervision

37 © Prentice Hall 2008 Pearson Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, NJ Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 7E by Frank Schmalleger 37  Home confinement—“house arrest.”  Individuals ordered confined to their homes.  Sometimes electronically monitored using remote location monitoring.  Often, people are allowed to leave during work hours, and may also leave during an emergency.  Frequently used with some pregnant women, geriatric offenders with special needs, the terminally ill, and other special offender categories.  Use of electronic monitoring is increasing. Home Confinement and Electronic Monitoring

38 © Prentice Hall 2008 Pearson Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, NJ Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 7E by Frank Schmalleger 38 Most inmates will be released back into society. Barriers to successful re-entry need to be addressed, including:  Substance abuse  Lack of education  Poverty  Diminished opportunities for employment  Physical or mental disabilities Reinventing Re-entry

39 © Prentice Hall 2008 Pearson Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, NJ Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 7E by Frank Schmalleger 39 Successful re-entry requires a multi-faceted, collaborative approach involving people and groups throughout the community, including:  Corrections  Public health workers  State legislators  Housing providers  Workforce development staff Reinventing Re-entry

40 © Prentice Hall 2008 Pearson Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, NJ Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 7E by Frank Schmalleger 40  The “get tough” attitude of the 1990s increased funding for prisons but neglected to do the same for probation.  So, what do we need to do? Reinventing Probation

41 © Prentice Hall 2008 Pearson Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, NJ Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 7E by Frank Schmalleger 41 Should We? Sentence violent offenders / sexual offenders to probation? Why / Why not?

42 © Prentice Hall 2008 Pearson Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, NJ Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 7E by Frank Schmalleger 42 Should We? Eliminate Parole? Why / Why Not?


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