2 1) One of the 1st tasks of the new U. S 1) One of the 1st tasks of the new U.S. gov’t was to provide the president with a bureaucracy to handle different responsibilities.
3 2) In 1789 Congress created the Dept. of State, the Dept 2) In 1789 Congress created the Dept. of State, the Dept. of the Treasury, the Dept. of War, and the office of the Attorney General.
4 3) Congress organized the Judicial branch in 1789 3) Congress organized the Judicial branch in In the Judiciary Act of 1789, Congress established 13 district courts, 3 courts of appeal, and the Supreme Court.
5 4) One of the most imptortant acts of the new U. S 4) One of the most imptortant acts of the new U.S. Congress was the introduction of the Bill of Rights.
6 5) The Ninth Amendment to the U. S 5) The Ninth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution states that people have other rights not listed in the Constitution.
7 6) The Tenth Amendment states that any powers not specifically given to the federal gov’t are reserved for the states.
8 7) The most pressing need of the newly formed U. S 7) The most pressing need of the newly formed U.S. Gov’t was a source of revenue. Without money the gov’t couldn’t operate.
9 8) Alexander Hamilton, the first Secretary of the Treasury, supported the Tariff of 1789, but he believed the gov’t also needed the ability to borrow money.
10 9) With his system of public credit finally in place, Hamilton asked Congress to create a national bank. He argued that the gov’t needed the bank to manage its debts and interest payments.
11 10) James Madison, a leader in Congress, argued that Congress could not establish a national bank b/c it was not among the federal government’s enumerated powers.
12 11) A national bank, Hamilton argued, was necessary to collect taxes, regulate trade, and provide for the common defense.
13 12) Hamilton believed the federal gov’t had to establish its right to impose direct taxes on the people, therefore, in 1791, Congress imposed a tax on the manufacture of whiskey. This tax enraged Western farmers who eventually staged what came to be known as the Whiskey Rebellion.
14 13) During Washington’s first term in office, the debate over Hamilton’s financial program split Congress into factions. These factions became the nation’s first political parties.
15 14) The development of America’s 1st two political parties divided the country regionally. The rural S and W tended to support the Republicans, while the more urban Northeast tended to support the Federalists.
16 15) Shortly after Washington was inaugurated in 1789, the French Rev 15) Shortly after Washington was inaugurated in 1789, the French Rev. began in Europe. At 1st most Americans sympathized with the revolutionaries, who seemed to be fighting for the same rights Americans had won a few yrs earlier.
17 16) American’s were divided over the French Rev 16) American’s were divided over the French Rev. Many Federalists, horrified by the violence and chaos, opposed it. Despite the bloodshed, many Republicans supported it, admiring the fight for liberty.
18 17) By 1790 the area b/w the Appalachian Mts and the Miss. R 17) By 1790 the area b/w the Appalachian Mts and the Miss. R. had become the most rapidly growing region in the U.S. Americans flocked to the region, drawn by abundant land, fertile soil, wide rivers, and a wide variety of fish and game.
19 18) At the Battle of Fallen Timbers General Anthony Wayne won a victory that dealt a decisive blow to Native American resistance in the NW Territory. In Aug. 1795, 12 N.A. nations signed the Treaty of Greenville, which opened the Ohio Territory to American settlers.
20 19) With Washington stepping down, the U. S 19) With Washington stepping down, the U.S. held its 1st openly contested election in The Federalists rallied around John Adams, while the Republicans nominated Thomas Jefferson. John Adams won the election with a narrow victory.
21 20) The election of 1800 was an important turning point in American history because it demonstrated that power in the U.S. could be peacefully transferred despite strong disagreements b/w the parties.
22 21) Thomas Jefferson privately referred to his election in 1800 as the “Revolution of 1800.” He believed that Washington and Adams had acted too much like royalty, and he tried to create a less formal style for the presidency.
23 22) A strong believer in small government, Jefferson hoped to limit the scope of federal power. He began paying off the federal debt, cut gov’t spending, and cut taxes.
24 23) Before their term expired, the Federalist majority in Congress passed the Judiciary Act of This act created 16 new federal judges. Before leaving office, President Adams appointed Federalists to these positions.
25 24) One of the 1st acts of Congress after Jefferson took office was to repeal the Judiciary Act of 1801, thereby doing away with the “midnight judges” by abolishing their offices.
26 25) Initially the Supreme Court was a very minor body, but its role began to change in 1803 with the case of Marbury v. Madison.
27 26) The Supreme Court case of Marbury v 26) The Supreme Court case of Marbury v. Madison strengthened the Supreme Court because it asserted the Court’s right of judicial review.
28 27) On April 30, 1803, the U. S. bought Louisiana from France for $11 27) On April 30, 1803, the U.S. bought Louisiana from France for $11.25 million. As a result of the deal, the U.S. more than doubled its size and gained control of the entire Mississippi R.
29 28) The Louisiana Purchase alarmed N. E. Federalists 28) The Louisiana Purchase alarmed N.E. Federalists. It meant that eventually their region would lose its influence in national affairs while the South and West gained political strength through new states.
30 29) In Massachusetts, a small group of Federalists known as the Essex Junto drafted a plan to take N.E. out of the Union.
31 30) In 1806 Britain issued regulations known as the Orders in Council 30) In 1806 Britain issued regulations known as the Orders in Council. These declared that all ships going to Europe needed British licenses and would be searched for contraband.
32 31) Despite lingering anger about the Embargo of 1807, Madison won the election of 1808 easily to become the fourth president of the U.S.
33 32) Madison assumed office in the midst of an international crisis 32) Madison assumed office in the midst of an international crisis. Tensions b/w the U.S. and Britain were rising, and it would be up to Madison to decide whether or not to lead the U.S. into its 1st full-scale war since the Revolution.
34 33) Madison asked Congress to pass the Non-Intercourse Act, which forbade trade with France and Britain while authorizing the president to reopen trade with whichever country removed its trade restrictions first.
35 34) By early 1812 the refusal of the U. S 34) By early 1812 the refusal of the U.S. to buy British goods had begun to hurt the British economy.
36 35) In June 1812, Britain ended all restrictions on American trade, but it was too late. Two days later, the British learned that the U.S. Congress had declared war on Great Britain.
37 36) Members of Congress who voted for war in 1812 came from the South and West. They were known as War Hawks.
38 37) Americans in the South and West wanted war for two reasons 37) Americans in the South and West wanted war for two reasons. First, British trade restrictions hurt Southern planters and Western farmers. Second, Western farmers blamed the British for clashes with Native Americans along the frontier.
39 38) Tecumseh, a Shawnee leader, believed that all Native Americans needed to unite to protect their lands from American settlers in the NW Territory.
40 39) During the War of 1812, Tecumseh allied himself with the British 39) During the War of 1812, Tecumseh allied himself with the British. At the Battle of Tippecanoe Tecumseh and his forces were defeated.
41 40) The War of 1812 generated a new sense of American patriotism and increased U.S. prestige overseas.