Presentation on theme: "2 01 91 81 71 61 51 41 31 21 0 91 00 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 1 Why do plants need both chloroplasts and mitochondria? 0 Chloroplasts needed to produce."— Presentation transcript:
Why do plants need both chloroplasts and mitochondria? 0 Chloroplasts needed to produce glucose from light energy; mitochondria needed to break down glucose to produce ATP
What is the major energy-containing product made in glycolysis that continues to be oxidized (broken down)? 0 Pyruvate (2 for each glucose!)
After glycolysis, most cells will continue to break down glucose using which biochemical pathway? 0 Aerobic respiration
What are the two most common types of fermentation? 0 Lactic acid fermentation and alcoholic fermentation
What kinds of organisms would an anaerobic pathway provide enough energy for? 0 Some unicellular organisms (like bacteria or yeast); they have lower energy needs
Is glycolysis aerobic or anaerobic? 0 Anaerobic – no oxygen is needed!
What gas is released in the process of converting pyruvate into acetyl CoA? 0 Carbon dioxide
Describe the mitochondrial matrix. 0 It’s the area inside the inner membrane of the mitochondria that contains enzymes that catalyze the reactions of the Krebs cycle.
What are the three steps of the transition reaction? 0 1.Pyruvate combines with coenzyme A 2.CO 2 is released 3.NAD + is reduced to NADH + H +
What’s the first major product made in the Krebs Cycle? 0 Citric acid (The Krebs is also called The Citric Acid Cycle for this reason!)
What molecule temporarily stores the energy from food molecules for cells to use? 0 adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
What kinds of organisms carry out cellular respiration? 0 Both autotrophs and heterotrophs
What happens to the electrons when they reach the end of the ETC? 0 They combine with oxygen and protons to form water.
What is cellular respiration? 0 Process in which cells break down organic molecules to make ATP
Explain how water is a product of the ETC. 0 Electrons from the ETC combine with protons flowing back into the matrix and oxygen. O e H + → 2 H 2 O
What happens in muscles that are exercised extensively in the absence of enough oxygen? 0 Cells switch to lactic acid fermentation; lactic acid builds up in cells causing muscle soreness
How does the efficiency of cellular respiration compare to glycolysis alone? 0 Cell respiration is 20 times more efficient.
What enzyme is necessary for chemiosmosis and ATP production to occur? 0 ATP synthase
How many NADH are made in glycolysis? What are they used for in aerobic respiration? 0 2; they will donate electrons to the ETC
For every glucose molecule, the Krebs cycle must happen ______. 0 twice
Where do the ATP molecule that are formed go? 0 Diffuse out of the mitochondria into the cytosol for the cell to use.
What are the 3 steps of the Krebs cycle? 0 1.Acetyl CoA (2C) + oxaloacetic acid (4C) → citric acid (6C) 2.Citric acid converted into 5C compound: 1 CO 2 is lost and 1 ATP is made 3.5C compound regenerates 4C oxaloacetic acid; 1 CO 2 is lost, 3 NADH and 1 FADH 2 are made
For every glucose molecule, the products of the Krebs are: 0 4 CO 2, 2 ATP, 6 NADH, and 2 FADH 2
What is the importance of fermentation? 0 Regenerates NAD + to keep glycolysis going
How many total NADH molecules are made in cellular respiration? Where are they made? 0 10! 2 from glycolysis, 2 from the transition reactions, and 6 from the Krebs
Where does the Krebs cycle take place in prokaryotes? In eukaryotes? 0 Prokaryotes – cytosol Eukaryotes – mitochondrial matrix
What is the total efficiency of cellular respiration? 0 39%
What is the chemical equation for cellular respiration? 0 6 O 2 + C 6 H 12 O 6 + ADP + PO 4 - → 6 CO H 2 O + ATP
For every NADH that is made, how many ATPs will be generated in the ETC? 0 3
Why is oxygen important in the ETC? 0 It’s the final electron acceptor.
Describe how citric acid forms in the Krebs cycle. 0 Acetyl-CoA (2C) combines with oxaloacetic acid (4C) to yield citric acid (6C)
What is the net yield of ATP in glycolysis? 0 2
Is fermentation aerobic or anaerobic? 0 Anaerobic
Of the 38 ATPS, state where the ATPs are made in the process of cellular respiration and the numbers that are made in each process. 0 Glycolysis = 2; Krebs cycle = 2; ETC = 34
What are the two main stages of cellular respiration? 0 Glycolysis and aerobic respiration
What is glycolysis? 0 Process in which glucose is converted into pyruvate producing a small amount of ATP and NADH
What are the major products of the Krebs and the ETC together? 0 Carbon dioxide, water, and ATP
What are the products of ONE turn of the Krebs? 0 2 CO 2, 1 ATP, 3 NADH, and 1 FADH 2
How many ATPs are produced in cellular respiration? 0 38 ATPs
What gas produced during photosynthesis is necessary for the completion of cellular respiration in the ETC? 0 oxygen
What molecules from the Krebs cycle donate electrons to the ETC? Is this oxidation or reduction? 0 The 10 NADH and 2 FADH 2 ; it’s oxidation (they’re losing electrons)
How many total ATPs are made in the ETC from all of the NADH produced in cellular respiration? 0 30
In which part of cellular respiration is most energy transferred to ATP? 0 ETC
What are the steps of glycolysis? 0 1.Phosphorylation of glucose to yield new 6C compound; 2 ATPS required 2.Splitting of 6C compound to form 2 3C PGALS 3.Oxidation of PGALS; phosphorylation of PGALS using 2 PO 4 - from cytosol to form 2 new 3C compounds; reduction of 2NAD + to form 2 NADH and 2 H + 4.Removal of 4 PO 4 - from 2 3C compounds in step 3 to make pyruvate; 4 PO 4 - used to phosphorylate 4 ADPS making 4 ATPS
Does fermentation produce any ATP? 0 No!
For every FADH 2 that is made, how many ATPs will be generated in the ETC? 0 2
Where does glycolysis take place? 0 In the cytosol
How many ATPs are made in the ETC from the FADH 2 produced in cellular respiration? 0 4
What are the 5 steps of the ETC? 0 1.NADH and FADH 2 donate e - to ETC 2.e - move along ETC and lose energy 3.Energy lost is used to pump H + from matrix to space between inner and outer membranes 4.Chemiosmosis back into the matrix provides energy for phosphorylation of ADP to form ATP 5.O 2 combines with e - coming from ETC and H + flowing back into the matrix to make 2H 2 O
When living things break down food molecules for energy, that energy is either stored in _____ or __________? 0 ATP; released as heat
Is glycolysis efficient? Why or why not? 0 No! Only 2 ATPs are produced. Each stores 7 kcal of energy from the 686 kcal available in glucose. That makes it 2% efficient!