Presentation on theme: "Ch 2 Early China, Nubia, Meroe, and The First Civilizations in the Americas 2000-221 B.C.E."— Presentation transcript:
Ch 2 Early China, Nubia, Meroe, and The First Civilizations in the Americas 2000-221 B.C.E
Geography Two major regions- steppe, desert, high plateau west, and northwest, and the eastern zone, which is suitable for agriculture. Natural Resources- Timber, stone, metals Loess soil- North South- Rice
Completed Topographic Map Huang-He River Yellow Sea Yangtze River Pacific Ocean Amur River Xi River South China Sea Sea of Japan Tian Shan Altai Mts. Greater Khingan Kunlun Shan Himalayan Mts. Tibetan Plateau Taklamakan Desert Gobi Desert Manchurian Plain North China Plain Tarim Basin Sichuan Basin Shabdong Peninsula Grand Canal Great Wall CHUNG KUO
Shang Period 1750-1027 B.C.E Land of Neolithic communities Pigs, Chicken, Millet domesticated Silk textiles Bronze Metallurgy Shang dynasty- Origins in yellow river valley Kings- direct rule over core and indirect rule over peripheral areas
Shang kings- Military campaigns- Nomads Possible trade with Mesopatamia Kings Religion- Worship of male ancestors, practiced sacrifice. Kings were intermediaries between the gods and human world
Zhou Period 1027-221 B.C.E. Dependent state of the Shang Defeated Shang in the 11 th century B.C.E “Mandate of Heaven” Used by the zhou to justify their actions in overthrowing the Shang
Zhou Period Priestly Power of elite faded Result in separation of religion and govt. Zhou divided into two periods Western Zhou, and Eastern Zhou
Western Zhou 11 th -9 th & Eastern Zhou 771- 221 B.C.E centuries B.C.E. Like the Shang the Western Zhou had direct control over core territory and administered the peripheral areas indirectly Eastern Zhou declined in central government as regional elites began to rule territories Eastern Zhou subdivided into two periods Spring and Autumn period 771-481 B.C.E Warring states Period 480-221 B.C.E
Zhou Technology Construction of long walls for defense Iron and steel metallurgy Horse riding
Eastern Zhou Political Philosophies Legalism- Human nature is wicked and selfish. People must have strict laws and harsh punishments
Confucianism Founded by Confucius Assumes that human nature is essentially good. Hierarchical view of universe, society, and family Not influential with it’s founding, but became the dominant political philosophy in the future.
Daoism Founded by Laozi Universe is constantly changing No real moral standards People should take life as it comes to them. “Whatever attitude”
Eastern Zhou Society Development of the three generation family Concept of Private Property Privately owned land Women were subordinate to hierarchy Yin and Yang Yin-male- Bright, Shining, Active Yang-Female- moon, passive, shaded
Early Cultures of Egyptian Domination Natural Resources in Nubia- Gold, Precious Stones, Copper Nubia was developed as a result of the need for irrigated agriculture, and by its early trading relationship with Egypt Nubian culture and Egyptian culture developed through a process of mutual influence and borrowing.
Early Nubia Carried out trade with Old Kingdom Egypt The northern part of Nubia was occupied by Egypt during the Middle Kingdom period. Southern Part of Nubia kingdom of Kush develops by 1750 B.C.E. they were noted for metalwork and construction
Kush developed by 1750 b.c.e Kush was noted for its metalworking and construction. Egypt invaded Kush during the New Kingdom period. The results of Egyptian occupation included the brutal exploitation of Nubian laborers the imposition of Egyptian culture on the Nubian people.
Egypt invades Kush During New Kingdom Period The results of Egyptian occupation include brutal exploitation of Nubian Laborers, and imposition of Egyptian culture on the Nubian people.
Meroe 800 B.C.E- 350 C.E A Nubian Kingdom Arose in 8 th century B.C.E Capital of Napata from 660 B.C.E to the 4 th century During the period with Napata as capital there was continued Egyptian cultural influence. Examples include use of Hieroglyphics and building of pyramids.
In the 4 th century the kingdom moves it’s capital to Meroe, due to better agriculture and trade. During this period Egyptian cultural influence would diminish Meroe practiced a Matrilineal family system, Queens were influential in the society
Meroe would dominate trade routes Use Reservoirs to catch rainfall Important center of iron smelting
Decline of Meroe Shift in trade routes Rise of the kingdom of Aksum Depredation of camel riding Nomads
First Civilizations in the Americas: The Olmec and Chavin 1200-250 B.C.E
Mesoamerican Olmecs Strongest between 1200 and 400 B.C.E Major centers of Olmec civilization were located along the coast of Mexico. The use of raised fields provided the agricultural surpluses the Olmec needed to sustain urban centers.
The center of early Olmec civilization was located at San Lorenzo. San Lorenzo was surpassed by La Venta around 900 b.c.e., which, in turn, gave way to Tres Zapotes around 600 b.c.e. Large earthen mounds dominated Olmec urban centers.
The Wrestler, sculpture of the Olmec civilization, ca. 150 B.C. This 26-inch masterpiece of Olmec sculpture comes from the present-day Mexican state of Veracruz. The history of Mesoamerica is divided into three periods: Pre-Classic (1,800-150 B.C.), Classic (100-900 A.D), and Post-Classic (900-1530). By 1200 B.C., the Olmecs dominated the lowlands near modern Tabasco and Veracruz, but by 150 B.C., the approximate date of The Wrestler, their civilization had given way to that of the Maya.
It is likely that Olmec political structures were built around some form of kingship. Olmec power rested on the control of certain commodities and the popularity of their religious practices. Given their limited technology, Olmec architecture was very impressive. The Olmec played a role in the early development of writing and astronomy.
Early South American Civilization: Chavín, 900—250 b.c.e. 1.Chavín was the first major urban civilization in South America. 2.Chavín was politically and economically dominant between 900 and 250 b.c.e. 3.A combination of military strength and the appeal of its religious system explains Chavín's influence and control over its territory.
The area of the Chavín, as well as areas the Chavín influenced
Chavín artists frequently made use of the technique of contour rivalry in their art forms, and the Raimondi Stela is frequently considered to be one of the finest known examples of this technique. Contour rivalry means that the lines in an image can be read in multiple ways, depending on which way the object is being viewed. In the case of the Raimondi Stela, when viewed one way, the image depicts a fearsome deity holding two staffs. His eyes look upward toward his large, elaborate headdress of snakes and volutes. This same image, when flipped upside-down, takes on a completely new life. The headdress now turns into a stacked row of smiling, fanged faces, while the deity's face has turned into the face of a smiling reptile as well. Even the deity's staffs now appear to be rows of stacked faces.contour rivalry
4.Chavín possessed all the essential characteristics of later Andean civilizations, including a clan-based system of labor. 5.The evidence suggests that increased warfare led to the fall of Chavín around 200 b.c.e.