Presentation on theme: "Heavy Duty Engine Oil Technology Comparison of European and US Developments."— Presentation transcript:
Heavy Duty Engine Oil Technology Comparison of European and US Developments
2 Contents Operating Conditions and drivers for lubricant requirements Comparison of Heavy Duty Engine Oil make-up in Europe and America today Approach to low emission engines in Europe Aftertreatment sensitivity to Heavy Duty Engine Oils –Some technical proof
3 Operating Conditions EuropeNorth America avg. annual mileage, miles 62,500125,000 Gross Vehicle weight, tonnes 4036 (80000 lb) Power output 350 bhp Avg sump volume, L Avg diesel cost, USD per gal Oil Drain interval, miles15,000 to 75,00020,000 In Europe, engine manufacturers recommend highly extended oil drain –Oil performance level, engine type, operating cycle, load –Oils must pass specific field test or fired engine test requirement for use in extended drain In Europe, fuel costs typically equate to 30% total fleet cost –fuel efficient lubricant can result in high cost savings drive towards lower viscosity levels, synthetic basestocks
4 Can the lubricant protect the engine at extended drains? Connecting rod bearings Typical piston Synthetic, high ash heavy duty engine oil Inspection at end of trial : 3 x 100,000 km
5 Composition of Heavy Duty Engine Oil API CG-4 soot handling oxidation stability API CI-4 VTW, soot/ acid control oxidation stability High dispersancy Low dispersancy High ash (up to 2.0%) Low ash API CH-4 VTW soot handling oxidation stability ACEA E5 deposits, VTW soot handling oxidation stability ACEA E4 piston deposits soot loading, piston temps, peak combustion pressure piston cleanliness, oil drain interval, fuel savingsEurope America
6 Evolution of Formulations Oil Performance in Field Evolution of engine oil make-up to meet new emissions –Is there a benefit to the operator? Improved wear protection for CI-4 oil versus CH-4 oil
7 The Future : Low Emission Timeline Euro 3 Euro 4Euro 5 Tax Incentives For Euro 4/5 (Germany) US 2007 Implementation Euro 6 Low sulphur fuel required Drive towards low S basestocks
8 European After-treatment choices For Euro IV –SCR only will be the preferred choice –Fuel economy (+), no oil sensitivity (+), infastructure (-), NH3 slip (-) –EGR + DPF is also a likely option –Fuel economy (-), TBN maintenance (?), reduced drain (?) –DPF will be used where necessary ; urban fleets, city buses For Euro V –If limits allow, approach will be the same as Euro IV –If limits change then SCR and DPF will be required Proposed European HDEO specifications for 2005 : Proposed SpecACEA E6ACEA E7 Sulphated ash<1 % Phosphorous<0.08% Sulphur<0.3% OtherACEA E4 performanceACEA E5 performance
9 Effect of low sulphur diesel on lubricant TBN Less stress on lubricant with low sulphur fuel Mileage accumulation (miles) mgKOH/g Oil drain intervals can be maintained High sulphur = 6000 ppm S Low sulphur = 50 ppm S
10 Can we improve exhaust after treatment compatibility and emissions with the lubricant…………..
11 SCR Particulate Size vs Number 12 litre bus engine with SCR after-treatment system –Calibrated to Euro V NOx emissions level (<2 g/ kWh) No lubricant effect on particulate emissions post SCR Matrix of oils A to I Varying ash level Varying baseoil Gp
12 Ash accumulation in DPF 12.7 litre HD engine with CRT 200h max power, max speed Weight of trap deposits corresponds to s-ash of the oil Trials in progress to evaluate impact on DPF life in field
13 Ash Sensitivity of DPF Electron Dispersive Spectroscopy analysis of deposits on trap face Ratios of ash speciation correlate to fresh oil components
14 Euro IV will require reduction in ash, P, S. May result in Reduced Drain intervals Increase in synthetic oils to improve volatility and oxidation stability and reduce sulphur Challenge to satisfy conflicting requirements of EGR + DPF Closing Thoughts Until 2007, engine technology different in each market Market dedicated HD engine oil development Post 2007, harmonisation of emission legislation Market differences reduce EO development driven by individual OEM strategies Opportunity for truly global HDEO specification?