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Rock Hill School District 3 Rock Hill, South Carolina

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1 Rock Hill School District 3 Rock Hill, South Carolina
Co-Teaching The Short Course Dr. Wendy Fetner Dover Rock Hill School District 3 Rock Hill, South Carolina You can copy the materials associated with this co-teaching workshop, but do not post it on the internet or make it available electronically. If you want to share the materials or PowerPoint, you will need written permission from Wendy Fetner Dover. You will need the DVD or VHS of Power of 2 by Marilyn Friend. You can order it from NPR, Inc. at or google it, you’ll find it!

2 I’ve Been in Your Shoes… Co-Teaching: Where do we start?
Come up with an opening story that acknowledges how difficult this is, how little structure or direction co-teaching teams have been given, or a personal experience

3 Video Clip – (Shared Beliefs)
A Match Made Where? Co-teaching is really all about teaming. Whether you and your partner(s) Chose to work together (a love match), Schedules threw you together (marriage of convenience) Or were told you would work together (an arranged marriage), You are on the same team. Teams are made of individuals, and that’s what makes is SO very interesting! Video Clip – (Shared Beliefs) We come to co-teaching in a variety of ways. Research stated that the best way is with a sense of volunteerism, but most often, we didn’t volunteer – we were assigned or told. Working together effectively often means finding some common ground as a starting point. Regardless of how co-teaching teams came to be partnered, it’s important that some shared beliefs be discovered – as the foundation of the partnership. Video Clip 4:45 minutes

4 Video Clip – (Prerequisite Skills)
Making a Good Match General Educators – Develop a “Dream List” that answers the question… “What would you like most from a special education co-teacher and an administrator”? Special Educators and Administrators – What skills, abilities, and materials do you have to offer? (a dowry, so to say!) Video Clip – (Prerequisite Skills) Have them write responses on a note card individually. I use one color for SpEds and a different color for GenEds. Give them about 1-2 minutes. Then, have them get up, move around and find some one with a different color card to trade answers with. If participants are attending in teaching teams, have the team members trade responses. 7 minute Video clip

5 Co-Teaching Today’s Agenda
A Review of Co-teaching Basics Roles and Responsibilities Instructional Arrangements Getting Organized: Team Processes

6 So,Why Co-teach? (k-8) Most popular model of inclusion
Least Restrictive Environment and continuum of services (IDEA-04) Content instruction by content specialists and highly qualified teachers (NCLB-01) No more off grade level PACT Testing Only 2% allowed to take PACT ALT Resource and self-contained models of pull-out for content instruction less workable or justifiable It’s just a good instructional practice – if it’s done right! Use either slide 6 (for k-8/PACT) or slide 7 (for secondary) – the info is slightly different.

7 Tell Me Again Why We Are Doing This! (secondary)
Most popular model of inclusion Least Restrictive Environment and continuum of services (IDEA-04) Content instruction by content specialists and highly qualified teachers (NCLB-01) Resource and self-contained models of pull-out for course credit is not an option Highly qualified special ed. teachers at secondary level – exemption if they assist and support It’s just a good instructional practice – if it’s done right! Use either slide 6 (for k-8/PACT) or slide 7 (for secondary) – the info is slightly different.

8 There’s More Than One Way…
Collaborative Planning Systems of Information Sharing and Consultation Resource Room Support (pull-out, “as needed”, etc.) Coaching and Modeling Staff development Peer tutoring/buddy system Cooperative Learning Student Improvement Teams Instructional Assistants Accommodations and Modification Differentiated Instruction Co-teaching Co-teaching is not the only way to “do inclusion”. In fact, as far as a research-based intervention, Co-teaching has been awarded a “yellow” or caution light. This doesn’t mean that it’s a poor intervention; it means that there is a lack of solid research that validates this model. The real problem seems to be that although co-teaching is widely used, it is not implemented correctly – that’s why we are here today – to see that you know what is best practices and how to implement it correctly.

9 Continuum of Inclusive Models
LESS Support Intensive Consultation Supported Instruction Co-Teaching Resource/Pull-out Co-Teaching falls in the middle of the inclusive models and is actually a rather “support intensive” model of inclusion. MORE Support Intensive

10 Consultation Consultation Model
Student support services personnel provide indirect, out-of-class support to general classroom staff. Planning Strategies Problem-solving Student information Program information Observations Resources and materials Consultation is the LEAST support intensive model.

11 “Inclusive” Classroom
Supported Instruction Co-Teaching Model Student support services personnel provide direct in-class support to students as they participate in the general education classroom 2 Adults in the room Idividual accountability Exchange of information Collaborative planning Shared instruction Both engaged in instruction Progress monitoring Constructive feedback Inclusive models – supported instruction and co-teaching - intensify the support by bringing the special education teacher or assistant into the general classroom. Yes, assistants can support instruction in the general classroom, but they can’t really co-teach. We’ll look at this in more depth later.

12 Pull-Out Pull-out Model
Student support services personnel provide direct instruction, support. Or modifications to student with special needs outside the general classroom. Resource Class IEP skill development Limited academic support, enrichment and acceleration Self-contained Class Functional curriculum Curricular modifications Limited academic support Pull-out is the most support intensive model we have and most often take place in the resource classroom or special setting/ self-contained classroom. The trend seems to be to use pull-out to provide direct instruction in reading, writing and math and providing academic support for other content areas subjects as appropriate.

13 The Difference Between Co-teaching and Supporting
Certified teachers or therapists only GenEd teacher and SpEd teacher plan together Regular and scheduled planning Both teachers come prepared Format for planning Shared Instruction Active engagement throughout instructional time Use of a definable instructional arrangement More of an equal partnership Supported Instruction May be 2 certified teachers/ therapists OR a certified teacher/ therapist and an assistant Less planning or ongoing communication may be evident Special Ed. personnel obviously in assisting role General education has primary responsible for instruction and direction Teach and Support/Assist is prevailing instructional arrangement Less of an equal partnership If you aren’t planning together, you are not co-teaching!

14 Video Clip – (Co-Teaching Defined)
Sooooo, … exactly what are we talking about? Video Clip – (Co-Teaching Defined) 2.45 minute video clip – Power of 2

15 To Recap - Co-teaching is (Friend & Cook, 2000)
Planning and delivering instruction collaboratively Through a blend of direct and indirect support and services In a subject content area To students with diverse needs Primarily in a single general classroom setting. To restate the points in the video…

16 From the Literature… This approach increases instructional options, improves educational programs, reduces stigmatization for students, and provides support to the professionals involved. (Cook & Friend, 1995) Teachers share the planning, presentation, evaluation, and classroom management in an effort to enhance the learning environment for all students. In this way, the teachers can provide more integrated service for all students, regardless of their learning needs.” (Gately & Gately, 2001) Increase instructional options, improves programs, reduces stigma, and support the teachers. Key point – the Special Needs personnel can work with ALL students, and not be limited to working only with students with special needs.

17 Key Components of Successful Co-Teaching
Defined roles and responsibilities Varied instructional arrangements Starting with a plan and commitment to ongoing co-planning Formal information sharing Administrative understanding and support Appropriate levels of modification

18 Our Plans for the Future…
SHOULD SHOULD NOT Have participants work in pairs or groups of 3-4, to define a SCHOOL-WIDE list of what co-teaching should/should not be. This is like STEP 1 in laying the groundwork for co-teaching partners. Give the pairs or groups 5-7 minutes to write down at least 3 ideas for each. If teams have trouble getting started, you may want to provide an example – Co-Teaching is not dumping kids with special needs in the general classroom without support. Have the pairs or groups share in round robin fashion while the facilitator writes/types them until a workshop list is developed. They can be refined later, typed, and given to all participants. This should be reviewed at the end of each semester and updated as necessary. There is an example from Seneca High School included.

19 Co-Teaching at Castle Heights Middle School …
SHOULD be collaborative – “we” do it Planned schedule and student placements (hand schedule SpEd students first and keep a workable balance) Be student need driven Use strengths of each teacher Include differentiated instruction Actively involve both teachers in classroom tasks (grading, instructing, etc.) Include planning for partnershhip prior to school starting Be the standard model for identified “at risk”course SHOULD NOT Be an extra planning period for either teacher Make the SpEd teacher “assist only” Relegate one teacher to the side lines Be hastily planned Become a pull-out model Be referred to as “your” students and “my” students Here is what the literature says. Do you want to change what you’ve done?

20 Co-Teaching Today’s Agenda
A Review of Co-teaching Basics Roles and Responsibilities Instructional Arrangements Getting Organized: Team Processes

21 Inclusion I do! YOU do! WE do!
The “Co” in Co-teaching means “collaborative” and synonyms for collaborative include joint, two-way, mutual, and shared. Roles and responsibilities or expectations in co-teaching partnerships need to be clearly defined so there is no “guessing” or “assuming” what the other person is/should be doing.

22 Let’s Start with “WE” Do!
That thing we do together! Video Clip – (Collaboration)

23 Co-Teaching is a Blend of..
Direct Service The Special Education teacher DOES work directly with students in a general or special setting. Indirect Service The Special Education teacher does not work with the students, but with the teachers and staff who provide the direct instruction. Special education students gained access to the regular classroom and the regular curriculum and we found out that general education teachers really know there stuff and do a good job of teaching the general curriculum! Special Education teachers found they had to start talking to teachers and start placing their students all around the school! We develop great direct services but had to also provide indirect services.

24 Co-Teaching is a Blending of Direct and Indirect
Supported Instruction Shared Instruction/ Co-Teaching Full-time Part-time Flex-time Academic Support (pull-out) Indirect Co-planning Sharing student information Observations Problem Solving Collaboration (providing ideas for modifications, accommodations, strategies) Behavior Interventions Itinerant Support to Students Accommodation and Modification Development and Support We know what the direct services are, but how familiar are you with indirect – Really, really doing and providing sound indirect services. Indirect can be operationalized.

25 So, How Does this Translate into Teacher Roles and Responsibilities?
Overall Program Roles - Basic INCLUSIVE Responsibilities and Tasks

26 Roles & Responsibilities for Inclusion
Classroom Teacher’s Role: To plan, coordinate, schedule, and evaluate curriculum and instructional outcomes within a secure, positive, and enriched inclusive classroom environment. Special Educator’s Role: To provide instruction and support which facilitate the participation of students with disabilities in general education classroom

27 General Education Teacher Special Education Teacher
Job Titles May Help General Education Teacher Classroom Teacher Content Specialist Instructional Leader “Chief Cook” Co-Teacher Special Education Teacher Consultant Strategist Resource Specialist Coach Case Manager Collaborator Co-Teacher

28 It’s Best to Make it Clear
Let’s define a written list of school-wide guidelines for the overall roles and responsibilities of General Education Teachers and Special Education Teachers. For each list… Circle the number of the items you want to keep Mark out the number of the items you want to delete Write in any changes Add items you want to include The goal here is to develop a SCHOOL list. I would STRONGLY URGE the “pre” development of a list to present to cut down on discussion and disagreement – make this list look as close to what you want BEFORE you present it to the participants. It also seems to work best if the workshop facilitator leads the workshop participants through each item, one at a time noting changes, deletions, and additions. Takes time, but very hard to do in small groups and then combine. I have had small groups work on this, but each small group represented a different school building. The facilitator should make notes while brief discussions are held on each one, then retype later.

29 These Lists are Useful ---- HOW?
If we are NOT talking about co-teaching specifically, how can I/teams of teachers – use these lists? What can you do with your list? They always have ideas – most teachers are grateful to have these basic responsibilities and expectations written down. Both lists SHOULD be reviewed at the end of each semester and prior to starting a new year/semester of co-teaching.

30 Co-Teaching Today’s Agenda
A Review of Co-teaching Basics Roles and Responsibilities Instructional Arrangements Getting Organized: Team Processes

31 VIDEO CLIP - Co-Teaching Arrangement Examples
One teach, one observe Station teaching Parallel teaching Alternative teaching Teaming One teach, one assist 27 minute clip One-page handout provides a definition of each of the 6 co-teaching arrangements, the 2-page handout provides a summary of much of the information from the video about each co-teaching arrangement. Encourage the workshop participants to make notes of information and ideas while watching.

32 Worth Talking About Which approach or approaches do you use most often? Which approach seems most appealing? How could you and your co-teacher apply these arrangement in your current partnership? Tag Team Teaching Ideas (handout) The video should provide a great deal of useful images and ideas for co-teaching teams. This slide provides discussion points for the group or pair/shares to follow-up the clip. I’ve found that some people need MORE specifics, so the handout – Tag Team Teaching Ideas – is about as specific as you can get!

33 Co-Teaching Today’s Agenda
A Review of Co-teaching Basics Roles and Responsibilities Instructional Arrangements Getting Organized: Team Processes

34 Getting On Paper – Initial or Clarifying Planning
Co-Teaching Considerations Content Orientation Collaboration Plans Introductions Co-teaching Tasks and Responsibilities Substitute Plans Room Set-up Student Considerations Feedback Co-Teaching Plan I strongly suggest each individual team go through the 3 pages of the Co-Teaching Considerations and generate written responses. For accountability, the teams could be required to turn in a copy of the Co-Teaching Considerations OR summarize the information by completing and turning in a Co-Teaching Plan.

35 On-Going Planning You HAVE to plan – so schedule it and show up prepared! Gen. Ed. – instructional plans and materials Special Ed. – target student names and supplemental material You need a planning format Planning Ahead Form Co-Teaching Lesson Plan Book (Dieker, 2002) Calendar Plan book Notebook

36 Barrier Issues You’ve Got to Find a Way Around!
Grading Scheduling Planning Time Another Barrier to effective co-teaching is communication.

37 Finally, Tips for Inclusive Settings
Be aware of the target students and consider individual IEP needs in planning Keep special needs student ratio about 1/3 to 1/4 Don’t always group the students with special needs together or seat them in one special spot Schedule consultation or joint planning time. Make sure all the adults are aware of who the target students are It’s helpful if general ed. teachers, special ed. teachers and administrators get the same training (or at least understanding) of inclusive classrooms and how they should operate. Schedule appropriate and joint planning time. Start with small meetings and grow. Everyone needs to brush up on basic communication and “people” skills DEFINE ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES of both teachers and put it in writing Take individual student needs/IEP requirements into consideration It’s best to keep student ratio about 1/3 to 1/4 students with special needs Know student modifications & learning styles to incorporate in lessons and lesson planning In small group instruction, don’t always group the students with special needs together or seat them in one special spot in the room

38 Finally, Tips for Inclusive Settings
Make sure both teachers have the same “understanding” of things Get trained together Fill out these forms together! Brush up on basic communication and “people” skills Incorporate strategies and techniques that have a sound research base.

39 Finally, Tips for Inclusive Settings
WRITE DOWN personnel roles and responsibilities Review your co-teaching considerations and/or co-teaching plan a month after it’s first developed, then at the end of each semester Make changes only at natural breaks, like the end of a semester

40 Wow – We Are Almost Done! What is the first thing you want to do to begin or strengthen your co-teaching partnership?

41 Your TO-DO list Develop a school list for Inclusion IS/IS NOT
Clarify inclusive roles and responsibilities for SpEd and GenEd teachers EACH Co-Teaching pairs MUST complete Co-Teaching Considerations sheets Co-Teaching Plan Schedule a regular planning time Decide on a planning format Review the Co-Teaching Approaches weekly Define your administrative support needs You will want to change this or personalize this, but I’ve found they like to leave with an assignment.

42 Follow-up Topics/Handouts
Modification Basics Getting Along (Personality and Communication Issues) Problematic Situation Supervising an Assistant in Inclusive Settings These are just “starters”. Each topic could be developed into a full workshop! These are quick and dirty ideas for follow-up meetings. Follow-up meetings kind of run themselves with participants asking loads of questions and sharing what has worked and what hasn’t worked. Even with the questions they bring, I like to have some structure to follow-up meetings and some new info they can leave with.

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