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Events Leading to the Civil War. Sectionalism Differences NORTHEASTSOUTHWEST EconomyBusiness and manufacturing Cotton-growingFrontier and agriculture.

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Presentation on theme: "Events Leading to the Civil War. Sectionalism Differences NORTHEASTSOUTHWEST EconomyBusiness and manufacturing Cotton-growingFrontier and agriculture."— Presentation transcript:

1 Events Leading to the Civil War

2 Sectionalism Differences NORTHEASTSOUTHWEST EconomyBusiness and manufacturing Cotton-growingFrontier and agriculture Role of Government  Wanted tariffs  Backed internal improvements  Wanted end to cheap public land  Increasingly nationalistic  Opposed government spending  Increasingly supportive of states’ rights  Wanted federal government to sponsor internal improvements and cheap labor

3 Factors Contributing to Sectionalism * different economic systems * States’ Rights / Slavery * Tariffs of 1828 and 1832 * Manifest Destiny * Industrial Revolution Sectionalism

4 Reform Movements Cause: - Evangelist / 2 nd Great Awakening - no longer pre destiny - actions matter - churches split Effects: - more conscience - Christianity to slaves - slaves viewed message as promise of freedom - Black churches develop - 1 st black national convention Religion p. 240

5 Reform Movements Cause: - no uniform policy - school conditions varied - almost no attendance laws - classes not divided by grades Effects: - tax support for schools - public funding for elementary - increase in public school attendance - teacher training Schools p. 244 Mainly in the NE

6 Reform Movements Cause: - more working outside home - lower wages - no voting rights - could not sit on jury - possessions went to husband Effects: - Rallies/ Organized groups - worked for reform movements - Temperance movement - Seneca Falls convention - more schools open for women Women p. 254

7 Reform Movements Cause: - opening of more factories - new technology - new machines - need for more labor force Effects: - more job opportunities/ unskilled - increase in production - immigrants & women in jobs - development of unions - regular hours & pay Work-place p. 259

8 How do they relate ?? How does sectionalism relate to the Civil War? How does the reform movement relate to the Civil War? Economic differences, Cultural differences, the West expanded …all these caused more tension between the N & S As the country developed and we saw needs for change/reform… slavery became a bigger issue

9 Events that Led to the Civil War 1. Sectional differences 2. Abolitionist Movement 3. Doctrine of Nullification 4. Missouri Compromise 5. Wilmot Proviso 6. Compromise of 1850 7. Kansas – Nebraska Act 8. Bleeding Kansas 9. Lincoln – Douglas Debate 10. Election of 1860 www.coachgreer.com/Road_ To_Civil_War_Timeline.htm

10 Causes for the Abolition Movement: Causes for the Abolition Movement: Quakers - challenged slavery on religious grounds Great Awakening Ministers - believed morally wrong; actions matter Women - played a big role as reformers - understood being treated unfairly Westward expansion - new territories kept slave issue in focus

11 Abolitionist Movement Abolitionist Movement Began in the 1830 – 40’s Immediatists - wanted emancipation now - favored violence or force - more effective for public attention Moderates - emancipation slow and gradual - nonviolent tactics - methods would win more public support 4 min

12 Opposition to Abolition: - Many Northerners were racist - Southerners defense * economic reasons * Antebellum South/ part of culture * slaves not able to care for themselves - Federal gov’t using the Gag Rule (p.253) * South refused to debate Opposition to Abolition: - Many Northerners were racist - Southerners defense * economic reasons * Antebellum South/ part of culture * slaves not able to care for themselves - Federal gov’t using the Gag Rule (p.253) * South refused to debate * adopted by Congress * could not discuss slavery issue

13 Reform Movements Cause: - religious beliefs - reformers protesting - publishing magazines - women’s movement Effects: - Gag rule - revolts - states’ rights Abolition p. 248

14 Impact of Uncle Tom’s Cabin Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe Wakes people to the horrors of slavery sold Millions When Lincoln meets Stowe, he says "So you're the little woman who wrote the book that made this great war!" Impact: help to add fuel to the burning desire to see slavery abolished

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16 Antislavery ActionsProslavery Action

17 Antislavery ActionsProslavery Action Published The LiberatorDefeat of VA motion for abolition North StarTighter slave regulations Formed antislavery society 1836 Gag rule Nat Turner’s rebellionS. Congress refuse to debate Underground railroadFugitive Slave Act p. 248-253

18 Free Northern BlacksSlaves in South

19 Free Northern BlacksSlaves in South Racism / fearLabor in fields Least desirable jobsWork in owners home Low paySome skilled jobs in factories Joined abolitionist movement Wages went to owners Basic needs provided Value as property

20 Journal – Nat Turner Hero or Madman??? Read in your textbook p. 252 about the Nat Turner Rebellion Based, on what you read, what kind of person do you think Nat Turner was?

21 Nat Turner Timeline 1831 Rebellion begins with Nat and his men Aug. 22Aug. 23Oct. 30 Nov. 11 Nov. 5 Nov. 1-2 Nat’s army dissembles after killing 55 white me, women, children. Nat disappears Nat is captured after 70 days Thomas Gray visits Nat and compiles The Confession of Nat Turner Nat is hanged At trial, Nat pleads his innocence but is found guilty and an insurgent and is sentences to be hanged Dies at noon

22 Journal – Harriet Tubman Painting 1.What are the objects in the painting? 2. What is the mood, or atmosphere of the painting? the painting? 3. What details help create the mood? 4. How important are the stars, especially the North Star, in the painting? Explain the North Star, in the painting? Explain 5. Why might the snake be a good symbol for the evils of slavery?

23 No. 10 Harriet Tubman Series Created by: Jacob Lawrence

24 Westward Expansion Issues Missouri Compromise 1820 Wilmot Proviso 1846 Compromise of 1850 Kansas - Nebraska Act 1854 Bleeding Kansas 1854-55

25 Missouri Compromise - 1820 Balance of power ~ 11 free and 11 slave states Missouri applied for statehood ~ would cause unbalance ~ South expected to be slave Missouri enters – slave Maine enter – free Rest of the LA territory be divided at 36 30' N latitude line (set by Congress) ~ Above free, below slave p. 222

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29 Missouri Compromise Antebellum South Industrial North Westward settlement

30 Doctrine of Nullification John C. Calhoun John C. Calhoun 1832 1832 sovereign states had agreed to sovereign states had agreed to accept the Constitution accept the Constitution they could nullify anything they did they could nullify anything they did not agree with inside the state not agree with inside the state keep South from leaving the Union keep South from leaving the Union States’ Rights used for justification States’ Rights used for justification (p. 322-323) (p. 322-323)

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32 Wilmot Proviso - 1846 Propose: 1. territory from MX war remain “free soil” 2. California - free state 3. UT & NM terr. - closed to slavery North North South South Effect:Effect: p. 306 & Reading guide favored against (would unbalance Congress to favor N) Congress to favor N) South threatened to secede from Union

33 Compromise of 1850 - proposed by Henry Clay to Congress - hopes of satisfying the south 4 provisions: 1. CA admitted as a free state 2. UT & NM territories could choose (Free or Slave) - Clay reintroduced popular sovereignty 3. Slave trade would be abolished in D.C. 4. Stricter Fugitive slave laws Who does this compromise tend to favor p. 307 Why?

34 Kansas – Nebraska Act 1854 - divided NE territory into 2 states - initial purpose: create opportunities for a Transcontinental RR - KS & NE should be free (north of the 36’ 30 line) - Passing repeals the Missouri Compromise popular sovereignty - will established popular sovereignty (states right to choose) - President Pierce signed the K-N bill into law.

35 How do the Compromise and the K-N Acts affect the popular sovereignty choice?

36 Bleeding Kansas 1854-55 groups sent people to Kansas to vote and fight for the cause. Missourians crossed the border with rifles to stuff the ballots in favor of slavery John Brown, an abolitionist went to Kansas (sent by God to stop the slavery) * He and his men killed many p. 316

37 Bleeding Kansas…cont. For Kansas the Civil War began in 1855 Voting caused the battle to begin Kansas was a battlefield over slavery Bleeding Kansas widened the gap between the N & S Kansas enters as..FREE

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39 John Brown depicted in a mural titled, "Tragic Prelude" by John Steuart Curray. On display in the Kansas State Capitol in Topeka.

40 Political Split By late 1850…discontent … political landscape changing Northern Whigs, anti-slave Democrats, & free-soilers formed the Republican Party - Opposed expansion of slavery - Party had strength due to diversity - united only on slave issue p. 320

41 Journal - Dred Scott Case Read p. 332 – Supreme Court decision 1.What position did Taney’s opinion take? 2.Why did Taney’s opinion matter legally? 3.Why did Taney’s opinion matter politically? 4. What is the Historical impact of Taney’s Supreme Court decision and the 13 th Amendment? 5. How did the DS decision influence American history? 6. How is this an example of Federalism?

42 Dred Scott Case 1857 Dred Scott was a slave in Missouri Owner took him into IL and WI (free terr.) 4 years later returned to MO Scott sued for his freedom (had lived in a free territory) * Vital questions for Supreme Court 1. Could Scott sue – Was he a citizen of the U.S.? 2. Was slavery a state issue – did being in a free state make him free?

43 Dred Scott Case - continued Legal Importance expanded the reach of slavery by declaring it property Political Importance increased sectional tension Historical Impact Supreme Court decision was cancelled out when 13 th & 14 th amendments passed Example of… Checks and Balance

44 Lincoln-Douglas Debate * Candidates / 1858 IL senator election > Democrats - Stephen Douglas > Republicans - Abe Lincoln - Douglas defended popular sovereignty (not slavery) but protecting democracy - Lincoln was anti-slavery * Douglas won the election ~ lost support of southern states * Lincoln (unknown) became well known after the debate p. 326

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46 John Brown’s Raid - 1859 Harper’s Ferry, VA Brown received financial backing from Northern abolitionist Goal to seize weapons, distribute to slave, start an uprising Brown was captured Hanged for treason Viewed as a martyr, terrorist p. 327

47 p. 328 John Brown going to his hanging by Horace Pippin

48 Election of 1860 * Four candidates running for President > N. Democrats - Stephen Douglas > S. Democrats - John Breckinridge > Republicans - Abe Lincoln > Constitutional Union Party - John Bell * Republicans platform - limit extension of slavery Lincoln ---------- Bell ----------- Douglas --------- Breckinridge (Rep.) (moderates) (Democ.)

49 Election of 1860 http://edsit ement.neh.gov/spotli ght.asp?id =138

50 Secession - Southern radicals saw no alternatives but to secede - Believed secession would be peaceful - It would unify the South - SC led the way in secession states rights * justified based on states rights (said voluntarily joined, voluntary leave)

51 Secession - continued - Within eight weeks MS, FL, AL, GA, LA, and TX voted to secede (deep south) * a new nation established * Confederate States of America - Jefferson Davis – President - Alexander Stephens – VP

52 Secession - continued - South left the union before Lincoln’s inauguration * Lincoln’s stand: 1. would not interfere w/ slavery where it existed 2. slavery would not be extended 3. no state could lawfully withdraw from the union 4. did not want to provoke war

53 EOC Workbook Pages 76 (1,2) 77 (5) 84 (1,2,3) 85 (1,2) Read States’ Rights and Nullification on p. 79/80

54 Link and Learn Pages 4 (Harriet B. Stowe) 10 (Bleeding Kansas) 13 (Dred Scott case) 14 (Liberator newspaper) 15 (Parties 1850’ 1860’s) 18 (Dred Scott) 32 (Dred Scott v. Sandford, Secession, Pop. Sovern)

55 Review Questions Who would have favored the Kansas- Nebraska Act? WHY? Popular Sovereignty is a term that reflects which concept? How have the compromises truly affected the slave territory issue?


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