2 Sectionalism Differences NORTHEASTSOUTHWESTEconomyBusiness and manufacturingCotton-growingFrontier and agricultureRoleof GovernmentWanted tariffsBacked internal improvementsWanted end to cheap public landIncreasingly nationalisticOpposed government spendingIncreasingly supportive of states’ rightsWanted federal government to sponsor internal improvements and cheap labor
3 SectionalismFactors Contributing to Sectionalism * different economic systems * States’ Rights / Slavery * Tariffs of 1828 and * Manifest Destiny * Industrial Revolution
4 Reform Movements p. 240 Cause: - Evangelist / 2nd Great Awakening - no longer pre destiny- actions matter- churches splitEffects:- more conscience- Christianity to slaves- slaves viewed message aspromise of freedom- Black churches develop- 1st black national conventionReligionp. 240
5 Reform Movements p. 244 Mainly in the NE Cause: - no uniform policy - school conditions varied- almost no attendance laws- classes not divided by gradesEffects:- tax support for schools- public funding for elementary- increase in public schoolattendance- teacher trainingSchoolsMainly in the NEp. 244
6 Reform Movements p. 254 Cause: - more working outside home Effects: - lower wages- no voting rights- could not sit on jury- possessions went to husbandEffects:- Rallies/ Organized groups- worked for reform movements- Temperance movement- Seneca Falls convention- more schools open for womenWomenp. 254
7 Reform Movements p. 259 Cause: - opening of more factories Effects: - new technology- new machines- need for more labor forceEffects:- more job opportunities/ unskilled- increase in production- immigrants & women in jobs- development of unions- regular hours & payWork-placep. 259
8 How do they relate ?? How does sectionalism relate to the Civil War? How does the reform movement relate to the Civil War?Economic differences, Cultural differences , the West expanded …all these caused more tension between the N & SAs the country developed and we saw needs for change/reform… slavery became a bigger issue
9 Events that Led to the Civil War 1. Sectional differences 2 Events that Led to the Civil War 1. Sectional differences 2. Abolitionist Movement 3. Doctrine of Nullification 4. Missouri Compromise 5. Wilmot Proviso 6. Compromise of Kansas – Nebraska Act 8. Bleeding Kansas 9. Lincoln – Douglas Debate 10. Election of 1860
10 Causes for the Abolition Movement: Quakers challenged slavery on religious grounds Great Awakening Ministers believed morally wrong; actions matter Women played a big role as reformers - understood being treated unfairly Westward expansion - new territories kept slave issue in focus
11 Abolitionist Movement Began in the 1830 – 40’s Immediatists - wanted emancipation now - favored violence or force - more effective for public attention Moderates - emancipation slow and gradual - nonviolent tactics - methods would win more public support4 min
12 Opposition to Abolition: - Many Northerners were racist - Southerners defense * economic reasons * Antebellum South/ part of culture * slaves not able to care for themselves - Federal gov’t using the Gag Rule (p.253) * South refused to debate * adopted by Congress * could not discuss slavery issue
14 Impact of Uncle Tom’s Cabin Written by Harriet Beecher StoweWakes people to the horrors of slaverysold MillionsWhen Lincoln meets Stowe, he says "Soyou're the little woman who wrote thebook that made this great war!"Impact: help to add fuel to the burning desire to see slavery abolished
17 Antislavery Actions Proslavery Action Published The LiberatorDefeat of VA motionfor abolitionNorth StarTighter slave regulationsFormed antislavery society1836 Gag ruleNat Turner’s rebellionS. Congress refuse to debateUnderground railroadFugitive Slave Actp
19 Free Northern Blacks Slaves in South Racism / fearLabor in fieldsLeast desirable jobsWork in owners homeLow paySome skilled jobs in factoriesJoined abolitionist movementWages went to ownersBasic needs providedValue as property
20 Journal – Nat Turner Hero or Madman??? Read in your textbook p. 252 about the Nat Turner Rebellion Based, on what you read, what kind of person do you think Nat Turner was?
21 Nat Turner Timeline 1831 Aug. 22 Aug. 23 Oct. 30 Nov. 1-2 Nov. 5 Nat’s army dissembles after killing 55 white me, women, children. Nat disappearsNat is captured after 70 daysRebellion begins with Nat and his menNov. 1-2Nov. 5Nov. 11Thomas Gray visits Nat and compilesThe Confession of Nat TurnerAt trial, Nat pleads his innocence but is found guilty and an insurgent and is sentences to be hangedNat is hangedDies at noon
22 Journal – Harriet Tubman Painting What are the objects in the painting?2. What is the mood, or atmosphere ofthe painting?3. What details help create the mood?4. How important are the stars, especiallythe North Star, in the painting? Explain5. Why might the snake be a good symbol for the evils of slavery?
23 No. 10Harriet Tubman SeriesCreated by:Jacob Lawrence
25 Missouri Compromise - 1820 Balance of power ~ 11 free and 11 slave statesMissouri applied for statehood~ would cause unbalance~ South expected to be slaveMissouri enters – slaveMaine enter – freeRest of the LA territory be divided at36 30' N latitude line (set by Congress)~ Above free, below slavep. 222
29 Missouri Compromise Westward settlement Industrial North Antebellum South
30 Doctrine of Nullification John C. Calhoun1832sovereign states had agreed toaccept the Constitutionthey could nullify anything they didnot agree with inside the statekeep South from leaving the UnionStates’ Rights used for justification(p )
32 Wilmot Proviso - 1846 Propose: North South Effect: favored 1. territory from MX war remain “free soil”2. California - free state3. UT & NM terr. - closed to slaveryNorthSouthEffect:favoredagainst (would unbalanceCongress to favor N)South threatened to secede from Unionp. 306 & Reading guide
33 Compromise of 1850 Why? Who does this compromise tend to favor p. 307 - proposed by Henry Clay to Congress- hopes of satisfying the south4 provisions:1. CA admitted as a free state2. UT & NM territories could choose (Free or Slave)- Clay reintroduced popular sovereignty3. Slave trade would be abolished in D.C.4. Stricter Fugitive slave lawsWho does this compromise tend to favorWhy?p. 307
34 Kansas – Nebraska Act 1854 - divided NE territory into 2 states - initial purpose: create opportunities for aTranscontinental RR- KS & NE should be free (north of the 36’ 30 line)- Passing repeals the Missouri Compromise- will established popular sovereignty(states right to choose)- President Pierce signed the K-N bill into law.
35 How do the Compromise and the K-N Acts affect the popular sovereignty choice?
36 Bleeding Kansasgroups sent people to Kansas to vote andfight for the cause.Missourians crossed the border with riflesto stuff the ballots in favor of slaveryJohn Brown, an abolitionist went to Kansas(sent by God to stop the slavery)* He and his men killed manyp. 316
37 Bleeding Kansas…cont. Kansas enters as.. FREE For Kansas the Civil War began in 1855Voting caused the battleto beginKansas was a battlefieldover slaveryBleeding Kansas widenedthe gap between the N & SKansas enters as..FREE
39 John Brown depicted in a mural titled, "Tragic Prelude" by John Steuart Curray. On display in the Kansas State Capitol in Topeka.
40 Political Split - united only on slave issue p. 320 By late 1850…discontent … political landscape changingNorthern Whigs, anti-slave Democrats, & free-soilers formed the Republican Party- Opposed expansion of slavery- Party had strength due to diversity- united only on slave issuep. 320
41 Journal - Dred Scott Case Read p. 332 – Supreme Court decisionWhat position did Taney’s opinion take?Why did Taney’s opinion matter legally?Why did Taney’s opinion matter politically?4. What is the Historical impact of Taney’s Supreme Court decision and the 13th Amendment?5. How did the DS decision influence American history?6. How is this an example of Federalism?
42 Dred Scott Case 1857 Dred Scott was a slave in Missouri Owner took him into IL and WI (free terr.)4 years later returned to MOScott sued for his freedom(had lived in a free territory)* Vital questions for Supreme Court1. Could Scott sue – Was he a citizen ofthe U.S.?2. Was slavery a state issue – did being in afree state make him free?
43 Dred Scott Case - continued Legal Importanceexpanded the reach of slavery by declaringit propertyPolitical Importanceincreased sectional tensionHistorical ImpactSupreme Court decision was cancelled outwhen 13th &14th amendments passedExample of…Checks and Balance
44 Lincoln-Douglas Debate * Candidates / 1858 IL senator election> Democrats - Stephen Douglas> Republicans - Abe Lincoln- Douglas defended popular sovereignty(not slavery) but protecting democracy- Lincoln was anti-slavery* Douglas won the election~ lost support of southern states* Lincoln (unknown) became well known afterthe debatep. 326
46 John Brown’s Raid - 1859 Harper’s Ferry, VA Brown received financial backing from Northern abolitionistGoal to seize weapons, distribute to slave,start an uprisingBrown was capturedHanged for treasonViewed as a martyr , terroristp. 327
47 John Brown going to his hanging by Horace Pippinp. 328
48 Election of 1860 > N. Democrats - Stephen Douglas * Four candidates running for President> N. Democrats - Stephen Douglas> S. Democrats - John Breckinridge> Republicans - Abe Lincoln> Constitutional Union Party - John Bell* Republicans platform - limit extension of slaveryLincoln Bell Douglas Breckinridge(Rep.) (moderates) (Democ.)
50 Secession Southern radicals saw no alternatives but to secede Believed secession would be peacefulIt would unify the South- SC led the way in secession* justified based on states rights(said voluntarily joined, voluntary leave)
51 Secession - continued - Within eight weeks MS, FL, AL, GA, LA, and TX voted to secede (deep south)* a new nation established* Confederate States of America- Jefferson Davis – President- Alexander Stephens – VP
52 Secession - continued South left the union before Lincoln’s inauguration* Lincoln’s stand:1. would not interfere w/ slaverywhere it existed2. slavery would not be extended3. no state could lawfully withdrawfrom the union4. did not want to provoke war
53 EOC Workbook Pages Read States’ Rights and Nullification on p. 79/80 76 (1,2)77 (5)84 (1,2,3)85 (1,2)ReadStates’ Rights and Nullificationon p. 79/80
54 Link and Learn Pages 4 (Harriet B. Stowe) 10 (Bleeding Kansas) 13 (Dred Scott case)14 (Liberator newspaper)15 (Parties 1850’ 1860’s)18 (Dred Scott)32 (Dred Scott v. Sandford, Secession, Pop. Sovern)
55 Review Questions Who would have favored the Kansas-Nebraska Act? WHY? Popular Sovereignty is a term that reflects which concept?How have the compromises truly affected the slave territory issue?