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Presentation on theme: "CONCURRENT ENROLLMENT"— Presentation transcript:


2 CARBON Organic compound A compound that contains the element carbon
The first organic compound formed was urea from ammonium cyanate Organic chemistry is the study of carbon- containing compounds Inorganic chemistry is the study of the elements and all noncarbon compounds

3 PROPERITIES Property Organic Inorganic Compounds Compounds
Bonding Usually covalent Often ionic Intermolecular Weak Strong Forces Physical state gases, liquids or low High melting melting pt. soilds point solids Flammability Often flammable nonflammable Solubility Often low Often high Conductivity Nonconductor Conductor Rate of chemical Usually low Usually high Reactions

4 BONDING Learning checks 11.1 and 11.2 page 344
Linus Pauling showed that valence electrons form a hybrid orbital that has the same energy as 1s and 3p orbitals and is designated as sp3 Each contain a single electron in carbon that allows for four covalent bonds to form Overhead Carbon atoms also can bond with other carbons to form chains or networks

5 CONTINUE The electrons not involved in forming the chain can form bonds with other carbons or with other elements like hydrogen, oxygen or nitrogen Overhead fig Carbon atoms can form multiple bonds double or triple Isomerism A property in which two or more compounds have the same molecular formula but different arrangements of atoms



8 HYDROCARBONS An organic compound that contains ONLY carbon and hydrogen These are classified as alkanes (called the saturated hydrocarbon contains only single bonded carbons), alkenes (containing double bonded carbons), alkynes (containing triple bonded carbons), and aromatics (forming a circle of carbons) General formula CnH2n +2 You can have continuous chains or branched alkane chains Molecules are always moving this means the rotate and can have many orientations called conformations

9 ALKANE NOMENCLATURE Example 11.3 page 354
The chains are named according to the number of carbons using a latin prefix Overhead table 11.4 In branching alkanes you need to add a alkyl group before the name of the chain Table 11.5 page 357 Do examples on the board You can also exchange a hydrogen with nonalkyl groups table 11.6 page 358 Learning check page 360

10 CYCLOALKANES An alkane in which carbon atoms form a ring Overhead
Numbering occurs with the first R group

11 CONTINUE Stereoisomers
Compounds with the same structural formula but different spatial arrangements of atoms Alkanes have free rotation around carbons, but in cycloalkanes there is no free rotation. Naming has to show this Geometric isomers Molecules with restricted rotation around C-C bonds that differ in the three-dimensional arrangements of the atoms in space and not in the order of linkage of atoms Figure page 364 Cis- On the same side Tran- On opposite side Learning check page 363

12 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES Table 11.8 page 366 Homologous series
Straight-chain alkanes, only differ by a -CH2-group Figure page 366 Hydrophobic Water fearing. Part of the molecule that is insoluble in water Hydrophilic Water loving. Part of the molecule that is soluble in water

13 ALKANE REACTIONS Least reactive of all organic compounds
They do not react with strong acids or bases, most oxidizing and reducing agent will not react with alkanes These are often called paraffins- little affinity Will go through combustion reactions Most fuels are hydrocarbons


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