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CHAPTER 11 CONCURRENT ENROLLMENT. CARBON Organic compound Organic compound A compound that contains the element carbon A compound that contains the element.

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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 11 CONCURRENT ENROLLMENT. CARBON Organic compound Organic compound A compound that contains the element carbon A compound that contains the element."— Presentation transcript:

1 CHAPTER 11 CONCURRENT ENROLLMENT

2 CARBON Organic compound Organic compound A compound that contains the element carbon A compound that contains the element carbon The first organic compound formed was urea from ammonium cyanate The first organic compound formed was urea from ammonium cyanate Organic chemistry is the study of carbon- containing compounds Inorganic chemistry is the study of the elements and all noncarbon compounds

3 PROPERITIES Property Organic Inorganic C Compounds Compounds B Bonding Usually covalent Often ionic I Intermolecular Weak Strong F Forces P Physical state gases, liquids or low High melting m melting pt. soilds point solids F Flammability Often flammable nonflammable S Solubility Often low Often high C Conductivity Nonconductor Conductor R Rate of chemical Usually low Usually high eactions

4 BONDING Learning checks 11.1 and 11.2 page 344 Learning checks 11.1 and 11.2 page 344 Linus Pauling showed that valence electrons form a hybrid orbital that has the same energy as 1s and 3p orbitals and is designated as sp 3 Linus Pauling showed that valence electrons form a hybrid orbital that has the same energy as 1s and 3p orbitals and is designated as sp 3 Each contain a single electron in carbon that allows for four covalent bonds to form Each contain a single electron in carbon that allows for four covalent bonds to form Overhead Overhead Carbon atoms also can bond with other carbons to form chains or networks Carbon atoms also can bond with other carbons to form chains or networks

5 CONTINUE The electrons not involved in forming the chain can form bonds with other carbons or with other elements like hydrogen, oxygen or nitrogen The electrons not involved in forming the chain can form bonds with other carbons or with other elements like hydrogen, oxygen or nitrogen Overhead fig Overhead fig Carbon atoms can form multiple bonds double or triple Carbon atoms can form multiple bonds double or triple Isomerism Isomerism A property in which two or more compounds have the same molecular formula but different arrangements of atoms A property in which two or more compounds have the same molecular formula but different arrangements of atoms

6 EXAMPLE C 2 H 6 O C 2 H 6 O

7 EXAMPLE

8 HYDROCARBONS An organic compound that contains ONLY carbon and hydrogen An organic compound that contains ONLY carbon and hydrogen These are classified as alkanes (called the saturated hydrocarbon contains only single bonded carbons), alkenes (containing double bonded carbons), alkynes (containing triple bonded carbons), and aromatics (forming a circle of carbons) These are classified as alkanes (called the saturated hydrocarbon contains only single bonded carbons), alkenes (containing double bonded carbons), alkynes (containing triple bonded carbons), and aromatics (forming a circle of carbons) General formula C n H 2n +2 General formula C n H 2n +2 You can have continuous chains or branched alkane chains You can have continuous chains or branched alkane chains Molecules are always moving this means the rotate and can have many orientations called conformations Molecules are always moving this means the rotate and can have many orientations called conformations

9 ALKANE NOMENCLATURE Example 11.3 page 354 Example 11.3 page 354 The chains are named according to the number of carbons using a latin prefix The chains are named according to the number of carbons using a latin prefix Overhead table 11.4 Overhead table 11.4 In branching alkanes you need to add a alkyl group before the name of the chain In branching alkanes you need to add a alkyl group before the name of the chain Table 11.5 page 357 Table 11.5 page 357 Do examples on the board Do examples on the board You can also exchange a hydrogen with nonalkyl groups table 11.6 page 358 You can also exchange a hydrogen with nonalkyl groups table 11.6 page 358 Learning check page 360 Learning check page 360

10 CYCLOALKANES An alkane in which carbon atoms form a ring An alkane in which carbon atoms form a ring Overhead Overhead Numbering occurs with the first R group Numbering occurs with the first R group

11 CONTINUE Stereoisomers Stereoisomers Compounds with the same structural formula but different spatial arrangements of atoms Compounds with the same structural formula but different spatial arrangements of atoms Alkanes have free rotation around carbons, but in cycloalkanes there is no free rotation. Naming has to show this Alkanes have free rotation around carbons, but in cycloalkanes there is no free rotation. Naming has to show this Geometric isomers Geometric isomers Molecules with restricted rotation around C-C bonds that differ in the three-dimensional arrangements of the atoms in space and not in the order of linkage of atoms Molecules with restricted rotation around C-C bonds that differ in the three-dimensional arrangements of the atoms in space and not in the order of linkage of atoms Figure page 364 Figure page 364 Cis- Cis- On the same side On the same side Tran- Tran- On opposite side On opposite side Learning check page 363 Learning check page 363

12 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES Table 11.8 page 366 Table 11.8 page 366 Homologous series Homologous series Straight-chain alkanes, only differ by a -CH 2 -group Straight-chain alkanes, only differ by a -CH 2 -group Figure page 366 Figure page 366 Hydrophobic Hydrophobic Water fearing. Part of the molecule that is insoluble in water Water fearing. Part of the molecule that is insoluble in water Hydrophilic Hydrophilic Water loving. Part of the molecule that is soluble in water Water loving. Part of the molecule that is soluble in water

13 ALKANE REACTIONS Least reactive of all organic compounds Least reactive of all organic compounds They do not react with strong acids or bases, most oxidizing and reducing agent will not react with alkanes They do not react with strong acids or bases, most oxidizing and reducing agent will not react with alkanes These are often called paraffins- little affinity These are often called paraffins- little affinity Will go through combustion reactions Will go through combustion reactions Most fuels are hydrocarbons Most fuels are hydrocarbons


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