4Fugitive Slaves and the Underground Railroads Northerners sent fugitives to Canada, some use force in rescuesPersonal liberty laws in 9 northern states forbid prison for fugitives & granted them jury trialsUnderground Railroad—secret network of people who help slaves escape- Harriet Tubman escapes from slavery, becomes conductor on 19 trips- Fugitives go on foot at night, often no food, avoiding armed patrols- Some fugitives stayed in North; others went on to Canada
5Uncle Tom’s CabinHarriet Beecher Stowe wrote a book telling about the cruel treatment of a slaveCaused many Americans to begin supporting the abolitionist movementStowe pointed out that slavery was not just the south’s problem, but the nation’s problemUncle Tom’s Cabin showed slavery as moral problem, not just political
6Kansas- Nebraska ActSenator Stephen Douglas (Illinois) - wanted to build a transcontinental railroad from Chicago to California- It would have to cross the unorganized territory of the Great PlainsAct called for the creation of two new territories (Kansas and Nebraska)- Both were north of the Missouri Compromise linePopular sovereignty would decide whether they were slave or free states
7Kansas- Nebraska ActDouglas’s bill repealed Missouri Compromise; bitter debate ensuesAct passed with support of the southKansas-Nebraska Act allowed popular sovereignty on slaveryPro and anti-slavery groups rushed to Kansas to create a voting majority, leading to violence between the groups
8Bleeding KansasMay 1856 – proslavery group attacked Lawrence, burned stores and homes (several died)John Brown led antislavery group that killed 5 proslavery settlers “The Pottawatomie Massacre”Territory called Bleeding Kansas for incidents that kill some 2001861 – Kansas entered union as free state
10KANSAS NEBRASKA ACT, 1854THIS ACT OVERTURNED THE SLAVERY RESTRICTIONS OF THE MISSOURI COMPROMISE BY INTRODUCING THE CONCEPT OF POPULAR SOVEREIGNTY. THIS MEANT THAT TERRITORIES THAT WERE PREVIOUSLY RESTRICTED FROM SLAVERY COULD NOW VOTE ON WHETHER OR NOT TO BE A SLAVE STATE.
11SCOTT v. SANFORD 1857THIS SUPREME COURT DECISION STATED THAT BLACK PEOPLE, FREE OR SLAVE, COULD NOT BE CITIZENS OF THE U.S. THIS ANGERED ABOLITIONISTS, THOSE WORKING TO ABOLISH SLAVERY.DRED SCOTT, A SLAVE, HAD BEEN TAKEN BY HIS MASTER DR. EMERSON, AN ARMY SURGEON, TO A FREE STATE AND A FREE TERRITORY AND BACK TO MISSOURI, A SLAVE STATE. SCOTT AND HIS WIFE HARRIET SUED SANFORD, THE EXECUTOR OF EMERSON'S ESTATE, FOR THEIR FREEDOM ON THE BASIS OF THEIR RESIDENCE ON FREE SOIL.DRED SCOTTJUSTICE TANEY
12Dred Scott Decision 1857 – Dred Scott sued for freedom Had lived in north with his master before returning to the southSaid that made him a free man after his master’s deathSupreme Court ruled that Scott was still a slave- Congress cannot forbid slavery in territories- Also said that Congress couldn’t ban slavery- Only states couldBig victory for proslavery advocates
13JOHN BROWN’S RAID ON HARPERS FERRY JOHN BROWN ATTACKED THE FEDERAL ARSENAL AT HARPERS FERRY, VA WITH THE INTENT OF STARTING A SLAVE REVOLT. HE AND HIS FOLLOWERS WERE CAPTURED AND JOHN BROWN WAS HANGED. THIS ENFLAMED THE SOUTH AND WAS A DIRECT CAUSE OF THE CIVIL WAR."If it is deemed necessary that I should forfeit my life for the furtherance of the ends of justice, and mingle my blood further with the blood of my children, and with the blood of millions in this slave country whose rights are disregarded by wicked, cruel, and most unjust enactments, I submit: so let it be done!" (Last speech to the court at his trial, November 2, 1859)
14ELECTION OF 1860THE ELECTION OF REPUBLICAN LINCOLN, WHO RAN ON THE PROMISE OF NO MORE SLAVE STATES, PROMPTED SOUTHERNERS TO SECEDE FROM THE UNION AND FORM THEIR OWN NATION, THE CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA.
15Southern States Secede Dec – South Carolina seceded from the unionSaid it voluntarily joined the union it could voluntarily leaveOther southern states leave the union in next 6 weeks statesMississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas
16The Confederacy Established February the seceding states form a new nation (The Confederate States of America)Former senator Jefferson Davis of Mississippi unanimously elected president- Davis said that slavery was necessary for agriculture and the wants of the civilized manAlexander Stephens of Georgia was elected vice-presidentOnly 25% of the people in the south owned slavesOther 75 % fought battle to defend system because they felt it gave them an advantageover blacks
17OPENING SHOTS OF CIVIL WAR: FORT SUMTER, 1861 THE FORT LOCATED IN CHARLESTON HARBOR, SOUTH CAROLINA WAS THE UNION’S PROPERTY SO WHEN THE CONFEDERATE ARMY ATTACKED, IT WAS AN ACT OF WAR
19Other States SecedeLincoln called out the militia (northern states responded)Fall of Fort Sumter unites North; volunteers rush to enlistAngered southern statesVirginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas joined the ConfederacyRobert E. Lee became leader of the Confederate army
21Choosing Sides Border states were the key to the war North had to have Maryland to keep contact with Washington D.C.- Lincoln ordered the arrest of lawmakers who had supported the south- Federal troops helped a group of western counties break away from Virginia (West Virginia)War caused many families in the border states to spilt
22Both Sides Strengths North - Had more people - Had most of the natural resources (iron, coal, copper)- 86% of the nation’s factories in the north- Union kept almost every ship in the navy- More extensive railroad system- Lincoln’s leadershipSouth- Had better generals- cotton profits- Fighting a defensive war (more of a will to fight)
23StrategyNorth- Aimed to conquer south and bring it back into the Union- Didn’t have a strong enough army to invade the south a the beginning- Anaconda plan: Union strategy to conquer South- blockade Southern ports- divide Confederacy in two in west- capture Richmond, Confederate capitalSouth- Only wanted to stay independent- Wanted to avoid major battles (hoped the north would get tired of fighting)- Invade North if opportunity arose- Beginning of the war south withheld cotton from Europe (hoped Europe would help south due to their need for cotton (BIG MISTAKE)- Europe found other places to get cotton
24Battle of Antietam Union army found a copy of Lee’s battle plans Bloodiest single-day battle of the war- 23,000 men died (more than the war of 1812 & war with Mexico combined)Ended in a draw- Confederates retreat- McClellan does not pursue- Lincoln fired McClellanConsidered a political victory for the north- Caused Europe to delay plans to help the south
25ANTIETAM BATTLE MAPCONFEDERATE GENERAL ROBERT E. LEE PLANNED TO INVADE THE NORTH THROUGH MARYLAND FOR SUPPLIES. A MAP WAS FOUND BY THE UNION ARMY THAT DETAILED THE LOCATION OF THE CONFEDERATE FORCES. UNION GENERAL GEORGE B. McCLELLAN PLANNED AN ATTACK FOR SEPTEMBER FOR TWO DAYS 60,000 UNION TROOPS ATTACKED 30,000 CONFEDERATE SOLDIERS. BOTH SIDES LOST MORE THAN 50% WHICH MADE THIS THE BLOODIEST BATTLE OF THE ENTIRE CIVIL WAR. THE CONFEDERATES WERE FORCED TO RETREAT WHICH RESULTED IN A UNION VICTORY.
26Both Sides Face Political Problems Neither side was completely unifiedBoth sides had sympathizersLincoln suspended writ of habeas corpus:- order to bring accused to court & name chargesSeized telegraph offices to prevent them from being used for subversionLincoln expands presidential powers & sets precedent (War time)
27PROMPTED BY WIN AT ANTIETEM, LINCOLN ISSUED THE EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION. IT WAS ANNOUNCED BY LINCOLN SEPTEMBER 22, IT WENT INTO EFFECT JANUARY 1, THIS DECREE FREED SLAVES IN CONFEDERATE STATES ONLY.
28THIS BATTLE SPLIT THE SOUTH IN HALF VICKSBURG JULY 1863:THIS BATTLE SPLIT THE SOUTH IN HALF
29VICKSBURG, MISSISSIPPI UNION MAJOR GENERAL GRANT WANTED TO CAPTURE VICKSBURG AS IT WAS LOCATED ON THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER AND WAS A MAJOR SUPPLY ROUTE FOR THE SOUTH. FROM THE WINTER OF 1862 THROUGH THE SUMMER OF 1863 THE UNION ARMY ATTACKED, AND AFTER MANY CAUSALITIES ULTIMATELY MADE THE CONFEDERATE ARMY SURRENDER ON JULY 4, 1863.
30GETTYSBURG, JULY 1863THE CONFEDERATE ARMY TRIED TO INVADE THE NORTH AGAIN THIS TIME IN PENNSYLVANIA. THE TWO ARMIES MET IN THE SMALL TOWN OF GETTYSBURG. DURING EARLY JULY OVER THE COURSE OF THREE DAYS THE CONFEDERATE ARMY TRIED UNSUCCESSFULLY TO FORCE THE UNION ARMY TO RETREAT. THE CONFEDERATE ARMY LOST 28,000 MEN.
32LINCOLN’S GETTYSBURG ADDRESS LINCOLN TRAVELED TO GETTYSBURG TO DEDICATE THE CEMETERY AND COMMEMORATE THE VICTORY. HE GAVE HIS FAMOUS SPEECH ABOUT SACRIFICE SO THAT LIBERTY WOULD EXIST FOR ALL.DRAFT OF LINCOLN’S SPEECHFOUR SCORE AND SEVEN YEARS AGO OUR FATHERS BROUGHT FORTH, UPON THIS CONTINENT, A NEW NATION, CONCEIVED IN LIBERTY, AND DEDICATED TO THE PROPOSITION THAT “ALL MEN ARE CREATED EQUAL”
34The Battle of Atlanta July-Sept. 1864 General William Sherman fought for 6 weeks to capture Atlanta (center of Confederate manufacturing and railway traffic)Atlanta burned to the ground; Sherman and his troops marched on towards Savannah and both sides knew the South would lose the war
35SHERMAN’S MARCH TO THE SEA UNION GENERAL SHERMAN LED 62,000 SOLDIERS 285 MILES ACROSS GEORGIA TO CAPTURE SAVANNAH, THE MAJOR SEAPORT IN THE STATE. ALONG THE WAY THE SOLDIERS BURNED AND LOOTED TO ERADICATE ALL FOOD AND SUPPLIES. THE CAMPAIGN LASTED FIVE WEEKS FROM NOVEMBER-DECEMBER THE UNION VICTORY WAS MAJOR TURNING POINT IN THE WAR, ENDING ANY CHANCE OF A CONFEDERATE VICTORY.
37The Election of 1864 Lincoln faced heavy opposition in the election Democrats wanted immediate armistice- Nominated George McClellanRadical Republicans- wanted harsh conditions for readmission to UnionNominated John C. FremontRepublicans changed name to National Union PartyAndrew Johnson was chosen as Lincoln’s running mate (pro-Union Democrat)Lincoln was pessimistic about his chancesNorthern victories & troops’ votes gave him the win
38LEE SURRENDERED TO GRANT ROBERT E. LEE SURRENDERED AT THE Mc LEAN HOUSE IN APPOMATTOX COURTHOUSE ON APRIL 9, THIS ENDED THE CIVIL WAR WITH A UNION VICTORY..THE Mc LEAN HOUSELEE SURRENDERED TO GRANTTHE CIVIL WAR COST THE LIVES OF 600,000 AMERICANS. WHILE THE SOUTH WAS DEVASTATED AND IN RUINS THE NORTH EXPERIENCED ECONOMIC GROWTH.
39Political Changes caused by the War War ended threat of secession& increases power of federal governmentEnded SlaveryChanged the way Americans thought about their nation- People accepted that the Union was more important than individual statesHelped the Federal Government Expand- Placed new demands on the Gov.– establish the 1st income tax to pay for the war- Funded transcontinental railroad and gave land to settlersThirteenth Amendment abolished slavery in all states
40Economic Changes Caused by the War National Bank Act of Established federal system of chartered banks- Set requirements for loans & called banks to be inspectedSpurred industry- Aided the growth of several postwar industries such as petroleum, steel, food and processing- Government subsidized the construction of a national railroad systemGap between North and South widened- North: industry booms; commercial agriculture takes hold- South: industry, farms destroyedThe war was a disaster for the South- Nation was faced with job of rebuilding the South
41The Assassination of Lincoln April 14, Shot by John Wilkes Booth at Ford’s Theatre1st president to be assassinatedAssassin John Wilkes Booth escaped but was trapped by Union cavalry 12 days later & shot in Virginia7 million people paid respects to Lincoln’s funeral train (almost 1/3 of population)